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1.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 81, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100155

RESUMO

Although every emerging infectious disease occurs in a unique context, the behaviour of previous pandemics offers an insight into the medium- and long-term outcomes of the current threat. Where an informative historical analogue exists, epidemiologists and policymakers should consider how the insights of the past can inform current forecasts and responses.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia/história , Pandemias/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/história , Modelos Teóricos
2.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 51(2): 67-74, 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098699

RESUMO

Lee T'ao(1901-1959),studied at Beijing National Medical Institute in 1921.He worked at the Chinese Department of Concord Medical Institute from 1928-1942. He studied medical history and taught the history of western and Chinese medicines. He finished Medical History Profile in 1940.During this period, he and Concord Medical Institute collaborated to collect Chinese medical books, therefore he became one of Chinese Medical Association. After 1946, he worked at Medical School of Beijing University (later change its name into Beijing Medical Institute), and he was professor, lead of Medical Teaching and Research Office. He also joined the Editorial department of the Chinese Journal of Medical History, and edited the list of western and Chinese medical books. He published many papers of the Chinese medical history, which had broad vision and novel viewpoint. For the teaching and research, he focused on fieldwork, and physical cultural and historical relics. He investigated and surveyed some high valuable historical relics of medicine that belonged to many of Chinese dynasties. In 1954, he also worked as a lead at the office of medical history for Chinese Central Research Institute. In 1956, he collaborated with Chen Bangxian, teaching the advanced classes for the teachers. He trained many medical history researchers and teachers.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Medicina , Academias e Institutos , China , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Faculdades de Medicina
3.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 59(6): 37-47, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060958

RESUMO

This is the first nursing journal article to introduce the pioneering work of American psychiatric nurse leader, Adele S. Poston. Poston supervised a team of nurses as they cared for soldiers serving with the American Expeditionary Forces during World War I in France. Poston and her nurses worked in the first American specialized neuropsychiatric hospital in a war. The soldiers they treated primarily had functional nervous disorders described at that time as "shell shock" or "war neuroses." The traumatized officers and enlisted men were considered capable of being cured and returned to active duty based on research done by American psychiatrists among British troops during the first 3 years of the war. The story of Poston's career prior, during, and after the war and her work with other nurses during a global war are significant in psychiatric nursing history. Bringing this hitherto missing piece of psychiatric and nursing history into the light gives us a unique opportunity to recognize Poston and the nurses who served with her, even as today we recognize the nurses who serve during the global COVID-19 pandemic. [Journal of Psychosocial and Mental Health Services, 59(6), 37-47.].


Assuntos
Enfermagem Psiquiátrica/história , I Guerra Mundial , Distúrbios de Guerra/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Militares
4.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 20: e20216486, 05 maio 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1224136

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Analisar o processo de seleção da primeira turma de Oficiais Enfermeiros do Corpo de Bombeiros do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, realizado no período de 1992 a 1993. MÉTODO: Trata-se de uma pesquisa histórica, do tipo documental, cujas fontes históricas diretas foram documentos escritos relativos ao tema. RESULTADOS: Foram oito vagas para oficiais enfermeiros, que se submeteram a um processo seletivo rigoroso, sendo selecionados cinco homens e três mulheres, após aprovação nas quatro etapas do concurso. DISCUSSÃO: Integrar o Corpo de Bombeiros significava submeter-se às regras que o estruturavam, e para lograr êxito era necessária a atualização do habitus dos postulantes à patente de oficiais na Corporação. CONCLUSÃO: Enfermeiros foram selecionados dentro do rigor exigido pela Instituição, cujo domínio do conhecimento na área de enfermagem deveria caminhar pari passu com boas condições de saúde e condicionamento físico, atributos fundamentais no desempenho de um bombeiro militar.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the selective process of the first class of Nursing Officers of the Fire Department of the State of Rio de Janeiro, carried out from 1992 to 1993. METHOD: This is a historical research, a documental one, which used as direct historical sources written documents concerning the theme. OUTCOMES: There were eight vacancies for nursing officers, who were submitted to a rigorous selective process that approved five men and three women after four stages along the contest. DISCUSSION: Making part of the Fire Department meant to accept being submitted to its structural rules, and succeeding required updating the habitus of the candidates according to the ranking of the Corporation's officers. CONCLUSION: Nurses were selected under the rigorous criteria as required by the Institution. Their knowledge abilities in the nursing area should come at equal pace as good health conditions and physical fitness, fundamental performance attributes of a military officer of the Fire Department.


