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1.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 413-417, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008492

RESUMO

In recent years, immunotherapy has been the focus of great interest to researchers, clinicians, and the general public. Traditionally cancer therapy has been thought to be limited to surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Some clinicians have considered it the so-called fifth pillar of cancer therapy, following surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation, and targeted therapy. However, the origins of immunotherapy in cancer treatment reach back at least into the nineteenth century. This article reviews the origins, development, and future of immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Urológicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/terapia , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Imunoterapia/história , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia
3.
Curr Biol ; 30(19): R1124-R1130, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022254

RESUMO

Since the first recognition that infectious microbes serve as the causes of many human diseases, physicians and scientists have sought to understand and control their spread. For the past 150+ years, these 'microbe hunters' have learned to combine epidemiological information with knowledge of the infectious agent(s). In this essay, I reflect on the evolution of microbe hunting, beginning with the history of pre-germ theory epidemiological studies, through the microbiological and molecular eras. Now in the genomic age, modern-day microbe hunters are combining pathogen whole-genome sequencing with epidemiological data to enhance epidemiological investigations, advance our understanding of the natural history of pathogens and drivers of disease, and ultimately reshape our plans and priorities for global disease control and eradication. Indeed, as we have seen during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, the role of microbe hunters is now more important than ever. Despite the advances already made by microbial genomic epidemiology, the field is still maturing, with many more exciting developments on the horizon.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
4.
Arch Iran Med ; 23(8): 578-581, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894975

RESUMO

In the past two centuries, several fatal infectious outbreaks have arisen in Iran. Presented here is a brief historical account of four fatal epidemics including cholera, plague, Spanish influenza of 1918 and smallpox between1796 and 1979. The lessons from these outbreaks could be helpful for better combatting other deadly epidemics including the present-day disastrous COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Cólera/história , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Epidemias/história , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/história , Peste/história , Varíola/história , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/prevenção & controle , Varíola/epidemiologia , Varíola/prevenção & controle
5.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8): 777-782, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880306

RESUMO

History provides wonderful insights into how society develops, providing innumerable lessons that can be used as individuals and institutions move into the future. The history of medicine provides particular value, yet it is so often overlooked by the present, society taking for granted what has often been a tremendous struggle to achieve. This overview of the history of paediatric surgery at the University of the Witwatersrand provides amazing insights into what has been achieved in a period spanning three centuries.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/história , Hospitais Universitários/história , Pediatria/história , Docentes de Medicina/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , África do Sul
6.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 783-793, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981617

RESUMO

Intravenous (IV) fluids are among the most common interventions performed in the emergency department. They are at times lifesaving, but if used recklessly can be harmful. Given their ubiquity, it is important to understand the history, physiology, and current strategies that govern the use of IV fluids during the resuscitation of the critically ill.


Assuntos
Hidratação , Ressuscitação/métodos , Coloides/uso terapêutico , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Soluções Cristaloides/química , Soluções Cristaloides/uso terapêutico , Eletrólitos/análise , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hidratação/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Choque/fisiopatologia , Pressão Venosa/fisiologia
7.
N Engl J Med ; 383(10): 905-907, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877580
8.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907877

RESUMO

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ética Médica/história , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Hospitais/história , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/história , Betacoronavirus , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/história , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Juramento Hipocrático , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/história , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Alocação de Recursos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Am J Public Health ; 110(11): 1624-1627, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941063

RESUMO

Anti-Asian discrimination and assaults have increased significantly during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, contributing to a "secondary contagion" of racism. The United States has a long and well-documented history of both interpersonal and structural anti-Asian discrimination, and the current pandemic reinforces longstanding negative stereotypes of this rapidly growing minority group as the "Yellow Peril."We provide a general overview of the history of anti-Asian discrimination in the United States, review theoretical and empirical associations between discrimination and health, and describe the associated public health implications of the COVID-19 pandemic, citing relevant evidence from previous disasters in US history that became racialized.Although the literature suggests that COVID-19 will likely have significant negative effects on the health of Asian Americans and other vulnerable groups, there are reasons for optimism as well. These include the emergence of mechanisms for reporting and tracking incidents of racial bias, increased awareness of racism's insidious harms and subsequent civic and political engagement by the Asian American community, and further research into resilience-promoting factors that can reduce the negative health effects of racism.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/história , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/tendências , Racismo/história , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(4): 489-493, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972608

