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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 7-20, dic.2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117892

RESUMO

El presente estudio fue realizado para desarrollar una reflexión crítica acerca de la formación médica en la Venezuela del siglo XXI, interpretando realidades y consecuencias desde las voces de médicos expertos y jóvenes graduados formados en la Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA). Es un estudio desde el paradigma cualitativo en la modalidad crítica interpretativa, la ruta metodológica fue la hermenéutica crítica y el análisis crítico del discurso. Se utilizó el muestreo intencional y la entrevista para recopilar la narrativa de los actores sociales, categorizándola e interpretándola contrastando voces de actores, teóricos y el autor como instrumento heurístico. Los resultados indican que la formación médica socializa el paradigma biomédico cuantitativo como opción única y válida en la producción de conocimiento y en el mundo académico, con un enfoque evolucionista, organicista, positivista y racional que fragmenta al ser humano. Esta formación académica se cumple en un sistema educativo dual: las universidades autónomas y la universidad bolivariana revolucionaria, con profundas diferencias entre ellas que generan perfiles de egresados contradictorios. La formación del futuro médico implica desarrollar el saber, el saber hacer, saber ser profesional y saber convivir. En conclusión, la formación médica debe cumplirse en centros universitarios calificados y certificados; sus egresados deben ser de alto perfil científico, tecnológico y humanístico los cuales deben dar respuestas pertinentes y oportunas a los problemas de salud de la población venezolana(AU)


This study was conducted to develop a reflective critic about medical training in Venezuela in the 21st century interpreting thoughts from the voices of expert doctors and young graduates from the Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA). This is a qualitative sociocritical study using critical hermeneutics and critical analysis of speech. Intentional sampling and interviewing was used to collect the narrative of the medical professionals. The results shows that medical training socializes the quantitative biomedical paradigm as the only valid option in the production of knowledge and in the academic world, with an evolutionist, organicist, rational and positivist approach, which divides the human being in parts. In Venezuela, a dual educational system exists: autonomous universities and the Bolivarian University with deep differences between them, which generate conflicting graduate profiles. Training of the future doctors implies developing medical knowledge, the know-how, learning how to be a professional and coexist with others. In conclusion, medical training must be performed in qualified and certified university centers; their graduates should have high scientific, technological and humanistic profiles which will allow them to provide pertinent and timely answers to the health problems of the Venezuelan population(AU)


Assuntos
Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Medicina Geral , Venezuela , Programas de Estudo , História da Medicina
4.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 61(1): [15], jul. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1118983

RESUMO

Después de una reseña introductoria de la medicina como ciencia y como arte, se muestra el desarrollo histórico de la ética médica desde los albores de la medicina, con su carácter mágico y religioso; su evolución y enriquecimiento a lo largo de la cultura griega, los cambios sucedidos en la edad media, moderna y contemporánea, con la naturalización, cientifización y tecnificación de la medicina, originando conflictos biomédicos que la ética médica tradicional es insuficiente para enfrentar. Surge entonces la bioética en la década de los años 70. Se ilustra su inicio como un área de reflexión multidisciplinaria de integración de temas medioambientales, sociales y médicos, que con el paso del tiempo llega a ser esencialmente una bioética médica. Se recuerda su origen y desarrollo inicialmente en los EE. UU. de NA, luego en Europa, Latinoamérica y el resto del mundo, hasta su evolución y situación actual, en la que surgen cuestionamientos a su teoría principialista original, aportando nuevas concepciones, como la de justicia social, generada en Sudamérica.


After an introductory review of medicine as a science and art, it is shown the historical development of medical ethics, since the down of medicine, with its magical and religious character; its evolution and enrichment through greek culture, changes occurred in medieval, modern and contemporary ages, with its medical naturalization, scientification and tecnification, originating biomedical conflicts that traditional medical ethics is insufficient to face. Bioethics then arises in the 70 decades. It is shown its origin as a multidisciplinary and integrative reflection área of environmental, social and medical topics, that with the passage of times becomes essentially a medical bioethics. It is remembered his origin and development initially in USA, then Europe, Latinamerica and the whole world, until its evolution and current situation, when questions arise to its principlist original theory, bringing new conceptions as social justice, originated in Southamerica.


