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3.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(S1): S1-S12, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It was in twentieth-century Britain that the two distinct surgical disciplines, otology and laryngology, became united under the title oto-laryngology. Aural departments were established in general hospitals in the hands of specialists long before throat departments. The development and politics of the specialty occurred in London, while provincial services commenced in the early eighteenth century, with ophthalmologists, setting up a clinic or dispensary, progressing onto a hospital. METHODS: The following resources were used: the Nottinghamshire Archives; Manuscripts and Special Collections at the University of Nottingham Libraries and The Local Studies Library, Nottingham Central Library. RESULTS: The Nottingham and Nottinghamshire Hospital for Diseases of the Throat, Ear and Nose was established in 1886, staffed by part-time general practitioners. The Nottingham Children's Hospital appointed two qualified surgeons in the 1910s and subsequently the General Nottingham Hospital appointed them as honorary assistant surgeons. Both hospitals provided access to beds, not available to the Nottingham and Nottinghamshire Hospital for Diseases of the Throat, Ear and Nose. Following The Education Act of 1907, Nottingham created a School Health Services. By the 1920s, Nottingham had four institutions providing clinical and surgical ENT services. The National Hospitals Survey conducted in 1945 recommended that the Nottingham and Nottinghamshire Hospital for Diseases of the Throat, Ear and Nose be closed and amalgamated with The General Hospital Nottingham. CONCLUSION: The General Hospital Nottingham was slow to create a service for the diagnosis and treatment of ENT diseases and disorders, but established a Departmental Service by 1927. The surgical staffing was common to all four of the ENT services from mid-1930.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/história , Hospitais Especializados/história , Otolaringologia/história , Medicina Estatal/história , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Reino Unido
4.
Soins Psychiatr ; 42(335): 12-17, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266543

RESUMO

Hysteria is one of the oldest and best known clinical terms. Its history reveals the extent to which pathological entities, some more than others, are the fruit of successive conceptions of experts, themselves undoubtedly influenced by the prevailing currents of thought of their time. From its uterine origin to its psychogenic etiology, here is the history of hysteria and its controversies. A history that belongs to that of medicine, neurology, psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis.


Assuntos
Neurologia , Psiquiatria , Psicanálise , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Histeria , Psicoterapia
5.
Soins Psychiatr ; 42(335): 30-32, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266547

RESUMO

At the beginning of the 17th century, well before the time of Jean-Martin Charcot, numerous medical theses related to hysteria were defended, particularly in Paris. Among these theses, the work of Auguste Lepecq de la Clôture stands out for a controversy that questions the "matrix" origin of hysteria. Although Charcot, Babinski and Freud showed considerable interest in this pathology, its source remained mysterious to the point of disappearing from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. In this turmoil, women, reduced to the world of silence, have been tossed around throughout history, abused by politicians. While some have tried to make themselves heard, no one seems to have heard them.


Assuntos
Histeria , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Paris
6.
Clin Ter ; 172(4): 264-267, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247207

RESUMO

Abstract: In the modern era, when prolonging life is not an option, the end-of-life discussions are unavoidably influenced by Neuroethics. Despite this, it is interestingly evident how the sentiments of a terminal patient of 1885 and a physician of 2020, are still comparable. This paper pre-sents the arguments behind the so-called "Therapeutic Misconception" and the aim of palliative care to provide dying patients support. It is essential to address priorities of informed consent, signed before any remedy is provided. A key component of the newest Neuroscience research is the analysis of motivation and free will. So, it is necessary to comprehend if the patient struggles to feel at peace with these aspects of his "right to die": Is he free to choose or is he influenced by the doctors? Is this confusion an example of "Therapeutic Misconception"? Is his Informed Consent totally "Informed"? In order to broaden our understanding, we account for many critical situations, such as the mentally impaired Psychiatric patients or the famous Italian case of Eluana Englaro. In addition, we suggested some current approaches such as Artificial Intelligence, useful in preserving some cognitive functions the patient may have lost. Furthermore, research in this field is very critical and in some Catholic countries like Italy, people faced difficulties accepting the idea of the "Anticipated directives". In general, whatever the mental status and whatever the terminal state, the patients seem still far from handling their own auto-determination and their Consent, even if the ultimate goal is to die with dignity.


