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1.
Lancet ; 395(10221): 327-328, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007156
2.
Br J Nurs ; 29(1): 5, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917934
5.
Integr Zool ; 15(1): 69-78, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305020

RESUMO

Plague, a devastating infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, has killed millions of people in the past and is still active in the natural foci of the world today. Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of plague outbreaks in history is critically important, as it may help to facilitate prevention and control of potential future outbreaks. In this study, we explored spatiotemporal clusters of human plague occurrences in China using a machine-learning clustering method and reconstructed the potential transmission pattern during the Third Pandemic (1772-1964). We succeeded in identifying 6 clusters in the space domain (2D) and 13 clusters in the spatiotemporal domain (3D). Our results suggest that there were several temporal outbreaks and transmissions of plague in different spatial clusters. Together with the spatiotemporal nearest neighbor approach (ST-NNA), this method could allow us to have a clearer look at the spatiotemporal patterns of plague.


Assuntos
Análise por Conglomerados , Pandemias , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , China/epidemiologia , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 295-303, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859587

RESUMO

A set of historic murders, known as the "Jack the Ripper murders," started in London in August 1888. The killer's identity has remained a mystery to date. Here, we describe the investigation of, to our knowledge, the only remaining physical evidence linked to these murders, recovered from one of the victims at the scene of the crime. We applied novel, minimally destructive techniques for sample recovery from forensically relevant stains on the evidence and separated single cells linked to the suspect, followed by phenotypic analysis. The mtDNA profiles of both the victim and the suspect matched the corresponding reference samples, fortifying the link of the evidence to the crime scene. Genomic DNA from single cells recovered from the evidence was amplified, and the phenotypic information acquired matched the only witness statement regarded as reliable. To our knowledge, this is the most advanced study to date regarding this case.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Genética Forense/métodos , Homicídio/história , Manchas de Sangue , Vestuário/história , Vítimas de Crime , Criminosos , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/isolamento & purificação , Fluorescência , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Célula Única , Reino Unido , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 75(1): 24-53, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750919

RESUMO

This paper addresses a gap in our understanding of medical history - the architecture of medical schools - and demonstrates the ways in which architectural form can be used to better understand medical epistemology and pedagogy. It examines an instructive case study - the late-nineteenth-century medical school buildings in Manchester - and examines the concepts that were drawn together and expressed in the buildings. Through its exploration, the paper argues first, that medical schools and spaces for medical education should be given greater consideration as a significant category in the history of medical buildings. Second, that buildings such as its case study are an important source of evidence and means to understand the role of medicine in society and the ideas with which its contemporary practitioners and educators were concerned. Third, the paper argues that, to make best use of buildings as sources, we should view them as agents which have assembled divergent ideas and incorporated them into the built form. In this way, such buildings have woven into them an inventory of ideas which can be untangled using designs and physical evidence.


Assuntos
Arquitetura/história , Ambiente Construído/história , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Cidades , Educação Médica , Inglaterra , História do Século XIX
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134138, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505345

RESUMO

Plague synchronously swept across separated regions in Europe throughout history. However, the spatio-temporal synchrony of plague and its driving mechanism have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we transformed the historical European plague database spanned 1347-1800 CE into country-level time-series that differentiated large-scale plague outbreak from counted data. We found that there are 74 years in which two or more countries in our study region (UK, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy) experienced large-scale plague outbreak in the same year. Our Multivariate Ripley's K-function results showed that the onset year and the cessation year of large-scale plague outbreak are synchronized at the 0-23-year and 0-20-year windows, respectively. The temporal association between such synchrony and climatic forcing was further investigated using the Superposed Epoch Analysis, and drought was found to be responsible for the synchrony. Integrating our results with a literature survey, we suggested that prior to the peak of plague, the occurrence of drought and the subsequent reintroduced rainfall dampened both the rodent community and human society and boosted the number of fleas that carried plague. Such a synthesis facilitated the outbreak of plague. At the same time, high temperature associated with such drought also confined the geographic diffusion of the plague. Hence, although continental mega-drought could initiate the synchrony of plague outbreak, the synchrony actually consisted of a number of localized plague outbreak events scattering across different regions in Europe. According to the projected rising trend of drought in terms of its magnitude, duration, and geographic extent, the risk of synchrony of rodent-borne diseases in Europe will be significantly elevated, especially in France, Italy, and Spain.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/história , Secas , Peste/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História Medieval , Humanos
13.
Gesundheitswesen ; 81(12): 1091-1100, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816646

RESUMO

The essay "The issue of syphilis in Berlin. A contribution to public health in Berlin" highlights the importance of Salomon Neumann as an initiator of social medicine and a promoter of the communal medical statistics in the middle of the 19th century. Being a physician-member of the Berlin Health Care association and a doctor for the poor, he provides a sociomedical report on the interaction between syphilis as a disease and society with its regulatory measures (vice squad, public administration) and the deficient hospital and ambulatory care structures for the poor in Berlin in the middle of the 19th century, both with a prospective orientation.


