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1.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907877

RESUMO

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ética Médica/história , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Hospitais/história , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/história , Betacoronavirus , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/história , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Juramento Hipocrático , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/história , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Alocação de Recursos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Med Health Care Philos ; 23(4): 603-609, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761351

RESUMO

The recent outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is posing many different challenges to local communities, directly affected by the pandemic, and to the global community, trying to find how to respond to this threat in a larger scale. The history of the Eyam Plague, read in light of Ross Upshur's Four Principles for the Justification of Public Health Intervention, and of the Siracusa Principles on the Limitation and Derogation Provisions in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, could provide useful guidance in navigating the complex ethical issues that arise when quarantine measures need to be put in place.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peste/história , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/história , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Londres/epidemiologia , Peste/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/ética , Quarentena/ética
5.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 37(2): 319-359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822549

RESUMO

Hypochondriac or phobic reactions to venereal disease, specifically syphilis, have invited over three centuries of medical reification and nosological reframing. This bibliographic overview establishes that the early specification and psychiatricization of early modern concepts of melancholy and hypochondriasis, imaginary syphilis or syphilophobia, animated the early respective territorializations of venereology, infectiology more broadly, neurology, and mental medicine. Together with mercuriophobia and a wider emergent clinical sensitivity to sexual angst, the diagnosis, while evidently only sporadically made, functioned as a durable soundboard in the confrontation of emergent medical rationale with various confounders and contenders: medically literate and increasingly mobile but possibly deluded patients; charlatans and putative malpractitioners; self-referral laboratory serology (after 1906); and eventually, through psychoanalysis, the patient's unconscious. Requiring medical psychology early on, syphilology became and remained self-conscious and circumspect, attentive to the casualties of overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and iatrogenesis. Finally, patient apprehension led to makeshift forms of "moral treatment," including fear-instilling and placebos.


Assuntos
Hipocondríase/história , Transtornos Fóbicos/história , Sífilis/história , Historiografia , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/história , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia , Sífilis/psicologia
7.
Semergen ; 46 Suppl 1: 48-54, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646730

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a mismatch in all health systems. Most countries had forgotten how to behave in the face of such an epidemic without adequate resources. We need to take stock of everything that has happened, instruct the population and generate a new knowledge that allows us to face new epidemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 50(3): 143-156, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660192

RESUMO

The itinerary of Bernard Rhodes S. J. (1646-1715), temporal coadjutor of the Society of Jesus and missionary in China, is of remarkable complexity. He was already a doctor before he was recruited by the Jesuit order and sent on various missions. During the nine years before his arrival in China, his route between Europe and Asia was largely determined by rivalries between European powers. When he eventually arrived in Beijing in 1699 and entered the service of the Kangxi Emperor, he became attached to the Imperial House, and this seems to have decisively determined the course of his itineraries in the Middle Kingdom henceforth. Following his movements in the capital and in the emperor's cortege during imperial tours gives us unique insights into the mobility of this Jesuit medical practitioner. In the service of the Manchu rule, he provided therapies-unknown to Chinese palace physicians and their medical traditions-to privileged patients belonging to the core imperial networks. In the medical pluralistic setting as it existed at the court and was instrumentalized by the Manchu ruler for ideological purposes, Rhodes was in competition not only with experts of the Imperial Academy of Medicine, but also with Mongolian doctor and Lama therapists. His career in the Qing empire illustrates that the presence in Beijing of doctors trained in Europe was not enough to ensure the transmission of the specific knowledge they held. Medical matters reveal to be an important case study in which Western language sources, combined with those in Chinese and especially in Manchu, provide us with a deeper understanding of courtly live and the function of medicine in consolidating Manchu rule during the Kangxi reign. Thus, the study of the biography of Rhodes, one of the marginal actors in the emperor's service, and the tracing of his itineraries is a complementary contribution to New Qing History, with its emphasis on exploring non-Chinese voices.


Assuntos
Medicina , Missionários , Cirurgiões , China , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos
9.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(4): 787-806, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681877

RESUMO

Since the dawn of humanity, wounds have afflicted humans, and healers have held responsibility for treating them. This article tracks the evolution of wound care from antiquity to the present, highlighting the roles of surgeons, scientists, culture, and society in the ever-changing management of traumatic and iatrogenic injuries.


