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1.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907877

RESUMO

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ética Médica/história , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Hospitais/história , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/história , Betacoronavirus , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/história , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Juramento Hipocrático , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/história , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Alocação de Recursos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790731

RESUMO

Seventeen glass vessels and twenty glass beads recovered from the excavations at the ancient city of Malindi and the archaeological site of Mambrui in Kenya, east Africa were analysed using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The results show that all of the glass samples are soda-lime-silica glass. They belong to the high alumina -plant ash glass type, characterised by high alumina and relatively low calcium contents, widely distributed in eastern (10th- 16th centuries AD) and southern Africa (13th - 15th centuries AD), Central Asia (9th- 14th centuries AD) and southeast Asia (12th- 13th centuries AD), made with plant ashes and sands. This is an understudied glass type for which previous research has indicated there were three types. When compared with published research on such glasses using Zr, Ti, Ba, Cr, La, Li, Cs, Na2O, MgO and CaO we have identified at least four different compositional groups of v-Na-Al glass: Types A, B, C and D. By comparing the results with contemporary v-Na-Al glass vessels and beads from Central Asia, Africa, and southeast Asia we show that most of the Malindi and Mambrui glass share similar characteristics to the compositions of Mapungubwe Oblate and some of the Madagascar glass beads from southern Africa. They belong to Type A v-Na-Al glass which is characterised by an elevated level of Ti and Ba and a relatively high ratios of Cr/La, relatively low Zr concentrations and low ratios of Zr/Ti. Differences in Zr, Li, MgO and Na2O concentrations in Type A glass indicates that there are subgroups which might derive from different glass workshop(s) specialising in Type A v-Na-Al glass production. Comparison with the chemical compositions of glass from Ghazni, Afghanistan and Termez, Uzbekistan, and by using lead isotope analysis, we suggest v-Na-Al glass was manufactured in Central Asia and possibly worked into vessels and beads there.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Vidro/química , Óxidos/química , Plantas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/história , África Oriental , Óxido de Alumínio , Arqueologia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , Oceano Índico , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Quênia , Espectrometria de Massas
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701950

RESUMO

Past human societies have left persistent marks on forests worldwide. However, the degree to which pre-colonial Amerindian societies have affected forest structure is still not fully understood, especially in southern Brazil. This study investigated the influence of two distinct Amerindian groups (Southern-Jê and Guarani) over tree composition of forest fragments in the State of Santa Catarina. Vegetation data was obtained from the Santa Catarina Forest and Floristic Inventory (SCFFI): a statewide systematic vegetation sampling project. Archaeological data was collated from literature reviews as well as existing databases for archaeological sites occupied by Guarani and Southern-Jê groups. Using these sites of known Amerindian occupation, and corresponding environmental variables, ecological niche models were developed for each Amerindian group, predicting potential archaeological sites occupied by these groups across southern Brazil. Maps of these potential occupation sites of pre-colonial Amerindian groups were compared with 417 corresponding floristic inventory plots. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to identify floristic composition patterns linked to areas with a high probability of Southern-Jê or Guarani presence. Southern-Jê and Guarani pre-colonial occupations overlapped near main rivers; however, Southern-Jê groups generally occupied elevated areas whereas Guarani occupied mostly coastal areas. We observed differences in forest composition associated with the predicted occurrence of these pre-colonial Amerindian groups. Based on these results, we argue there is a relationship between tree species distribution and pre-colonial human occupation by these two Amerindian groups.


Assuntos
Ecologia/história , Florestas , Arqueologia , Brasil , Clima , Ecossistema , Fósseis/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos
6.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(4): 787-806, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681877

RESUMO

Since the dawn of humanity, wounds have afflicted humans, and healers have held responsibility for treating them. This article tracks the evolution of wound care from antiquity to the present, highlighting the roles of surgeons, scientists, culture, and society in the ever-changing management of traumatic and iatrogenic injuries.


Assuntos
Cicatrização/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/história , Antibacterianos/história , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/história , Conflitos Armados/história , Antigo Egito , Grécia Antiga , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Medicina Militar/história , Pinturas , Mundo Romano/história , Infecção dos Ferimentos/história , Infecção dos Ferimentos/prevenção & controle
7.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 15-26, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638597

RESUMO

The heritage of Slovenian house names and surnames reflects, among others, the former medicine and pharmaceutical occupations, midwifery, and folk medicine practices, and besides that, also health status and illnesses of people. Surnames, which are especially strongly intertwined with family, local and social history, are closely related to folk medicine and magic. Unlike house names (vulgo), which are the usual nicknames for physical and mental characteristics and abilities, surnames denote medical occupations and medicinal folk practice as such. According to the most recent data (as of January 1, 2020) of The Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, at least 40 surnames reminiscent former medical or pharmaceutical professions. These newly discovered digital data in open access are precious for the history of medicine because they allow comparing surnames geographically, by frequency, and through the time.