Assuntos
Bioética , Ética Médica , História da Medicina , Médicos , Ciência , Medicina
5.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 12: 1-3, 1 de Julio 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1103519

RESUMO

El artículo reseña la labor del Dr. Julio Maiztegui en relación con la fiebre hemorrágica argentina (FHA), enfermedad que solamente se ha encontrado en una parte del territorio del país. A la lucha contra este mal se dedicó Maiztegui realizando campañas de educación para la salud para conseguir su profilaxis, investigando su posible tratamiento y colaborando con otros equipos científicos para develar su etiología y elaborar una vacuna. El Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas, creado por él y bautizado con su nombre, es el encargado de mantener en Argentina la hoy exitosa profilaxis y el eventual tratamiento del mal, que en otros tiempos constituyó una seria preocupación sanitaria.


Assuntos
Febre Hemorrágica Americana , História da Medicina
6.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 15-26, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638597

RESUMO

The heritage of Slovenian house names and surnames reflects, among others, the former medicine and pharmaceutical occupations, midwifery, and folk medicine practices, and besides that, also health status and illnesses of people. Surnames, which are especially strongly intertwined with family, local and social history, are closely related to folk medicine and magic. Unlike house names (vulgo), which are the usual nicknames for physical and mental characteristics and abilities, surnames denote medical occupations and medicinal folk practice as such. According to the most recent data (as of January 1, 2020) of The Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, at least 40 surnames reminiscent former medical or pharmaceutical professions. These newly discovered digital data in open access are precious for the history of medicine because they allow comparing surnames geographically, by frequency, and through the time.


Assuntos
História da Medicina , História da Farmácia , Nomes , Médicos/história , Animais , Educação Médica/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/história , Eslovênia
7.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 184-187, 2020 06.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638607

RESUMO

The former villa of Archduke Joseph, today's State Archives in Rijeka, as a building of the protected cultural property of the City of Rijeka, once again hosted an international scientific conference "Rijeka and its Citizens in Medical History". It was the nineteenth scientific conference organized by the Croatian Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture, the State Archive in Rijeka and University of Rijeka, Faculty of Medicine. The first session closely connected the Rijeka part of medical historiography, with an emphasis on professions and health care systems of Rijeka, connecting it with its immediate surroundings, people and institutions on whose foundations modern Rijeka medicine rests, while the second session contained topics of wider historical medical range.


Assuntos
Historiografia , História da Medicina , Croácia , Sociedades Científicas
8.
Urologe A ; 59(8): 941-952, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638066

RESUMO

Pandemics are relevant for many fields of medicine from microbiology to economics and epidemiology. Many medical specialties which developed during the 19th century, e. g., urology, have had much impact on diagnostics and therapy, such as during the treatment of tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases. For some of them, including urology, treatment of, for example, sexually transmitted diseases, was constitutional and differed between countries.


Assuntos
Epidemias/história , Tuberculose Urogenital/história , Urologia/história , Alemanha , História da Medicina , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pandemias , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Urogenital/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Urogenital/terapia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726312

RESUMO

We aimed to assess whether Nobel prizes (widely considered the most prestigious award in science) are clustering in work done in a few specific disciplines. We mapped the key Nobel prize-related publication of each laureate awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine, Physics, and Chemistry (1995-2017). These key papers mapped in only narrow sub-regions of a 91,726-cluster map of science created from 63 million Scopus-indexed published items. For each key Nobel paper, a median of 435 (range 0 to 88383) other Scopus-indexed items were published within one year and were more heavily cited than the Nobel paper. Of the 114 high-level domains that science can be divided into, only 36 have had a Nobel prize. Five of the 114 domains (particle physics [14%], cell biology [12.1%], atomic physics [10.9%], neuroscience [10.1%], molecular chemistry [5.3%]) have the lion's share, accounting in total for 52.4% of the Nobel prizes. Using a more granular classification with 849 sub-domains shows that only 71 of these sub-domains (8.3%) have at least one Nobel-related paper. Similar clustering was seen when we mapped all the 40,819 Scopus-indexed publications representing the career-long output of all the Nobel laureates. In conclusion, work resulting in Nobel prizes is concentrated in a small minority of scientific disciplines.


