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1.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907877

RESUMO

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ética Médica/história , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Hospitais/história , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/história , Betacoronavirus , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/história , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Juramento Hipocrático , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/história , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Alocação de Recursos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790731

RESUMO

Seventeen glass vessels and twenty glass beads recovered from the excavations at the ancient city of Malindi and the archaeological site of Mambrui in Kenya, east Africa were analysed using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The results show that all of the glass samples are soda-lime-silica glass. They belong to the high alumina -plant ash glass type, characterised by high alumina and relatively low calcium contents, widely distributed in eastern (10th- 16th centuries AD) and southern Africa (13th - 15th centuries AD), Central Asia (9th- 14th centuries AD) and southeast Asia (12th- 13th centuries AD), made with plant ashes and sands. This is an understudied glass type for which previous research has indicated there were three types. When compared with published research on such glasses using Zr, Ti, Ba, Cr, La, Li, Cs, Na2O, MgO and CaO we have identified at least four different compositional groups of v-Na-Al glass: Types A, B, C and D. By comparing the results with contemporary v-Na-Al glass vessels and beads from Central Asia, Africa, and southeast Asia we show that most of the Malindi and Mambrui glass share similar characteristics to the compositions of Mapungubwe Oblate and some of the Madagascar glass beads from southern Africa. They belong to Type A v-Na-Al glass which is characterised by an elevated level of Ti and Ba and a relatively high ratios of Cr/La, relatively low Zr concentrations and low ratios of Zr/Ti. Differences in Zr, Li, MgO and Na2O concentrations in Type A glass indicates that there are subgroups which might derive from different glass workshop(s) specialising in Type A v-Na-Al glass production. Comparison with the chemical compositions of glass from Ghazni, Afghanistan and Termez, Uzbekistan, and by using lead isotope analysis, we suggest v-Na-Al glass was manufactured in Central Asia and possibly worked into vessels and beads there.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Vidro/química , Óxidos/química , Plantas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/história , África Oriental , Óxido de Alumínio , Arqueologia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , Oceano Índico , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Quênia , Espectrometria de Massas
3.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(4): 787-806, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681877

RESUMO

Since the dawn of humanity, wounds have afflicted humans, and healers have held responsibility for treating them. This article tracks the evolution of wound care from antiquity to the present, highlighting the roles of surgeons, scientists, culture, and society in the ever-changing management of traumatic and iatrogenic injuries.


Assuntos
Cicatrização/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/história , Antibacterianos/história , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/história , Conflitos Armados/história , Antigo Egito , Grécia Antiga , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Medicina Militar/história , Pinturas , Mundo Romano/história , Infecção dos Ferimentos/história , Infecção dos Ferimentos/prevenção & controle
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701950

RESUMO

Past human societies have left persistent marks on forests worldwide. However, the degree to which pre-colonial Amerindian societies have affected forest structure is still not fully understood, especially in southern Brazil. This study investigated the influence of two distinct Amerindian groups (Southern-Jê and Guarani) over tree composition of forest fragments in the State of Santa Catarina. Vegetation data was obtained from the Santa Catarina Forest and Floristic Inventory (SCFFI): a statewide systematic vegetation sampling project. Archaeological data was collated from literature reviews as well as existing databases for archaeological sites occupied by Guarani and Southern-Jê groups. Using these sites of known Amerindian occupation, and corresponding environmental variables, ecological niche models were developed for each Amerindian group, predicting potential archaeological sites occupied by these groups across southern Brazil. Maps of these potential occupation sites of pre-colonial Amerindian groups were compared with 417 corresponding floristic inventory plots. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to identify floristic composition patterns linked to areas with a high probability of Southern-Jê or Guarani presence. Southern-Jê and Guarani pre-colonial occupations overlapped near main rivers; however, Southern-Jê groups generally occupied elevated areas whereas Guarani occupied mostly coastal areas. We observed differences in forest composition associated with the predicted occurrence of these pre-colonial Amerindian groups. Based on these results, we argue there is a relationship between tree species distribution and pre-colonial human occupation by these two Amerindian groups.


