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2.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 74(2): 180-195, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112103

RESUMO

Until the 19th century, the factor causing epidemics was not known, and the escape from a place where it occurred as well as isolation of patients was considered to be the only effective way to avoid illness and death. Quarantine in a sense similar to modern times was used in 1377 in Ragusa, today's Dubrovnik, during the plague epidemic. It was the first administratively imposed procedure in the world's history. It was later used in Venice and other rich port cities in the Mediterranean. On the territory of today's Poland, quarantine measures were used by the so-called Mayor of the Air - LukaszDrewno in 1623 during the plague epidemic in Warsaw. The quarantine left its mark on all areas of human activity. It affected all humanity in a way that is underestimated today. Throughout history, it has been described and presented visually. It is omnipresent in the world literature, art and philosophy. However, the isolation and closure of cities, limiting trade, had an impact on the economic balance, and the dilemma between the choice of inhabitants' health and the quality of existence, i.e. their wealth, has been the subject of discussions since the Middle Ages. Since the end of the 19th century, quarantine has lost its practical meaning. The discovery of bacteria and a huge development of medical and social sciences allowed limiting its range. In the 20th century isolation and quarantine no longer had a global range, because the ability to identify factors causing the epidemic, knowledge about the incubation period, carrier, infectiousness, enabled the rational determination of its duration and territorial range. The modern SARS COV 2 pandemic has resulted in a global quarantine on a scale unprecedented for at least three hundred years. The aim of this paper is to present the history of quarantine from its beginning to the present day, including its usefulness as an epidemiological tool.


Assuntos
Pandemias/história , Peste/história , Quarentena/história , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Surtos de Doenças/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Medieval , Humanos
3.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(10): 945-948, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026341

RESUMO

More than 10 million enslaved Africans were transported to the Americas between 1500 and 1900. Recent genetic studies investigate regional African ancestry components in present-day Africa-Americans, and allow comparison with the extensive records documenting these deportations. The genetic evidence generally agrees with the historical records but brings additional insights in this dark episode of human history.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Pessoas Escravizadas , Escravização/história , Genética Populacional , África , Oceano Atlântico , Comércio/história , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Pessoas Escravizadas/história , Fluxo Gênico/fisiologia , Variação Genética , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Estados Unidos
4.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(Suppl 4): 115-152, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048212

RESUMO

The first regulations of the healthcare system in the domains and cities of the German Empire were the infection and plague regulations issued in many places from the sixteenth century onwards; however, as early as 1348 the Venetian state formed precise state structures to combat the black death that had broken out in Europe at the time. These were taken over analogously and in part in the Austrian states. Defense measures against the plague became particularly important on the k. k. (imperial-royal) military frontier against the Ottoman Empire. Under Empress Maria Theresa's enlightened absolutism, the state felt obliged to provide the largest possible healthy population with the help of the medical police. The fight against smallpox in Austria is described as an example. Through the collaboration of Maria Theresia with her protomedicus Gerard van Swieten, a codification of the k. k. healthcare system was created. As a quasi preliminary attempt the Empress proclaimed the Main Medical Regulations for Bohemia in 1753, which were supplemented 2 years later by the General Health Regulations for the Austrian Littoral. The result was the comprehensive medical standard for all hereditary lands from 1770. This brought about a regulation of all healthcare professions and their use for public health. Maria Theresa's son and successor introduced a further development of the administration in the direction of centralization and promotion of social conditions and humanitarian institutions, such as hospitals, infirmaries, childbirth houses and madhouses as well as foundling institutions and orphanages and poor and workhouses as special institutions. He was also very interested in promoting military medicine. The last major step in the development of the Austrian public healthcare system was the Imperial Sanitary Act of 1870. This is also the basis for the current structure of healthcare administration. The sanitary tasks are (and were) regulated in the legislation and enforcement of the (k.k.) State, and the federal states (kingdoms and countries represented in the Imperial Assembly) and the municipalities in, however, still existing complex division of some affairs between federal, state and local authorities.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/história , Saúde Pública/história , Áustria , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos
5.
Med Lav ; 111(4): 321-325, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869768

RESUMO

Although Bernardino Ramazzini is usually regarded only as the father of occupational medicine, his approach to fight the devastating rinderpest epidemic in 1711 is worth mentioning in the light of the public health emergency represented by Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). This commentary (i) focuses on Ramazzini's xiii oration describing that event, (ii) analyses the approach suggested to fight the cattle epidemic and economic threats, (iii) highlights some similar aspects between the 1711 rinderpest epidemic and the current COVID-19 pandemic (team expertise, contagion transmissibility, drug treatment, preventive measures, decision timeliness).


