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1.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 121(1): 96-101, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950845

RESUMO

Vaclav Trnka from Krovice (1739-1791, in Latin: Wenzel Trnka Krzowitz) was a remarkable physician whose life serves as an example in the history of medicine by connecting major capital cities of Central Europe. In view of current geographical layout, he was born and brought up in the Czech Republic, graduated from University of Vienna in Austria, and was appointed Professor of the Anatomy at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of University of Nagyszombat, presently Trnava in Slovak Republic. When the University moved to Buda and later to Pest (today Budapest, Hungary), he was the first educator to introduce anatomy as a medical subject to be taught in a Hungarian medical school. He also was elected the Dean of Faculty of Medicine three times and in 1786-1787 he acted as Rector of then the Royal University of Pest. During his life, he published twenty-seven monographs dealing with different areas of clinical medicine, such as malaria (intermittent fever), diabetes, and rickets. Based on these monographs we can proclaim that Václav Trnka was a co-founder of modern infectology, diabetology and ophthalmology in Central Europe. Nowadays, artificial intelligence and bioinformatics are inseparable parts of modern health care system which help the transformation of big data into valuable knowledge. In the 18th century, Professor Trnka owned more than 3,000 scientific books and had natural, innate intelligence and wisdom which made him a real "medical polymath". As a musician, Trnka also composed sixty-one canons, two of them long wrongly considered as Mozart's work. Despite the fact that Trnka is considered to be the founder of Hungarian anatomy education and a major medical figure of the eighteenth century Central Europe, no internationally acclaimed biographical record of his life or work has so far been published in English. Therefore, we would like to reintroduce Václav Trnka both as an anatomist and medical polymath, and to give an overview of the early days of anatomy teaching in present-day Slovakia and Hungary (Fig. 1, Ref. 27). Keywords: Trnka from Krovice, anatomist, medical polymath, history of medicine.


Assuntos
Anatomistas , Anatomistas/história , República Tcheca , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Hungria , Eslováquia
2.
Integr Zool ; 15(1): 69-78, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305020

RESUMO

Plague, a devastating infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, has killed millions of people in the past and is still active in the natural foci of the world today. Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of plague outbreaks in history is critically important, as it may help to facilitate prevention and control of potential future outbreaks. In this study, we explored spatiotemporal clusters of human plague occurrences in China using a machine-learning clustering method and reconstructed the potential transmission pattern during the Third Pandemic (1772-1964). We succeeded in identifying 6 clusters in the space domain (2D) and 13 clusters in the spatiotemporal domain (3D). Our results suggest that there were several temporal outbreaks and transmissions of plague in different spatial clusters. Together with the spatiotemporal nearest neighbor approach (ST-NNA), this method could allow us to have a clearer look at the spatiotemporal patterns of plague.


Assuntos
Análise por Conglomerados , Pandemias , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , China/epidemiologia , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134138, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505345

RESUMO

Plague synchronously swept across separated regions in Europe throughout history. However, the spatio-temporal synchrony of plague and its driving mechanism have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we transformed the historical European plague database spanned 1347-1800 CE into country-level time-series that differentiated large-scale plague outbreak from counted data. We found that there are 74 years in which two or more countries in our study region (UK, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy) experienced large-scale plague outbreak in the same year. Our Multivariate Ripley's K-function results showed that the onset year and the cessation year of large-scale plague outbreak are synchronized at the 0-23-year and 0-20-year windows, respectively. The temporal association between such synchrony and climatic forcing was further investigated using the Superposed Epoch Analysis, and drought was found to be responsible for the synchrony. Integrating our results with a literature survey, we suggested that prior to the peak of plague, the occurrence of drought and the subsequent reintroduced rainfall dampened both the rodent community and human society and boosted the number of fleas that carried plague. Such a synthesis facilitated the outbreak of plague. At the same time, high temperature associated with such drought also confined the geographic diffusion of the plague. Hence, although continental mega-drought could initiate the synchrony of plague outbreak, the synchrony actually consisted of a number of localized plague outbreak events scattering across different regions in Europe. According to the projected rising trend of drought in terms of its magnitude, duration, and geographic extent, the risk of synchrony of rodent-borne diseases in Europe will be significantly elevated, especially in France, Italy, and Spain.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/história , Secas , Peste/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História Medieval , Humanos
5.
Am Surg ; 85(11): 1304-1307, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775975

RESUMO

Born in Norfolk, England, on September 29, 1758, Horatio Nelson was the sixth of eleven children in a working-class family. With the help of his uncle, Maurice Suckling, a captain in the Royal Navy, Nelson began his naval career as a 13-year-old midshipman on the British battleship Raisonnable. His courage and leadership in the battle marked him for promotion, and he rose quickly from midshipman to admiral, serving in the West Indies, East Indies, North America, Europe, and even the Arctic. As his rank ascended, Nelson's consistent strategy was close engagement, an approach that led to success in combat but placed him in direct danger. Thus, Britain's greatest warrior was also her most famous patient: Nelson suffered more injuries and underwent more operations than any other flag officer in Royal Navy history. His career reached a climax off Cape Trafalgar, where he not only led the Royal Navy to victory over the combined French and Spanish fleets but also met his own death.