RESUMO

Lam Qua, a Chinese artist who painted in the Western style, was hired by American ophthalmologist and missionary Peter Parker to paint Parker's Chinese patients. Most of Lam Qua's paintings depict patients with rather large tumors located in various areas across the body; there are a few that are also of dermatologic interest. This contribution explores Lam Qua's paintings that depict a cutaneous horn, gangrenous necrosis, and an ulcerating tumor.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/história , Ilustração Médica , Missionários , Oftalmologia/história , Pinturas , China , História do Século XIX , Humanos
12.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(4): 497-501, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972610

RESUMO

José Maria Vargas, (1786-1854), who was born on March 10, 1796, graduated with a Doctor of Medicine degree from the Central University of Venezuela in 1808. He was subsequently imprisoned in 1813 by the Spanish authorities for his independence activities. When finally freed, he traveled to Edinburgh for postgraduate medical training and became the first Venezuelan to earn a Fellowship of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh. He worked afterward in medicine, surgery, botany, and chemistry, practicing in Scotland, France, and Puerto Rico. Upon his return to Venezuela in 1825 from 1827 to 1829, he became Professor of Surgery and later, President (Rector) of the Central University of Venezuela. He was elected the second president of newly independent Venezuela serving from 1835 to 1836 and carried out his tasks with honor and dignity, even after surviving a coup d'état. Finally, he resigned his position as president and returned to the practice of medicine and his teaching duties. He reasoned and wrote a beautiful differential diagnosis in a case supposedly of pellagra, but actually of erythema marginatum. Dr Vargas died in New York on July 13, 1854, after a long illness.


Assuntos
Dermatologia/história , Cirurgia Geral/história , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eritema , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , França , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , New York , Pelagra , Porto Rico , Escócia , Venezuela
16.
JAMA ; 324(7): 714, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808995
17.
JAMA ; 324(7): 714, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808996
18.
Urologe A ; 59(9): 1095-1106, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803406

RESUMO

His contemporaries described Hermann Rohleder, a physician from Leipzig, as a pioneer of sexual medicine. His career led him from treating patients with venereal diseases to urology and sexology. Rohleder worked for the institutionalization of sexology in Germany, but his attempts to establish a professorship at the University of Leipzig remained unsuccessful. Rohleder's life and work illustrate how closely the disciplines of urology and sexology were connected in the early 20th century.


Assuntos
Sexologia/história , Urologia/história , Venereologia/história , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Urologistas
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3831, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737305

RESUMO

Long-term time series have provided evidence that anthropogenic pressures can threaten lakes. Yet it remains unclear how and the extent to which lake biodiversity has changed during the Anthropocene, in particular for microbes. Here, we used DNA preserved in sediments to compare modern micro-eukaryotic communities with those from the end of the 19th century, i.e., before acceleration of the human imprint on ecosystems. Our results obtained for 48 lakes indicate drastic changes in the composition of microbial communities, coupled with a homogenization of their diversity between lakes. Remote high elevation lakes were globally less impacted than lowland lakes affected by local human activity. All functional groups (micro-algae, parasites, saprotrophs and consumers) underwent significant changes in diversity. However, we show that the effects of anthropogenic changes have benefited in particular phototrophic and mixotrophic species, which is consistent with the hypothesis of a global increase of primary productivity in lakes.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Eucariotos/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lagos/análise , Alveolados/classificação , Alveolados/genética , Alveolados/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Atividades Humanas/história , Humanos , Microalgas/classificação , Microalgas/genética , Microalgas/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/genética , Processos Fototróficos/fisiologia , Rhizaria/classificação , Rhizaria/genética , Rhizaria/isolamento & purificação , Estramenópilas/classificação , Estramenópilas/genética , Estramenópilas/isolamento & purificação
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