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1.
J World Fed Orthod ; 9(3S): S3-S14, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023729

RESUMO

The idea of a global orthodontic organization, the World Federation of Orthodontists (WFO), made up of national and regional orthodontic organizations, was realized in 1995 in San Francisco at the 4th International Orthodontic Congress that was held in conjunction with the 95th annual American Association of Orthodontists meeting. This umbrella organization strives to promote quality orthodontic care, practiced and delivered by orthodontic specialists in all parts of the world. In addition, it supports its member organizations with governing principles that promote appropriate membership criteria, qualified individual leadership participation, and long-term stability of the organization over time. In response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic, the WFO has responded proactively and plans to augment its digital resources even further in the near future. This article describes the formation of the organization, the idea that germinated through the first three international orthodontic congresses, its workflow and membership criteria, the accountability and commitment it has toward its affiliates and individual members, and its plans for future years to come.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ortodontia/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sociedades Odontológicas/história , Betacoronavirus , Congressos como Assunto/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional/história , Objetivos Organizacionais , Pandemias
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4918, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004800

RESUMO

In order to control and eradicate epidemic cholera, we need to understand how epidemics begin, how they spread, and how they decline and eventually end. This requires extensive sampling of epidemic disease over time, alongside the background of endemic disease that may exist concurrently with the epidemic. The unique circumstances surrounding the Argentinian cholera epidemic of 1992-1998 presented an opportunity to do this. Here, we use 490 Argentinian V. cholerae genome sequences to characterise the variation within, and between, epidemic and endemic V. cholerae. We show that, during the 1992-1998 cholera epidemic, the invariant epidemic clone co-existed alongside highly diverse members of the Vibrio cholerae species in Argentina, and we contrast the clonality of epidemic V. cholerae with the background diversity of local endemic bacteria. Our findings refine and add nuance to our genomic definitions of epidemic and endemic cholera, and are of direct relevance to controlling current and future cholera epidemics.


Assuntos
Cólera/microbiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Argentina/epidemiologia , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Pandemias/história , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio cholerae/patogenicidade
4.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 08 13.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030318

RESUMO

The Dutch example shows that there are not only differences but also several similarities between COVID-19 and the Spanish flu, although risk of infection and death toll were much higher than they are now, especially at the end of 1918. These similarities include emphasis on the importance of hand washing, prohibition of gatherings (and disregard of these rules), disruption of public life, uncertainty about the nature of the cause, praise of and warnings against ineffective medication as well as debate on use and necessity of certain measures. There is also the social context in which the disease and the measures taken to combat it are happening, with the poor paying the highest price, now as well as then.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/história , Influenza Humana/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , História do Século XX , Humanos , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/mortalidade , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
8.
Cell ; 183(2): 285-289, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064981

RESUMO

Tragic events such as pandemics can be remembered as well as foreshadowed by works of art. Paintings by the artists Edvard Munch and John Singer Sargent (1918-19) tell us in real time what it was like to be stricken by the Spanish flu. Paintings by Edward Hopper (1940s and '50s) foretell the lockdown and social distancing of today's COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919 , Medicina nas Artes , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Pessoas Famosas , História do Século XX , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , I Guerra Mundial
9.
Cell ; 183(2): 308-314, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064987

RESUMO

The 2020 Lasker Awards, a celebration of one of the most prestigious international prizes given to individuals for extraordinary contributions to Basic and Clinical Medical Research, Pubic Health, and Special Achievement, was cancelled because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Typically, essays on the awardees and their scientific and medical contributions are solicited and published in Cell in collaboration with the Lasker Committee. This year, the Lasker Committee commissioned an essay to reflect on the historic contributions that scientists and physicians have made to our understanding of immunology and virology, and future directions in medical and basic research that have been highlighted by COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Alergia e Imunologia/história , Animais , Distinções e Prêmios , Citocinas/imunologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Pandemias , Vacinação/história
10.
Am Surg ; 86(9): 1049-1055, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049164

RESUMO

Dr Dean Warren was born in 1924 and died prematurely from cancer in 1989. He was a man of uncommon intelligence, wit, collegiality, integrity, honesty, and a true leader in American surgery. In 1966, he and his colleagues (Drs Zeppa and Fomon) presented a new concept for surgical shunts to control variceal hemorrhage while maintaining portal perfusion or hepatopetal blood flow. He termed this new shunt the distal splenorenal shunt (DSRS), which was the first selective shunt invented. The DSRS selective shunt was a brilliant improvement over the total shunt concept proposed by Nicolai Eck and was practiced worldwide during the 1980s. In a space of 2 decades, Dr Warren's pioneering work would show that the selective DSRS was superior to total shunts for treatment of portal hypertension, but that endoscopic sclerotherapy was a better first-line treatment for variceal hemorrhage than his own creation. His absolute adherence to the principles he espoused in his presidential address to the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract in 1973 were employed in his research and treatment of patients. This paper details Dr Warren's extraordinary research accomplishments and sets a lesson for us that well-designed clinical trials including randomization are essential in the advancement of the care of surgical patients.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/história , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/história , Derivação Esplenorrenal Cirúrgica/história , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/cirurgia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos
11.
Curr Biol ; 30(19): R1124-R1130, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022254