OBJETIVO: Analizar el proceso de selección del primer grupo de Oficiales Enfermeros del Cuerpo de Bomberos del estado de Rio de Janeiro, realizado en el período de 1992 a 1993. MÉTODO: Se trata de una investigación histórica, del tipo documental, cuyas fuentes históricas directas han sido los documentos escritos relativos al tema. RESULTADOS: Fueron ocho vacantes para oficiales enfermeros, que se sometieron a un riguroso proceso de selección. Tras aprobar en las cuatro etapas del concurso, se seleccionaron a cinco hombres y a tres mujeres. DISCUSIÓN: Formar parte del Cuerpo de Bomberos significaba someterse a las reglas que lo estructuraban, y para lograr éxito se hacía necesaria una actualización del habitus de los postulantes al rango de oficiales en la Corporación. CONCLUSIÓN: Los enfermeros se seleccionaron dentro del rigor exigido por la Institución, y su dominio del conocimiento en el área de enfermería debería caminar pari passu con las buenas condiciones de salud y acondicionamiento físico, atributos fundamentales en el desempeño de un bombero militar.


Assuntos
História do Século XX , Seleção de Pessoal , Governo Estadual , Brasil , Bombeiros/história , Enfermagem Militar/história
5.
Am J Public Health ; 111(6): 1086-1094, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950739

RESUMO

Separated by a century, the influenza pandemic of 1918 and the COVID-19 pandemic of 2019-2021 are among the most disastrous infectious disease emergences of modern times. Although caused by unrelated viruses, the two pandemics are nevertheless similar in their clinical, pathological, and epidemiological features, and in the civic, public health, and medical responses to combat them. Comparing and contrasting the two pandemics, we consider what lessons we have learned over the span of a century and how we are applying those lessons to the challenges of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias/história , /isolamento & purificação , /história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/história , Influenza Humana/patologia , Saúde Pública
9.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 37: 100409, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980404

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic poses a serious threat. While its short-term effects are evident, its long-term consequences are a matter of analysis. In this work, the existence of long-lasting negative effects derived from exposure in utero to a great pandemic -1918 influenza pandemic- is analysed for the Argentine case. Outcomes of interest include educational achievement and unemployment status in adulthood -50 years after the pandemic. Based on a regression analysis, temporal differences in the spread of the pandemic and between close birth cohorts are exploited. The results indicate a significant reduction in educational achievement for people exposed in utero to the pandemic. In the region with the highest incidence of cases (Noroeste), this reduction is 0.5 years of education. There are no significant changes in the chances of being unemployed. In the context of climate change, these results constitute a call of attention for the implementation of child protection policies from gestation.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/história , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/história , Argentina/epidemiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/economia , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/mortalidade , Pandemias/história
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 560592, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34026696

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic is the greatest communicable disease outbreak to have hit Malaysia since the 1918 Spanish Flu which killed 34,644 people or 1% of the population of the then British Malaya. In 1999, the Nipah virus outbreak killed 105 Malaysians, while the SARS outbreak of 2003 claimed only 2 lives. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has so far claimed over 100 Malaysian lives. There were two waves of the COVID-19 cases in Malaysia. First wave of 22 cases occurred from January 25 to February 15 with no death and full recovery of all cases. The ongoing second wave, which commenced on February 27, presented cases in several clusters, the biggest of which was the Sri Petaling Tabligh cluster with an infection rate of 6.5%, and making up 47% of all cases in Malaysia. Subsequently, other clusters appeared from local mass gatherings and imported cases of Malaysians returning from overseas. Healthcare workers carry high risks of infection due to the daily exposure and management of COVID-19 in the hospitals. However, 70% of them were infected through community transmission and not while handling patients. In vulnerable groups, the incidence of COVID-19 cases was highest among the age group 55 to 64 years. In terms of fatalities, 63% were reported to be aged above 60 years, and 81% had chronic comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart diseases. The predominant COVID-19 strain in Malaysia is strain B, which is found exclusively in East Asia. However, strain A, which is mostly found in the USA and Australia, and strain C in Europe were also present. To contain the epidemic, Malaysia implemented a Movement Control Order (MCO) beginning on March 18 in 4 phases over 2 months, ending on May 12. In terms of economic impacts, Malaysia lost RM2.4 billion a day during the MCO period, with an accumulated loss of RM63 billion up to the end of April. Since May 4, Malaysia has relaxed the MCO and opened up its economic sector to relieve its economic burden. Currently, the best approach to achieving herd immunity to COVID-19 is through vaccination rather than by acquiring it naturally. There are at least two candidate vaccines which have reached the final stage of human clinical trials. Malaysia's COVID-19 case fatality rate is lower than what it is globally; this is due to the successful implementation of early preparedness and planning, the public health and hospital system, comprehensive contact tracing, active case detection, and a strict enhanced MCO.