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Militares/história , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/história , Amputação/história , Traumatismos do Braço/história , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/história , Testa/lesões , Hérnia Abdominal/história , História do Século XVIII , Reino Unido , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/história
6.
Tex Heart Inst J ; 46(3): 175-178, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708698

RESUMO

In 1708, Adam Christian Thebesius, a 22-year-old student at Leiden University, presented his graduate thesis, Disputatio medica inauguralis de circulo sanguinis in corde. More than a doctoral dissertation, this groundbreaking work opened new channels into the study of the human coronary venous system. Thebesius' theory about the vascular communication between the coronary arteries and the chambers of the heart helped to advance understanding of hemodynamic principles and to clarify the physiologic pathways of the coronary circulation. The following article-the third in a trilogy about Lower Silesian scientists-provides an overview of the life story and achievements of this Silesian physician and innovator, whose name was immortalized in 2 cardiac eponyms: the Thebesian veins and the Thebesian valve.


Assuntos
Anatomia/história , Cardiologia/história , Circulação Coronária , Vasos Coronários/anatomia & histologia , Veias/anatomia & histologia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Polônia
8.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(11): 707-709, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giacomo Ceruti was a renowned painter in northern Italy during the middle third of the 18th century, although he is not well-known today. He produced pictures in several different genres but his reputation after his death was based primarily on his portrayal of beggars and poor working people; hence, his posthumous nickname, il Pitocchetto, the little beggar. Of medico-artistic interest is the realism with which he depicted the hands of his impoverished subjects, a quality that enables them to be examined for signs of pathology or trauma. The present article displays some representative examples of hand deformities in Ceruti's paintings, thus extending into the 18th century the authors' previous research on medical aspects of art works from the 15th to the 17th century.


Assuntos
Deformidades da Mão , Pinturas , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Itália , Pobreza
9.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(4): 47, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641954

RESUMO

In the literature investigating the long history of appeals to 'nature', in its multiple meanings, for rules of conduct or justification of social order, little attention has been paid to a long-standing tradition in which medical and physiological arguments merged into moral and social ones. A host of medical authors, biologists, social writers and philosophers assumed that nature spoke its moral language not only in its general economy, but also within and through the body. This is why, for instance, many critics of Malthus argued that physiological self-regulating mechanisms ensured a spontaneous adaptation of fertility to the circumstances. Beliefs in a beneficent economy of nature persisted when Providence was replaced by evolution. To some, they provided reasons for hope even when others worried about 'unfit' members of society increasing at a quicker rate than 'fit' ones. The nerves gradually replaced food and blood as moral mediators between society and the body. When faith in bio-social progress was shaken by degeneration theories, and fin de siècle anxiety concerned underpopulation rather than overpopulation, not an insignificant proportion of those who emphasised the bad effects of modern (hyper)civilisation resorted to ideas and arguments based on a view of the body in which physiology and morality worked together. A common language and common assumptions linked the Kulturpessimisten to their optimistic eighteenth-century colleagues, in spite of their different forecasts. The present paper traces continuities and discontinuities in the operation of a persistent set of interrelated ideas and assumptions on the coalescence of the physiological and the moral across disciplines and contexts.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Alimentos/história , Princípios Morais , Sistema Nervoso , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
11.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 74(4): 369-390, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592528

RESUMO

Between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the inquiry on miracles in the canonization process reveals a fundamental cooperation between medicine and religion. During the last stage of the trials, theologians, lawyers, and physicians concurred with refined reports to accomplish full analysis of the alleged miracles. The promoter of the faith had the task of doubting the supposed miracle healing on juridical, medical and theological grounds; the lawyer supporting the cause responded to any inconsistency in witnesses' depositions; the physician had the task of finding any natural causes which could lead to a natural recovery of the subject. The interplay of these tripartite disciplines underlies early modern probation of supposed miracles. In this paper I will examine the institutional and cultural consequences of the demand for evidence in canonization trials: on the one hand, the increasing role of medical experts in the assessment of miracles and the friction between them and the other members of the committee; on the other hand, the rise of a new method of inquiry in the legal arena.


Assuntos
Prova Pericial , Religião e Medicina , Santos/história , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Advogados/história , Médicos/história
13.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(4): 46, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624931

RESUMO

This paper addresses early modern botanical nomenclature, the practices of identifying and publishing synonyms in particular, as a collaborative "information science". Before Linnaean nomenclature became the lingua franca of botany, it was inevitable that, over time, the same plant was given several names by different people, which created confusion and made communication among botanists increasingly difficult. What names counted as synonyms and actually referred to the same plant had to be identified by meticulously comparing living and dried specimens of this and similar plants as well as relevant illustrations und descriptions in the botanical literature. Identifying synonyms required and generated an ever-expanding mass of data, which was used continuously to adjust and rearrange plant names. Despite the greatest care, judgements on synonyms were not definitive, which meant that published lists of synonyms for individual species of plants were in a state of flux and had to be constantly updated, corrected, and rewritten. This required long-term international collaborations, the accumulated results of which were not published once but consecutively, in augmented and corrected editions of a book. As a result of this networked approach, synonyms are networked names that reflect the epistemic interconnectedness of the botanical community. These questions will be discussed with a focus on the Dutch botanist Johannes Burman (1706-1779), who placed synonyms at the centre of his work as posthumous editor-and co-author-of the botanical manuscripts that were left behind by other botanists.