Assuntos
História da Medicina , História da Farmácia , Nomes , Médicos/história , Animais , Educação Médica/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/história , Eslovênia
9.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 50(1): 28-32, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564534

RESUMO

Jin Gui Yu Han Jing(, The Jade Case Classic of the Golden Cabinet) and Shanghan Lun(, Treatise on Febrile Diseases) have similar contents but different names, and they were handed down after being collated by the Medical Records Bureau in 1066, the third year of the Northern Song Dynasty. At present, Jin Gui Yu Han Jing is Chen Shijie's edition in the Qing Dynasty. Chen Shijie got the manuscript of Song Dynasty from He Zhuo, a scholar of Qing Dynasty, then corrected it, and published it in 1717. By searching the citations from Jin Gui Yu Han Jing in medical works from 1066 to 1717, and dividing them into two categories: direct quotation and indirect quotation, so as to investigate the spreading situation of Jin Gui Yu Han Jing since Song Dynasty. According to this, it can be inferred that Jin Gui Yu Han Jing had not been found by doctors in Yuan and Ming Dynasties.


Assuntos
Livros/história , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História Medieval
10.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202597, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520135

RESUMO

Medical Uniforms date back from medieval times. Nursing uniforms were based on nuns clothes whereas doctors used the famous "plague costumes" and black "frock" coats from about 15th to early 19th century. In latter half 19th century medical uniforms started to change. Nursing uniforms gradually lost their similarities to religious outfits. Doctors started to use white clothing. With great emphasis on hygiene and sanitation, the idea of personal protective equipment (PPE) started to evolve with William Stewart Halsted introducing the use of rubber gloves in 1889. In the 1960s-1970s it became more usual to wear green and blue `scrubs in order to look for a greater contrast in clothing with the all-white hospital environment. In contemporary times, some specialties even stopped using specific uniforms, while others still use them. At the same time, PPE became more and more important, up to nowadays "plague costume" in the combat of the COVID-19 epidemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Roupa de Proteção/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos
11.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-428675

RESUMO

With great apprehension, the world is now watching the birth of a novel pandemic already causing tremendous suffering, death, and disruption of normal life. Uncertainty and dread are exacerbated by the belief that what we are experiencing is new and mysterious. However, deadly pandemics and disease emergences are not new phenomena: they have been challenging human existence throughout recorded history. Some have killed sizeable percentages of humanity, but humans have always searched for, and often found, ways of mitigating their deadly effects. We here review the ancient and modern histories of such diseases, discuss factors associated with their emergences, and attempt to identify lessons that will help us meet the current challenge.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública/história , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
12.
NTM ; 28(2): 195-202, 2020 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-248634

RESUMO

This paper is part of Forum COVID-19: Perspectives in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Being a "trauma of mankind" epidemics have been a major subject of historical research for a long time and regarding every historical period. Recurring to the concept of Rudolf Schlögl ("Vergesellschaftung unter Anwesenden") my proposal is to research epidemics as a history of the communicating body and thus including the contagium as part of this communication.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Epidemias/história , Comportamento Social , Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Historiografia , História do Século XVI , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
13.
NTM ; 28(2): 195-202, 2020 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232468

RESUMO

This paper is part of Forum COVID-19: Perspectives in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Being a "trauma of mankind" epidemics have been a major subject of historical research for a long time and regarding every historical period. Recurring to the concept of Rudolf Schlögl ("Vergesellschaftung unter Anwesenden") my proposal is to research epidemics as a history of the communicating body and thus including the contagium as part of this communication.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Epidemias/história , Comportamento Social , Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Historiografia , História do Século XVI , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
14.
NTM ; 28(2): 195-202, 2020 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260259

RESUMO

This paper is part of Forum COVID-19: Perspectives in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Being a "trauma of mankind" epidemics have been a major subject of historical research for a long time and regarding every historical period. Recurring to the concept of Rudolf Schlögl ("Vergesellschaftung unter Anwesenden") my proposal is to research epidemics as a history of the communicating body and thus including the contagium as part of this communication.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Epidemias/história , Comportamento Social , Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Historiografia , História do Século XVI , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
15.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471830

RESUMO

With great apprehension, the world is now watching the birth of a novel pandemic already causing tremendous suffering, death, and disruption of normal life. Uncertainty and dread are exacerbated by the belief that what we are experiencing is new and mysterious. However, deadly pandemics and disease emergences are not new phenomena: they have been challenging human existence throughout recorded history. Some have killed sizeable percentages of humanity, but humans have always searched for, and often found, ways of mitigating their deadly effects. We here review the ancient and modern histories of such diseases, discuss factors associated with their emergences, and attempt to identify lessons that will help us meet the current challenge.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública/história , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
16.
NTM ; 28(2): 195-202, 2020 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393989

RESUMO

This paper is part of Forum COVID-19: Perspectives in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Being a "trauma of mankind" epidemics have been a major subject of historical research for a long time and regarding every historical period. Recurring to the concept of Rudolf Schlögl ("Vergesellschaftung unter Anwesenden") my proposal is to research epidemics as a history of the communicating body and thus including the contagium as part of this communication.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Epidemias/história , Comportamento Social , Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Historiografia , História do Século XVI , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
17.
Ann Sci ; 77(2): 139-154, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419635