Assuntos
Prêmio Nobel , Ciência/história , Distinções e Prêmios , Bibliometria/história , Química/história , História da Medicina , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Medicina , Física/história
12.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 133(2): 17-28, jun. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119928

RESUMO

Se hace una reseña histórica de la fundación de la Asociación Médica Franco-Argentina. Se mencionan sus propósitos fundacionales, sus protagonistas y su contexto social.


A historical review of the foundation of the Franco-Argentine Medical Association is made. Its foundational purposes, their protagonists and the social context are mentioned.


Assuntos
História do Século XX , Médicos/história , Sociedades Médicas/história , Comunicação e Divulgação Científica , Argentina , França , História da Medicina , Cooperação Internacional
13.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 20(35): 48-51, jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1119049

RESUMO

La palabra hospital se define como un establecimiento destinado al diagnóstico y tratamiento de enfermos, donde a menudo se practican la investigación y la docencia. Sin embargo esta definición poco se aproxima a la realidad de los hospitales de los siglos pasados. En este trabajo se analiza la evolución de los hospitales desde la Edad Media a la Edad Moderna desde el punto de vista arquitectónico y de cuidados sanitarios. Se resalta el hospital de los Inocentes como ejemplo de hospital entre la Edad Media y la Edad Moderna y se comparan con los hospitales en la actualidad[AU]


Assuntos
História Medieval , História da Medicina , História da Enfermagem , Arquitetura Hospitalar , História do Século XVII
16.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(3): 365-381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563352

RESUMO

During the Wild West era of American history (approximately 1870-1900), at least 53 dermatologists settled between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Coast. In 1870, two dermatologists began their practice in the city of St Louis, Missouri (William Augustus Hardaway and Solomon Claiborne Martin, Sr) and one dermatologist started his practice in San Francisco, California (George J. Bucknall). By 1900, 50 more dermatologists had settled in 19 cities located in the American West (Tables 1,2). There, they established practices, initiated academic programs, and pioneered dermatology as a medical specialty in the western United States. This contribution provides brief biographic profiles of these early western American dermatologists. It also presents several dermatology-related vignettes from the Wild West that involved such colorful personalities as Doc Holiday, Calamity Jane, and Sister Mary Joseph. From these beginnings, 150 years ago, the specialty of dermatology would further spread and develop across the American West during the 20th century.


Assuntos
Dermatologistas/história , Dermatologia/história , História da Medicina , Prática Privada/história , California , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Mississippi , Missouri
19.
Medisan ; 24(2)mar.-abr. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1098401

RESUMO

Con este artículo se buscó ampliar los datos biográficos del eminente científico cubano Antonio María Béguez César y divulgar aspectos poco conocidos de su prolífica existencia. Para ello se consultaron los archivos personales de la familia Béguez López y el índice de autores y materias del Boletín de la Sociedad Cubana de Pediatría y de la Revista Cubana de Pediatría, donde se consigna su bibliografía activa; además, se analizaron documentos de la época y se consideraron los testimonios de familiares, colegas y amigos del ilustre pediatra santiaguero. El trabajo forma parte del proyecto investigativo "Estrategia para incrementar la visibilidad del hallazgo científico del pediatra Dr. Antonio María Béguez César", que revela al descubridor de la "neutropenia crónica maligna familiar con granulaciones atípicas de los leucocitos", entidad clínica inscrita entre los diez hitos de la inmunología cubana, que ha sido erróneamente divulgada en el mundo científico-médico como síndrome de Chédiak-Higashi.


This work aimed at widen the biographical data of the eminent Cuban scientist Antonio María Béguez César and to spread not very well-known aspects of his prolific existence. The personal files of Béguez López family and the index of authors and matters of the Pediatrics Cuban Society Bulletin and the Pediatrics Cuban Magazine were consulted, where his active bibliography is consigned; also, documents of that time were analyzed and testimonies of family, colleagues and friends of the distinguished pediatrician from Santiago were considered. The work is part of the investigative project "Strategy to increase the visibility of the pediatrician Dr. Antonio María Béguez César scientific finding" that reveals the discoverer of "the family malignant chronic neutropenia with atypical granulations of the leukocytic cells", clinical entity inscribed among the ten landmarks of the Cuban immunology that has been erroneously spread in the scientific-medical world as Chediak-Higashi syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi , Cuba , Pessoas Famosas , Pediatras , História da Medicina
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