Assuntos
Botânica/história , Classificação/métodos , Plantas/classificação , Comunicação Acadêmica/história , Terminologia como Assunto , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVIII , Países Baixos
17.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513172

RESUMO

The article presents the main stages of studying the mineral ferruginous waters of the first Russian spa 'Marcial Waters', the beginning of the 300-year history of which is associated with the name of Peter I. It gives the results of studies of natural sources in the 18th and 19th centuries. Studies of the mineral waters during the exploration and exploitation of the field in the 20th century have shown that in the local area, wells open confined groundwater that has various mineralization and iron content and forms the characteristic hydrochemical type of mineral water called marcial. It is noted that the results of the long-term, but insufficiently regular and analytically comprehensive series of observations of the composition of an extremely unstable system of ferruginous waters do not allow one to unequivocally identify seasonal and long-term changes in the composition of the water. Regular isotope-chemical studies, which began in 2018, will make it possible to identify the patterns of formation of unique fresh high-iron waters.


Assuntos
Estâncias para Tratamento de Saúde/história , Águas Minerais/uso terapêutico , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Federação Russa
18.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 44(19): E1159-E1160, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524840

RESUMO

: Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821) is generally known as one of the founders of the modern Hygiene and Public Health. It is less known his contribution in investigating the pathogenesis of spinal disorders. In his "De Vertebralis Columnae in Morbis Dignitate" (1791), Frank first proposed to use the Latin term "rhachialgia" (back pain) to indicate all the painful states of spine. He focused on the "plethora spinali" in the vessels of the spinal cord and its membrane, sustaining that blood congestion was the origin of all the spinal disorders. He also believed that the excess of blood was able to generate a "diffuse inflammation" of vertebral and medullary structures. The innovative concepts developed by Johann Peter Frank demonstrated that he could be worthily considered as a pioneer in the study of spinal disorders.Level of Evidence: 5.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas , Médicos/história , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral , Dor nas Costas/etiologia , Dor nas Costas/história , Dor nas Costas/patologia , Dor nas Costas/fisiopatologia , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Saúde Pública/história , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/história , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia
19.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 74(4): 391-415, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504658

RESUMO

The publications on morbid anatomy by Matthew Baillie and Samuel Thomas Soemmerring put pathological preparations and images center stage. A comparison between their works highlights major shifts from exceptional to more representative cases and significant differences in the art of representation. Initially Baillie provided careful descriptions of internal postmortem lesions (1793). Then Soemmerring's prompt German translation added a wealth of references to the literature and specifically to pathological images available in print (1794). Soon after a second unillustrated edition incorporating some of Soemmerring's comments (1797), Baillie issued ten installments with dozens of pathological plates (1799-1803). His plates differed from those referred to by Soemmerring for their broader scope, representing common and rare conditions alike, and specific attention to the fine changes of texture of the affected parts. Their works document the crucial status of pathological preparations and images at the time and highlight the achievement of Baillie's work at an artistic as well as at an intellectual level.


Assuntos
Obras Médicas de Referência , Livros de Texto como Assunto/história , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Escócia
20.
Protist ; 170(4): 374-384, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479910

RESUMO

In 1703 two articles appeared in the Transactions of the Royal Society, authored by an unnamed gentleman. The articles, with deference to Leeuwenhoeck, described recent observations made with a microscope. Clifford Dobell, in his biography of Leeuwenhoeck, remarked at length on the extraordinary quality of the illustrations and descriptions of "animalcules". He declared the anonymous author to be the scion and master draughtsman of Leeuwenhoeck's followers. Still today, one of the illustrations is credited with being the first unambiguous depiction of a diatom. Here I present evidence that the anonymous author was Charles King of Staffordshire and evidence of his talent. John Hill is often credited for the first naming and illustrating Paramecium and other ciliates in his 1752 book, but it has been claimed repeatedly that he copied the anonymous 1703 illustrations without attribution. Here, the illustrations from 1703 and 1752 are given, and casual examination suffices to show not only that the illustrations were copied, but also that the 1703 illustrations (and text descriptions) of Charles King are of a far higher quality than those of John Hill. Although very little is known about Charles King, he deserves recognition as a pioneer of protistology.


Assuntos
Livros Ilustrados/história , Diatomáceas/citologia , História do Século XVIII , Microbiologia/história , Microscopia
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