RESUMO

While the emergence of a new scientific culture in 16th-century Europe is well known, the role of the actors of the Hispanic New World in this time of renewal of knowledge has long been judged marginal for two reasons: first, because the strong presence of the Inquisition in the Hispanic World has been considered by historians to have been an obstacle for research or scientific innovation; and second, because the discontinuity of the territories of the Hispanic Monarchy and the problem of distances between Spain and the New World have long been interpreted in ways that suggest the marginality and peripheral status of the American colonies. However, some works counterbalance this dismissal and shed new light on the scientific activity of the Hispanic New World. This is the case with the treatise Arte de los Metales, by the secular priest Alvaro Alonso Barba, which would achieve remarkable fame and circulation, and would become a seminal work in the fields of metallurgy and mining until the mid-1700s. The article demonstrates that this treatise also presents ideas that can be traced back to a set of Paracelsian ideas combining alchemy, pharmacopoeia, and medicine, and studies specific examples of these ideas - the description of three fundamental substances (salt, mercury and sulphur) as components of all matter, references to Epatica sulfuris, an oil capable of turning silver into gold and curing certain diseases; and the use of antimony - that together testify to the spread of the ideas of Basil Valentine and of Paracelsian influences. From this point of view, Arte de los Metales can be viewed as part of a tradition unexpectedly renewed by the author through many observations based on his own work in Peru and the discoveries he made thanks to alternative techniques. This demonstrates the richness and diversity of knowledge rooted in the New World, and links Alonso Barba's scholarly activity to some of the great schools of thought that spanned the Early Modern European world.


Assuntos
Alquimia , América Central , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , América do Sul
20.
Cir. plást. ibero-latinoam ; 46(supl.1): 9-16, abr. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193489

RESUMO

El tratamiento de las quemaduras es una ciencia tan antigua como los conflictos humanos, que ha debido refinarse y adaptarse a las mejoras de la tecnología armamentística a lo largo de la historia. El fuego ha sido probablemente una de las primeras armas de doble filo con las que el ser humano ha topado durante su desarrollo tecnológico. Históricamente, este elemento ha servido tanto para mejorar las condiciones de vida de las sociedades como para destruirlas y ocasionar terribles sufrimientos. En este trabajo realizamos una exposición cronológica de la evolución del tratamiento de las quemaduras, presentando a las figuras científicas más relevantes de cada momento y sus aportaciones. Además, destacamos los conflictos y desastres coincidentes en el tiempo de vida de cada uno de estos médicos, ya que, en muchos casos, fue el trabajo desarrollado durante estas catástrofes lo que permitió la progresión de este ámbito. El objetivo de esta revisión histórica es proporcionar al lector cierto conocimiento sobre el camino que esta ciencia del tratamiento de las quemaduras ha seguido hasta alcanzar el punto de desarrollo actual, Desde el primer registro histórico sobre tratamientos para las quemaduras en un papiro egipcio del 1500 a.C., cada figura relevante de la Medicina en su tiempo ha propuesto su propio remedio para las quemaduras; la mayoría de ellos sin fundamento científico según los paradigmas actuales. No obstante, desde el siglo XVI ha habido aportaciones puntuales hasta alcanzar un importante desarrollo durante los siglos XIX y XX, coincidiendo en el tiempo con la revolución industrial y científica de las Grandes Guerras, en las que la cantidad de víctimas por quemaduras fue inmensa, proporcionando un extenso campo observacional y experimental. Gracias a todo ello, los pacientes quemados alcanzan actualmente unas tasas de supervivencia impensables hace siglos. Ponemos pues en evidencia que la adversidad, estudiada desde un enfoque científico, puede servir como oportunidad para mejorar la calidad de vida de las generaciones venideras


Burn treatment is such an ancient science as human conflicts, and it has had to be refined and adapted to the improvements in military technology throughout history. Fire has probably been one of the first double sided weapons developed by humanity during its technologic development. This element has both served to improve life conditions of societies, and to destroy them causing terrible suffering. In this article, we perform a chronological exposition of the evolution of burn treatment, presenting the more relevant scientific figures of each time, and their contributions. Also, conflicts and disasters that coincided with these scientists are described, as in most cases, the work developed during those catastrophes eased the advancement of this field. The objective of this historical review is to provide the reader with certain knowledge about the path this science has followed until reaching its actual state. The first existing reference to burn treatment goes back to an egyptian papyrus written around the year 1500 b.C. Since then, each relevant figure in the field of Medicine of their time proposed their own treatment for burns; which in most cases, had no scientific basis according to current paradigms. However, since the 16th century, certain advancements in different fields of burn care were described, reaching an important development during the 19th and 20th centuries, when industrial and scientific revolution coexisted with the Great Wars, which provided wide experimental and observational fields. Therefore, and thank to scientific discoveries of the last centuries, burned patients present survival rates that were unconceivable years ago. We remark that highlighting that adversity, studied through scientific methodology, might serve as an opportunity to improve quality of life of upcoming generations


Assuntos
História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Unidades de Queimados/história , Queimaduras/história , Queimaduras/terapia , Queimaduras/fisiopatologia
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