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/história , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Peste Bovina/história , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública
6.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907877

RESUMO

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ética Médica/história , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Hospitais/história , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/história , Betacoronavirus , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/história , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Juramento Hipocrático , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/história , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Alocação de Recursos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(4): 497-501, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972610

RESUMO

José Maria Vargas, (1786-1854), who was born on March 10, 1796, graduated with a Doctor of Medicine degree from the Central University of Venezuela in 1808. He was subsequently imprisoned in 1813 by the Spanish authorities for his independence activities. When finally freed, he traveled to Edinburgh for postgraduate medical training and became the first Venezuelan to earn a Fellowship of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh. He worked afterward in medicine, surgery, botany, and chemistry, practicing in Scotland, France, and Puerto Rico. Upon his return to Venezuela in 1825 from 1827 to 1829, he became Professor of Surgery and later, President (Rector) of the Central University of Venezuela. He was elected the second president of newly independent Venezuela serving from 1835 to 1836 and carried out his tasks with honor and dignity, even after surviving a coup d'état. Finally, he resigned his position as president and returned to the practice of medicine and his teaching duties. He reasoned and wrote a beautiful differential diagnosis in a case supposedly of pellagra, but actually of erythema marginatum. Dr Vargas died in New York on July 13, 1854, after a long illness.


Assuntos
Dermatologia/história , Cirurgia Geral/história , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eritema , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , França , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , New York , Pelagra , Porto Rico , Escócia , Venezuela
8.
Neurology ; 95(11): 484-488, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934155

RESUMO

The historical trajectory of the discovery of the brainstem as a vital center has been rarely explored. Focusing on its tracts and neurons first, anatomists much later expanded their understanding of the brainstem with the discovery of groups of nuclear networks that affected major vital functions. Comparative anatomists (i.e., Edinger) postulated a primordial paleopallium that indirectly implied the centrality of the brainstem and a neopallidum with its differentiation and specialization up to Homo sapiens Methods that governed the discovery of the brainstem were (1) comparative anatomy, (2) embryonic growth, (3) vivisection, (4) brain dissection, and, much later, (5) microscopy and chemical feedback loops. This historical study traces how neuroscientists of the 18th and 19th century became increasingly aware of the vital functions performed by the brainstem. The anatomists of the 20th century found the ascending reticular formation, the respiratory center, and pressor centers-all automatic and vital functions. It took centuries for this realization to open the way to use the testable brainstem centers to establish the criteria for a neurologic determination of death. The ontogenetic conclusion is that the brainstem is the ancestor of the developed human brain; the physiologic conclusion is that the brainstem is a vital center and a structural support system and conduit. When afunctional, life ends.


Assuntos
Anatomia Regional/história , Conscientização , Tronco Encefálico , Tronco Encefálico/anatomia & histologia , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239732, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986774

RESUMO

A large assemblage (n = 307) of architectural glasses (tesserae and windows) from the early 8th-century Umayyad residential site at Khirbat al-Minya was analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Trace element patterns are essential to establish the provenance of the base glass, while the comparative evaluation of the colouring and opacifying additives allow us to advance a production model for the manufacture of glass mosaic tesserae during the early Islamic period. The primary glass types are Levantine I and Egypt 1a, as well as a few older, reused tesserae, and Mesopotamian plant ash glass used for amber-coloured window fragments. Chemical data revealed fundamental differences in the colouring and opacification technologies between the Egyptian and Levantine tesserae. Co-variations of lead and bismuth, and copper, tin and zinc in the Egypt 1a tesserae provide first evidence for the production of different mosaic colours in a single workshop, specialising in the manufacture of tesserae of different colours. No such trend is apparent in the Levantine samples. Red, cobalt blue and gold leaf tesserae were found to be exclusively made from a Levantine base glass, indicating that the generation of some colours may have been a specialised process. The same may apply to the amber-coloured window glass fragments of Mesopotamian origin that exhibit very unusual characteristics, combining elevated copper (2% CuO) with an excess in iron oxide (5% Fe2O3). These findings have significant implications for the production model of strongly coloured glass and the exploitation of resources during the early Islamic period.