Assuntos
Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos do Paciente/ética , Direitos do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Direito a Morrer/ética , Direito a Morrer/legislação & jurisprudência , Assistência Terminal/ética , Assistência Terminal/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , História do Século XIX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/história , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/psicologia , Itália , Masculino , Direitos do Paciente/história , Autonomia Pessoal , Médicos/ética , Médicos/psicologia , Direito a Morrer/história , Federação Russa , Assistência Terminal/história , Assistência Terminal/psicologia
7.
JAMA ; 325(21): 2214, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061153
8.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 81, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260622

RESUMO

Although every emerging infectious disease occurs in a unique context, the behaviour of previous pandemics offers an insight into the medium- and long-term outcomes of the current threat. Where an informative historical analogue exists, epidemiologists and policymakers should consider how the insights of the past can inform current forecasts and responses.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia/história , Pandemias/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/história , Modelos Teóricos
9.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 128(6): 302-306, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096928

RESUMO

By means of newspaper advertisements, we can paint a picture of tooth mastership in the 17th,18th, and 19th century The first known advertisement about dentistry, written by Dorothea Bokstal, appeared in 1691 in two Dutch newspapers (in Haarlem and Amsterdam). She claimed to have an understanding of the Science of Teeth. The first tooth-master advertised himself in 1724, but the many advertisements by Lehman Joseph and his descendants in the 18th century were the ones that gave us real insight into the way that tooth masters worked, the problems they faced and when they were allowed to practice somewhere. After 1813 (the French period) a tooth master needed to prove his/her skills. And the invention of new materials and instruments made more treatments possible. The introduction of the medical laws by Thorbecke caused a setback, but the introduction of the State Exam in 1876 brought the tooth masters further knowledge in their field.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Feminino , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(4): e20200377, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reflect on the evolution of pediatric nursing care from the perspective of emotions, from the conceptions of Florence Nightingale to the present. METHOD: Reflective study based on theoretical and experiential aspects of emotional care in pediatric nursing. RESULTS: From Nightingale, there were many definitions regarding the nursing care in an integrative and humanist logic; and with certain bond to emotional dimension. That time, nursing care was based on the religious conceptions of charity and love of our neighbor and, despite the conceptualization that shapes nursing science today, such conceptions have not ceased to be its attribute, mainly in the care of pediatric nurses. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: In pediatric nursing, nurture care with affection and facilitate emotions management in each interaction nurse-child-family is crucial for caring. This emotional care should evolve into a competence that recognizes the expertise and merit of professional action.


Assuntos
Emoções , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Enfermagem Pediátrica , Criança , Família , História da Enfermagem , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Competência Profissional
12.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 81, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100155

RESUMO

Although every emerging infectious disease occurs in a unique context, the behaviour of previous pandemics offers an insight into the medium- and long-term outcomes of the current threat. Where an informative historical analogue exists, epidemiologists and policymakers should consider how the insights of the past can inform current forecasts and responses.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia/história , Pandemias/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/história , Modelos Teóricos
13.
Harefuah ; 160(6): 393-396, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160158

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Orthopedics (also - orthopedic surgery) is a field of medicine that deals with diseases, defects, infections, tumors and injuries of the skeletal system, joints and muscles in the human body. The term orthopedics (Greek Orthos = alignment, Pais = child) was first coined in 1741 by the French surgeon Nicolas Andry de Bois-Regard, from Lyon in France, to describe correction and prevention of spinal deformities in children. Only in the second half of the 18th century, did orthopedics separate from general surgery and became a separate specialty in medicine. Much development in the field of orthopedics was achieved due to the various wars and their inevitable results - combat injuries, and following various developments in medicine such as understanding the importance of sterility in surgery, the possibility of surgery under general anesthesia, the use of antibiotics, the development of arthroscopy and fiber-optic equipment and the various imaging options. This article intends to review milestones in the development of orthopedics from the dawn of history in ancient Egypt to the present day, and the first steps of orthopedics in Israel.


Assuntos
Medicina , Ortopedia , Artroscopia , Criança , França , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , Humanos , Israel
14.
Phys Med ; 87: 144-146, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962859

RESUMO

This year it is 125 years since Henri Becquerel accidentally discovered radioactivity. It has been argued that this was the result after Becquerel's long, systematic research into the phenomenon of luminescence. Becquerel's discovery, together with Marie and Pierre Curie's discovery of radium, became the breakthrough for the 20th century research in medical radiation physics and the use of radioactivity in medicine. In this paper, we draw attention to Becquerel's discovery and the impact it had on medicine and society.