Assuntos
Ecologia/história , Florestas , Arqueologia , Brasil , Clima , Ecossistema , Fósseis/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235226, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639968

RESUMO

Although evidence of organic materials has consistently been reported in the archaeology of southern Africa little attention has been given to how this evidence, so slight in comparison to pottery and lithics, might be used to understand the transition from foraging to livestock-keeping in southern African Archaeology. We have compiled a geo-referenced, radiocarbon database of these organic, material culture remains, with particular reference to containers made of ostrich eggshell, wood, gourd, tortoise shell, twine, and leather over a 2300-year period to capture the periods before and after the appearance of livestock. We have mapped the organic materials for the period 800 cal BC to cal AD 1500 and explored the subsistence base of those who used them. This distribution is compared to that of pottery and livestock remains-conventionally the two archaeological markers of pastoralists. The paper interrogates what this might add to the vexed question of how the practice of livestock-keeping and pottery-making spread into and through the region (the hunter-herder debate). Our analysis suggests that ostrich eggshell containers can be used as a proxy for hunter-gatherers. By comparing areas of bead manufacture with those that have evidence only of bead use, we show the areas to which items may have travelled, along already established hunter-gatherer exchange networks. Our results suggest that hunter-gatherers widely and quickly adopted pottery across southern Africa in a process of cultural diffusion and local innovation, and that this was possibly the main mechanism for the dispersal of livestock at 2100 years ago.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/história , Embalagem de Produtos/história , África Austral , Animais , Arqueologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Casca de Ovo/química , História do Século XV , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Gado
8.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 50(1): 28-32, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564534

RESUMO

Jin Gui Yu Han Jing(, The Jade Case Classic of the Golden Cabinet) and Shanghan Lun(, Treatise on Febrile Diseases) have similar contents but different names, and they were handed down after being collated by the Medical Records Bureau in 1066, the third year of the Northern Song Dynasty. At present, Jin Gui Yu Han Jing is Chen Shijie's edition in the Qing Dynasty. Chen Shijie got the manuscript of Song Dynasty from He Zhuo, a scholar of Qing Dynasty, then corrected it, and published it in 1717. By searching the citations from Jin Gui Yu Han Jing in medical works from 1066 to 1717, and dividing them into two categories: direct quotation and indirect quotation, so as to investigate the spreading situation of Jin Gui Yu Han Jing since Song Dynasty. According to this, it can be inferred that Jin Gui Yu Han Jing had not been found by doctors in Yuan and Ming Dynasties.


Assuntos
Livros/história , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História Medieval
9.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 50(1): 39-42, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564536

RESUMO

Euibangyoochui compiled by the Korean government was finished in 1445. This book is a collection of Korean medicine. It quoted some contents from Compendium of Effective Prescriptions for Women. This paper use the photocopy of the Japanese edition of the first year of Fumihisa(1861)printed in Korea as the master copy of Euibangyoochui, the microfilm of the edition of Qin You Shu Tang in Yuan Dynasty as the master copy of Compendium of Effective Prescriptions for Women, in order to compare the content of Compendium of Effective Prescriptions for Women quoted in Euibangyoochui. There are 42 direct citations from Compendium of Effective Prescriptions for Women in Euibangyoochui, 41 of which are in gynecology, and 1 of which is in pediatrics. The indirect citations are divided into two types: single line big characters and double line small characters, no obvious rules. Meanwhile, it is found that the direct quotation is adjusted according to the style and content, and the differences between the quotation and the yuan edition are mostly small, which can be corrected and supplemented each other, it is of great reference value for collating the Compendium of Effective Prescriptions for Women.