Assuntos
Cicatrização/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/história , Antibacterianos/história , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/história , Conflitos Armados/história , Antigo Egito , Grécia Antiga , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Medicina Militar/história , Pinturas , Mundo Romano/história , Infecção dos Ferimentos/história , Infecção dos Ferimentos/prevenção & controle
11.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 15-26, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638597

RESUMO

The heritage of Slovenian house names and surnames reflects, among others, the former medicine and pharmaceutical occupations, midwifery, and folk medicine practices, and besides that, also health status and illnesses of people. Surnames, which are especially strongly intertwined with family, local and social history, are closely related to folk medicine and magic. Unlike house names (vulgo), which are the usual nicknames for physical and mental characteristics and abilities, surnames denote medical occupations and medicinal folk practice as such. According to the most recent data (as of January 1, 2020) of The Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, at least 40 surnames reminiscent former medical or pharmaceutical professions. These newly discovered digital data in open access are precious for the history of medicine because they allow comparing surnames geographically, by frequency, and through the time.


Assuntos
História da Medicina , História da Farmácia , Nomes , Médicos/história , Animais , Educação Médica/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/história , Eslovênia
12.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 27-46, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638598

RESUMO

The article is the first step of a research project aimed at investigating new perspectives and aspects of Morgagni's role and work. His activities as a medical examiner and forensic doctor are yet to be truly discovered. Manuscripts, written by Morgagni when he was a forensic expert for the Health Magistrate of Venice, currently preserved at the City Library in Forli (Italy), shed light on a new aspect of his cultural background. As a forensic doctor, he also helped push an increase in "social medicine" in Italy, when physicians began to collaborate with the administrative and political institutions in order to plan environmental and urban regulations to control air quality. While reading his reports, his contribution to the primordial medical Hygiene and Public Health emerges. Among his reports, the authors focused on the one concerning the Beatification of Gregorio Barbarigo, which clearly highlights his pathological approach, as well as his knowledge and application of embalming systems and mummiology. Moreover, this report could be considered as an issue in the history of paleopathology.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Medicina Legal/história , Patologia/história , Santos/história , Anatomia/história , Exumação/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Itália , Múmias/história , Odorantes
14.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(2): 23, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519195

RESUMO

One of Leibniz's most original ideas is his conception of the living individual as a hierarchical network of living beings whose relationships are essential to the proper functioning of its organic body. This idea is also valid to explain any existing order in nature that depends on the set of relationships of living beings that inhabit it. Both ideas are present in the conception of the natural world that Leibniz presents in his Monadology (§§ 63-70) through his idea of biological infinitism. According to this idea, nature consists of infinite theatres (some within others and some unfolding from others) where living beings unfold their vital functions. Through this idea Leibniz defines both the biological complexity of nature and the living individual, which is in turn a portion of nature that unfolds from an infinite set of inferior living beings. The thesis that I defend in this work is that this Leibnizian understanding of the living individual and the natural complexity that includes infinite hierarchical levels of individuality has a marked ecological sense, as we would say today. This Leibnizian metaphysics of individuality that we could call biological is also interesting in light of the recent studies in the philosophy of biology.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Metafísica/história , Natureza , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII
17.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 50(1): 28-32, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564534

RESUMO

Jin Gui Yu Han Jing(, The Jade Case Classic of the Golden Cabinet) and Shanghan Lun(, Treatise on Febrile Diseases) have similar contents but different names, and they were handed down after being collated by the Medical Records Bureau in 1066, the third year of the Northern Song Dynasty. At present, Jin Gui Yu Han Jing is Chen Shijie's edition in the Qing Dynasty. Chen Shijie got the manuscript of Song Dynasty from He Zhuo, a scholar of Qing Dynasty, then corrected it, and published it in 1717. By searching the citations from Jin Gui Yu Han Jing in medical works from 1066 to 1717, and dividing them into two categories: direct quotation and indirect quotation, so as to investigate the spreading situation of Jin Gui Yu Han Jing since Song Dynasty. According to this, it can be inferred that Jin Gui Yu Han Jing had not been found by doctors in Yuan and Ming Dynasties.


Assuntos
Livros/história , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História Medieval
18.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202597, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520135

RESUMO

Medical Uniforms date back from medieval times. Nursing uniforms were based on nuns clothes whereas doctors used the famous "plague costumes" and black "frock" coats from about 15th to early 19th century. In latter half 19th century medical uniforms started to change. Nursing uniforms gradually lost their similarities to religious outfits. Doctors started to use white clothing. With great emphasis on hygiene and sanitation, the idea of personal protective equipment (PPE) started to evolve with William Stewart Halsted introducing the use of rubber gloves in 1889. In the 1960s-1970s it became more usual to wear green and blue `scrubs in order to look for a greater contrast in clothing with the all-white hospital environment. In contemporary times, some specialties even stopped using specific uniforms, while others still use them. At the same time, PPE became more and more important, up to nowadays "plague costume" in the combat of the COVID-19 epidemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Roupa de Proteção/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos
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