Assuntos
Medicina Social , Sífilis , Berlim , Feminino , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medicina Social/história , Sífilis/história
14.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 49(5): 276-280, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795594

RESUMO

Drug Indexes are of significance for investigation on ancient patent medicine industry. Herein, we compared Zhang Tongtai Wan San Gao Dan Quanlu (10th year of Jiaqing Reign, 1805), Ye Zhongde Tang Dan Wan Quanlu (4th year of Xianfeng Reign, 1854 and 5th year of Tongzhi Reign, 1866) and Hu Qingyu Tang Wan San Gao Dan Quanji(3th year of Guangxu Reign, 1877) to illustrate the business features of Hangzhou patent medicine industry in Qing Dynasty.The three pharmacies, Zhang Tongtai Tang, Ye Zhongde Tang and Hu Qingyu Tang, were all adept in utilizing ancient prescriptions that contained various preparations, emphasized commercial ethics and product qualities, distributed their products in flexible pattern and focused on distillation formula. Moreover, each of the three pharmacies exhibited their own characteristics in product types and commercialization.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Farmácias , China , Comércio , Indústria Farmacêutica , História do Século XIX , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/história , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Farmácias/história
15.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 49(5): 281-286, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795595

RESUMO

In 1884, Kong Qinggao translated Huxley's Lessons in Elementary Physiology into a Chinese version, namely Ti Yong Shizhang. The book, with John Kerr Proofreading, turns out to be the first modern physiologic textbookin Chinese. Even so, this translation has long been ignored by researchers in the history of physiology and with no systematical introduction.The Chinese version was basically true to the western original featuring comprehensive knowledge and profound theories, with only a few pieces of content deleted and minimal order adjusted. The printing of 85 illustrations was as much refined as the original ones. The newly coined physiological terms in Chinese version had a certain impact at the time. As the first physiologic textbook to cultivate the earliest modern physicians, its copies were spread in the intellectual community. Conclusively, Ti Yong Shizhang played a significant role in the spread of Western physiology in China.


Assuntos
Médicos , Traduções , Livros , China , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Conhecimento
16.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 49(5): 300-311, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795600

RESUMO

This paper presents a harsh course of Tongji Medical School.The school was relocated several times, but still kept running though it met with the cataclysm-the World WarⅠand World WarⅡ.By using collections from School History Museum of Huazhong University of Science and Technology and Hospital History Museum of Tongji Medical School as clue and combining the years of itself, it's found that Tongji Medical School is a medical education institution which has Germanic medical educational tradition. The information from this paper has provided the primary sources for research on the origin and development of modern Chinese medical education.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Museus , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Memória , Faculdades de Medicina , Universidades
17.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 49(5): 312-318, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795601

RESUMO

Doctor of Medicine Tatarinov(Татаринов) came to China, as a member of the Russian Orthodox Mission(also known as the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission). He wrote a report on Chinese medicine in 1855. In its preface, he recorded in detail and commented the books of medicine in China, the status of Chinese physicians, and their services of diagnosis and therapy. The records of the clinics in Beijing, its diagnostic fee and service way of the practitioners were very rare in other literatures. Its comments on traditional Chinese medicine reflected western doctors' ideas at that time. His view came from unique angle, and had high value on the study of Chinese medicine history.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Médicos , Pequim , China , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Federação Russa
18.
Med Lav ; 110(S1): 7-12, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846442

RESUMO

The author deals with the medical-surgical panorama in Milan at the turn of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. The advances in knowledge acquired from the mid-nineteenth century on led to the emergence of medical and surgical specializations, as well as of new tools for the prevention and treatment of diseases, and the creation of a health and care network, on which it was possible to graft highly developed training opportunities. The example of an institution set up in Milan at the beginning of the twentieth century to treat the results of traumatic events is emblematic, not only because it is related to occupational accidents, but also because it explains the need to have specialists from various medical and surgical disciplines at the service of the entire population.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Especialização , Acidentes de Trabalho , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Especialização/história
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