Assuntos
Livros/história , Medicina Tradicional Coreana , Filologia , Feminino , Ginecologia , História do Século XV , Humanos , Prescrições , República da Coreia
11.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-428675

RESUMO

With great apprehension, the world is now watching the birth of a novel pandemic already causing tremendous suffering, death, and disruption of normal life. Uncertainty and dread are exacerbated by the belief that what we are experiencing is new and mysterious. However, deadly pandemics and disease emergences are not new phenomena: they have been challenging human existence throughout recorded history. Some have killed sizeable percentages of humanity, but humans have always searched for, and often found, ways of mitigating their deadly effects. We here review the ancient and modern histories of such diseases, discuss factors associated with their emergences, and attempt to identify lessons that will help us meet the current challenge.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública/história , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
12.
AMA J Ethics ; 22(5): E441-445, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-372961

RESUMO

Health workers offer their skills and care to COVID-19 pandemic patients, just as St Roch offered healing to those stricken by bubonic plague during the Renaissance. This article interprets 3 works of art in light of Roch's story of illness and recovery and applies key insights of ethical, artistic, and clinical relevance to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Pinturas/história , Peste/história , Arte/história , História do Século XV , História Medieval , Humanos , Pandemias/história
13.
AMA J Ethics ; 22(5): E441-445, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449663

RESUMO

Health workers offer their skills and care to COVID-19 pandemic patients, just as St Roch offered healing to those stricken by bubonic plague during the Renaissance. This article interprets 3 works of art in light of Roch's story of illness and recovery and applies key insights of ethical, artistic, and clinical relevance to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Pinturas/história , Peste/história , Arte/história , História do Século XV , História Medieval , Humanos , Pandemias/história
14.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471830

RESUMO

With great apprehension, the world is now watching the birth of a novel pandemic already causing tremendous suffering, death, and disruption of normal life. Uncertainty and dread are exacerbated by the belief that what we are experiencing is new and mysterious. However, deadly pandemics and disease emergences are not new phenomena: they have been challenging human existence throughout recorded history. Some have killed sizeable percentages of humanity, but humans have always searched for, and often found, ways of mitigating their deadly effects. We here review the ancient and modern histories of such diseases, discuss factors associated with their emergences, and attempt to identify lessons that will help us meet the current challenge.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública/história , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
16.
Ann Sci ; 77(1): 10-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250204

RESUMO

Astrologers have exercised self-censorship throughout the centuries in order to fend off criticism. This was largely for religious reasons, but social, political, and ethical motivations also have to be taken into account. This paper explores the main reasons that led astrologers to increase censorship in their writings in the decades that preceded the Church's regulations and offers some examples of this self-imposed restraint in astrological judgements.


Assuntos
Astrologia/história , Censura Científica , Cristianismo/história , Religião e Ciência , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XV , História Medieval
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230952, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267852

RESUMO

Native Americans developed agronomic practices throughout the Western Hemisphere adapted to regional climate, edaphic conditions, and the extent of dependence on agriculture for subsistence. These included the mounding or "corn hill" system in northeastern North America. Iroquoian language speakers of present-day New York, USA, and Ontario and Québec, Canada were among those who used this system. While well-known, there has been little archaeological documentation of the system. As a result, there is scant archaeological evidence on how Iroquoian farmers maintained soil fertility in their often-extensive agricultural fields. Using δ15N values obtained on fifteenth- and sixteenth-century AD maize kernels from archaeological sites in New York and Ontario, adjusted to take into account changes that result from charring as determined through experiments, we demonstrate that Iroquoian farmers were successful at maintaining nitrogen in their agricultural fields. These results add to our archaeological knowledge of Iroquoian agronomic practices. Our results also indicate the potential value of obtaining δ15N values on archaeological maize in the investigation of Native American agronomic practices.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/química , Solo/química , Zea mays/química , Agricultura/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Clima , Fazendeiros/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , Idioma , New York , Nitrogênio/química , Ontário , Quebeque
20.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 50, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293482

RESUMO

Modern cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises an open airway, artificial ventilation, chest compressions and, if necessary, defibrillation. CPR has been intensively studied and tested to perfect an integrated and effective resuscitation system in the West. However, CPR efforts in China has been understudied and underreported. CPR has been performed for more than 2000 years in China. As early as the third century BC, a Chinese doctor named Zhongjing Zhang presented a detailed program to save patients from suicide by hanging in the book entitled "Synopsis of the Golden Chamber". Dr. Zhang proposed "not only to save the body, but also to save the spirit", which remains a guiding principle in modern resuscitation: to not only ensure cardiopulmonary recovery but also preserve the brain function. We aim to review and summarize efforts of CPR in China from a historic point of view.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/história , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , China , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos
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