RESUMO

Since the first recognition that infectious microbes serve as the causes of many human diseases, physicians and scientists have sought to understand and control their spread. For the past 150+ years, these 'microbe hunters' have learned to combine epidemiological information with knowledge of the infectious agent(s). In this essay, I reflect on the evolution of microbe hunting, beginning with the history of pre-germ theory epidemiological studies, through the microbiological and molecular eras. Now in the genomic age, modern-day microbe hunters are combining pathogen whole-genome sequencing with epidemiological data to enhance epidemiological investigations, advance our understanding of the natural history of pathogens and drivers of disease, and ultimately reshape our plans and priorities for global disease control and eradication. Indeed, as we have seen during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, the role of microbe hunters is now more important than ever. Despite the advances already made by microbial genomic epidemiology, the field is still maturing, with many more exciting developments on the horizon.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 316-319, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030446

RESUMO

The paper gives an overview of the spatial conditions, human resources and development course of child and adolescent psychiatry as an independent profession. The beginnings of the development date back to 1959, when the Department of children and youth is opened in Sarajevo at the Neuropsychiatric Clinic, which continues without interruption even today. After that was opened same department in Banja Luka and after a certain period of outpatient work, and stationary departments in Tuzla and Mostar. Over time, as the world's developed and improved understanding of the needs of treatment of mental disorders, and as the trends of professional approaches changed from time to time, the same set of guidelines were followed by the professional work of staff members in the departments. As the material opportunities allowed, in all localities there is a clear tendency to improve spatial conditions. However, personnel capability has improved at a slightly faster pace, so by the war time in Bosnia-Herzegovina (BH) between 1992 and 1995, in BH were mostly trained professional teams. In meanwhile, the need for psychiatric assistance has largely exceeded the human resource capabilities. The situation of war has changed dramatically in the present situation, departments are empty, and there is a paradoxical situation that the patient in the hospitals does not exist, but the reason is bizarre, since because of the war, physically, patients are not able to access to hospitals. This situation also contributes to the departure a large number of staff, which is in the child psychiatry, and so was insufficient. Despite this, during the war in Sarajevo, the Psychiatric Clinic conducts research on psychiatric morbidity and evaluation of population trauma due to war stress in the city of Sarajevo, and included the population of children and adolescents who remained in the city. The project is implemented only in the city area, because Sarajevo was city, three and half years under the total military siege. Further on, the paper elaborates the status of spatial and human resources capacity in the post-war period up to the present day. There is an evident expansion of the psychological assistance service throughout the territory of BH, which has been largely on the initiative and all the necessary assistance of the international community through non-governmental organizations, but with the involvement of the remaining domestic staffs. They were also stated the government projects, in the last two decades, on the professional training of staff working in Mental Health Centers across the country. In the latest age of the last ten years, a number of private psychological counselling centers have been opened that, beside the psychiatrists, are led by certified psychotherapists, psychologists, pedagogues, and teachers. This fact is very important for the future, because this is a good part solving the current lack of professionalism to provide psychological assistance to the population in developmental age. All professionals involved in the human psyche were aware of how important the timely recognition and provided expert assistance, when it comes to developmental age. In the post-war period, certain scientific researches on the psychological trauma severity of the population are being carried out, and the results of some of these researches are mentioned in this paper. The paper concludes with the statement that the current state of development of child psychiatry in the country is satisfactory in relation to the conditions that we had the past decade, but with the suggestion that a long way to furthering this profession and its affirmation at the global level is in the future.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/história , Psiquiatria Infantil/história , Adolescente , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Criança , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Humanos
14.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 783-793, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981617

RESUMO

Intravenous (IV) fluids are among the most common interventions performed in the emergency department. They are at times lifesaving, but if used recklessly can be harmful. Given their ubiquity, it is important to understand the history, physiology, and current strategies that govern the use of IV fluids during the resuscitation of the critically ill.


Assuntos
Hidratação , Ressuscitação/métodos , Coloides/uso terapêutico , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Soluções Cristaloides/química , Soluções Cristaloides/uso terapêutico , Eletrólitos/análise , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hidratação/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Choque/fisiopatologia , Pressão Venosa/fisiologia
15.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907877

RESUMO

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ética Médica/história , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Hospitais/história , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/história , Betacoronavirus , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/história , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Juramento Hipocrático , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/história , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Alocação de Recursos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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