Assuntos
Medicina Nuclear , Radioatividade , Rádio (Elemento) , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Luminescência
15.
Epilepsy Behav ; 120: 108027, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992963

RESUMO

Ictal epileptic strabismus is a very rare phenomenon. Although its first report in the contemporary medical literature dates to 1996, it was depicted in the arts and described in the scientific literature well before the 20th century. Strabismus associated with epilepsy appears in the Transfiguration (1518/1520) by Raphael (1483-1520) and was shown in the possessed man and woman in the Miracle of St Ignatius of Loyola (1617-1618) by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). In the medical literature, it was first mentioned by the German anatomist and surgeon Lorenz Heister (1683-1758) and was later discussed by the British neurologists John Russell Reynolds (1828-1896) and William Richard Gowers (1845-1915). Although exceptionally rare, epileptic strabismus has caught the attention of physicians and artists alike as an unusual and intriguing phenomenon.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Neurologia , Estrabismo , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Neurologistas
16.
Int Nurs Rev ; 68(2): 166-171, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the 121st anniversary year of the birth of Florence Nightingale, and during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is both interesting and salient to be reminded of the foundational work of this famous woman who began modern nursing. Her work in nursing care and nursing, health and public policy has been a continuing strong foundation to practices in societies around the world. METHODS: In this short communication about historical research, various aspects of Florence's life and work are described, as well as the locations, memorials and museum significant to our remembrance of her. RESULTS: A particular focus of this paper is the description of a larger but little-known medicine chest located at the College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, in Saskatoon, SK, Canada, and attributed as belonging to Florence. CONCLUSION: Best known to this point in time is a smaller medicine chest at the Florence Nightingale Museum in London.


Assuntos
História da Enfermagem , Caixas de Remédio/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Itália , Londres , Saskatchewan , Turquia
17.
Int J Paleopathol ; 33: 220-233, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This research attempts a differential diagnosis of skeletal lesions in a commingled sample from Hisban, Jordan, focusing on non-adults in the assemblage. MATERIALS: 2,883 well-preserved skeletal elements and 9 relatively complete skulls representing an MNI of 32 non-adults (<18 years old). METHODS: All skeletal elements were observed macroscopically and pathophysiological processes underlying any lesions or other anomalies were assessed, followed by a comparative approach to rule out potential diagnoses. RESULTS: The skeletal lesions observed were caused by inflammation due to chronic hemorrhaging, marrow hyperplasia due to an increase in hemopoiesis, rapid bone growth, and the impact of biomechanical strain on poorly mineralized elements. Rickets, scurvy, and acquired anemias best fit this pattern of lesions, although inflammation from other sources such as trauma or infection could not be definitively ruled out. CONCLUSIONS: The in utero and postnatal environments at Hisban were conducive to the development of vitamin C and D deficiencies from birth until 2 years of age. The analysis of commingled remains requires an ontological shift in the importance of the individual to the population in paleopathology. SIGNIFICANCE: This investigation demonstrates the efficacy of a combined biological and comparative approach in differential diagnosis in complicated commingled collections. In addition, it emphasizes the importance of the mother-infant dyad in understanding metabolic disease. LIMITATIONS: Histological and radiographic analyses were not included in this diagnostic study due to COVID-19 travel restrictions. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Isotopic analysis to investigate childhood diet and histological and radiographic analyses to assess survival of deficiencies.


Assuntos
Anemia/história , Doenças Metabólicas/história , Paleopatologia/história , Raquitismo/história , Escorbuto/história , Adolescente , Anemia/diagnóstico , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Jordânia , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Raquitismo/diagnóstico , Escorbuto/diagnóstico , Crânio/patologia
18.
Clin Chest Med ; 42(2): 229-239, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024399

RESUMO

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are heterogenous and complex chronic lung diseases that even today are challenging to diagnose and classify. The terminology and mechanistic understanding of specific ILDs have evolved substantially over the last centuries and decades, and clinicians, pathologists, radiologists, and researchers are continuously working to untangle the various ILDs of differing causes. Despite many drawbacks and negative clinical trials, the unremitting work of ILD researchers have resulted in great therapeutic successes over the last decade. In this chapter, the authors present historical aspects of ILD and build a foundation to understand current and emerging concepts in ILD.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia
19.
20.
Int Nurs Rev ; 68(2): 166-171, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the 121st anniversary year of the birth of Florence Nightingale, and during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is both interesting and salient to be reminded of the foundational work of this famous woman who began modern nursing. Her work in nursing care and nursing, health and public policy has been a continuing strong foundation to practices in societies around the world. METHODS: In this short communication about historical research, various aspects of Florence's life and work are described, as well as the locations, memorials and museum significant to our remembrance of her. RESULTS: A particular focus of this paper is the description of a larger but little-known medicine chest located at the College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, in Saskatoon, SK, Canada, and attributed as belonging to Florence. CONCLUSION: Best known to this point in time is a smaller medicine chest at the Florence Nightingale Museum in London.


Assuntos
História da Enfermagem , Caixas de Remédio/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Itália , Londres , Saskatchewan , Turquia
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