Assuntos
Arquitetura/história , Vidro/química , Vidro/história , Cor , Corantes/análise , Cobre/análise , Egito , Compostos Férricos/análise , História do Século XVIII , Chumbo/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Oriente Médio , Minerais/análise , Estanho/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
10.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 37(2): 319-359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822549

RESUMO

Hypochondriac or phobic reactions to venereal disease, specifically syphilis, have invited over three centuries of medical reification and nosological reframing. This bibliographic overview establishes that the early specification and psychiatricization of early modern concepts of melancholy and hypochondriasis, imaginary syphilis or syphilophobia, animated the early respective territorializations of venereology, infectiology more broadly, neurology, and mental medicine. Together with mercuriophobia and a wider emergent clinical sensitivity to sexual angst, the diagnosis, while evidently only sporadically made, functioned as a durable soundboard in the confrontation of emergent medical rationale with various confounders and contenders: medically literate and increasingly mobile but possibly deluded patients; charlatans and putative malpractitioners; self-referral laboratory serology (after 1906); and eventually, through psychoanalysis, the patient's unconscious. Requiring medical psychology early on, syphilology became and remained self-conscious and circumspect, attentive to the casualties of overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and iatrogenesis. Finally, patient apprehension led to makeshift forms of "moral treatment," including fear-instilling and placebos.


Assuntos
Hipocondríase/história , Transtornos Fóbicos/história , Sífilis/história , Historiografia , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/história , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia , Sífilis/psicologia
11.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1537-1541, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732829

RESUMO

This historical retrospective explores the study of the freemartin condition and its impact on the discovery of immunologic tolerance and the field of transplant surgery-from the ancient Romans, to early modern anatomists Valsalva, Scarpa, and Hunter, to contemporary immunologists Owen, Medawar, and Billingham, and to legendary transplant surgeon Joseph Murray. The legacy of freemartin cattle in the understanding of acquired tolerance and transplant immunology represents generations of scientific inquiry guided by careful observation and occasional serendipity, and the present-day immunologists and surgeons exploring immune transplant tolerance owe much to the history of the freemartin, several millennia in the making.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Infertilidade Feminina/veterinária , Transplante de Órgãos/história , Transplante de Tecidos/história , Tolerância ao Transplante , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Bovinos/imunologia , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/imunologia , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Tecidos/efeitos adversos
12.
Nature ; 584(7822): 579-583, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760001

RESUMO

New Guinea is the world's largest tropical island and has fascinated naturalists for centuries1,2. Home to some of the best-preserved ecosystems on the planet3 and to intact ecological gradients-from mangroves to tropical alpine grasslands-that are unmatched in the Asia-Pacific region4,5, it is a globally recognized centre of biological and cultural diversity6,7. So far, however, there has been no attempt to critically catalogue the entire vascular plant diversity of New Guinea. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, expert-verified checklist of the vascular plants of mainland New Guinea and surrounding islands. Our publicly available checklist includes 13,634 species (68% endemic), 1,742 genera and 264 families-suggesting that New Guinea is the most floristically diverse island in the world. Expert knowledge is essential for building checklists in the digital era: reliance on online taxonomic resources alone would have inflated species counts by 22%. Species discovery shows no sign of levelling off, and we discuss steps to accelerate botanical research in the 'Last Unknown'8.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Classificação/métodos , Ilhas , Plantas/classificação , Mapeamento Geográfico , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Internet , Nova Guiné , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Neurology ; 95(12): 532-536, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759198

RESUMO

Medicine and botany are 2 distinct disciplines of "natural science," one focusing on humans, the other on plants. However, among the life sciences, both were quite close in earlier times. Moreover, the history of neuropathology, especially in the field of the peripheral nervous system, has been marked by many examples of "botanical images" used to describe certain histopathologic structures. We propose to better understand the reasons why neuropathologists used these botanical terms from a number of interesting anecdotes.


Assuntos
Botânica , Microscopia/história , Patologia/história , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/anatomia & histologia , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Plantas/anatomia & histologia
15.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 170(11-12): 320-324, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809077

RESUMO

Born as orthodox catholic in 1700 in Leyden, Gerard van Swieten was orphaned as a child in 1712. He studied medicine under Herman Boerhaave in Leyden from 1720, recording the lectures of his mentor and publishing them after his death. Following his graduation in 1715, van Swieten practiced medicine and pharmacy in Leyden, giving private lectures to students in both fields. Van Swieten became known as a brilliant doctor, and it was expected that he might succeed to Boerhaave's position after his death in 1738; however, his catholic faith was an obstacle for the protestant State University. These very beliefs, however, contributed to his instatement as the personal physician of the Austrian Empress Maria Theresia (1717-1780) in October 1744. In the summer of 1745 he was appointed physician to Maria Theresa in Vienna by Franz I. and at the same time appointed prefect of the court library. In addition to taking care of the library, other tasks he received from Maria Theresia included reformation of the medical faculty, improving the quality of Vienna's clinics and promoting healthcare in the empire. Van Swieten is seen as one of the founders of the so-called First Wiener Medical School (Erste Wiener Medizinische Schule) in 1745, and was at the founding of the first modern clinic in 1754. Van Swieten died June 18, 1772.


Assuntos
Medicina , Médicos , Áustria , Criança , Docentes de Medicina , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Médicos/história , Faculdades de Medicina
17.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(4): 787-806, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681877

RESUMO

Since the dawn of humanity, wounds have afflicted humans, and healers have held responsibility for treating them. This article tracks the evolution of wound care from antiquity to the present, highlighting the roles of surgeons, scientists, culture, and society in the ever-changing management of traumatic and iatrogenic injuries.


Assuntos
Cicatrização/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/história , Antibacterianos/história , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/história , Conflitos Armados/história , Antigo Egito , Grécia Antiga , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Medicina Militar/história , Pinturas , Mundo Romano/história , Infecção dos Ferimentos/história , Infecção dos Ferimentos/prevenção & controle
19.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 15-26, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638597

RESUMO

The heritage of Slovenian house names and surnames reflects, among others, the former medicine and pharmaceutical occupations, midwifery, and folk medicine practices, and besides that, also health status and illnesses of people. Surnames, which are especially strongly intertwined with family, local and social history, are closely related to folk medicine and magic. Unlike house names (vulgo), which are the usual nicknames for physical and mental characteristics and abilities, surnames denote medical occupations and medicinal folk practice as such. According to the most recent data (as of January 1, 2020) of The Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, at least 40 surnames reminiscent former medical or pharmaceutical professions. These newly discovered digital data in open access are precious for the history of medicine because they allow comparing surnames geographically, by frequency, and through the time.


Assuntos
História da Medicina , História da Farmácia , Nomes , Médicos/história , Animais , Educação Médica/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/história , Eslovênia
20.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 27-46, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638598

RESUMO

The article is the first step of a research project aimed at investigating new perspectives and aspects of Morgagni's role and work. His activities as a medical examiner and forensic doctor are yet to be truly discovered. Manuscripts, written by Morgagni when he was a forensic expert for the Health Magistrate of Venice, currently preserved at the City Library in Forli (Italy), shed light on a new aspect of his cultural background. As a forensic doctor, he also helped push an increase in "social medicine" in Italy, when physicians began to collaborate with the administrative and political institutions in order to plan environmental and urban regulations to control air quality. While reading his reports, his contribution to the primordial medical Hygiene and Public Health emerges. Among his reports, the authors focused on the one concerning the Beatification of Gregorio Barbarigo, which clearly highlights his pathological approach, as well as his knowledge and application of embalming systems and mummiology. Moreover, this report could be considered as an issue in the history of paleopathology.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Medicina Legal/história , Patologia/história , Santos/história , Anatomia/história , Exumação/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Itália , Múmias/história , Odorantes
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