Assuntos
Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919 , Idoso , Austrália , Europa (Continente) , Extremo Oriente , História do Século XX , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
12.
Mol Pharm ; 18(6): 2105-2121, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945284

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic of global concern has killed about three million humans and affected around 151 million people worldwide, as of April 30, 2021. Although recently approved vaccines for COVID-19 are engendering hope, finding new ways to cure the viral pandemic is still a quest for researchers worldwide. Major pandemics in history have been of viral origin, such as SARS, MERS, H1NI, Spanish flu, and so on. A larger emphasis has been on discovering potential vaccines, novel antiviral drugs, and agents that can mitigate the viral infection symptoms; however, a relatively new area, RNA interference (RNAi), has proven effective as an antiviral agent. The RNAi phenomenon has been largely exploited to cure cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and some rare diseases. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has recently approved three siRNA products for human use that garner significant hope in siRNA therapeutics for coronaviruses. There have been some commentaries and communications addressing this area. We have summarized and illustrated the significance and the potential of the siRNA therapeutics available as of April 30, 2021 to combat the ongoing viral pandemic and the emerging new variants such as B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. Numerous successful in vitro studies and several investigations to address the clinical application of siRNA therapeutics provide great hope in this field. This seminal Review describes the significance of siRNA-based therapy to treat diverse viral infections in addition to the current coronavirus challenge. In addition, we have thoroughly reviewed the patents approved for coronaviruses, the major challenges in siRNA therapy, and the potential approaches to address them, followed by innovation and prospects.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Antivirais/história , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/história , COVID-19/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Aprovação de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Mutação , Patentes como Assunto , RNA Interferente Pequeno/história , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
13.
Mol Cell ; 81(9): 1857-1858, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961772

RESUMO

We talk to Ewelina Malecka and Sarah Woodson about their paper, "Stepwise sRNA targeting of structured bacterial mRNAs leads to abortive annealing," who inspired them along their scientific paths, the research in Sarah's lab and the environment she looks to create, as well as Ewelina's advice for aspiring scientists.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Genética/história , RNA Bacteriano/história , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/história , Escolha da Profissão , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Fator Proteico 1 do Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Humanos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(5): 1379-1380, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958073

RESUMO

Stamp Vignettes focus on biographical details and accomplishments related to science and medicine, and not individual views and prejudices except when they had a major impact on the subject's life. The authors of Stamp Vignettes do not intend to imply any endorsement of such views when discussing a Stamp Vignette on Medical Science.


Assuntos
Acetábulo/lesões , Fixação de Fratura/história , Fraturas Ósseas/história , Filatelia , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , França , História do Século XX , Humanos , Ortopedia/história
17.
Perspect Biol Med ; 64(2): 246-250, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994395

RESUMO

Sources from literature and art continue to offer perspectives on episodes of collective sense of loss and despair from unavoidable tragedies. The Doctor Stamp, based on the famous painting by British artist Sir Luke Fildes (1844-1927), was issued in 1947 by the US Postal Service to commemorate the first centennial of the founding of the American Medical Association. At the time of issue, the US was in the middle of the mid-century polio epidemic. The author obtained two First Day Covers of The Doctor Stamp, one of which was addressed to Dr. George Minot, who shared the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for developing the treatment for pernicious anemia. The conjunction of these events-an anniversary, an incurable virus epidemic, and a doctor who found a treatment for a devastating condition of unknown etiology-offer those suffering from a sense of loss and despair due to COVID-19 some hopeful anticipation of better days to come.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Filatelia/história , Médicos , História do Século XX , Humanos
19.
Acad Med ; 96(6): 808-812, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031302

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a worldwide pandemic, with frontlines that look drastically different than in past conflicts: that is, women now make up a sizeable majority of the health care workforce. American women have a long history of helping in times of hardship, filling positions on the home front vacated by men who enlisted as soldiers during World War I and similarly serving in crucial roles on U.S. military bases, on farms, and in factories during World War II. The COVID-19 pandemic has represented a novel battleground, as the first in which women have taken center stage, not only in their roles as physicians, respiratory therapists, nurses, and the like, but also by serving in leadership positions and facilitating innovations in science, technology, and policy. Yet, the pandemic has exacerbated multiple pain points that have disproportionally impacted women in health care, including shortages in correctly sized personal protective equipment and uniforms, inadequate support for pregnant and breastfeeding providers, and challenges associated with work-life balance and obtaining childcare. While the pandemic has facilitated several positive advancements in addressing these challenges, there is still much work to be done for women to achieve equity and optimal support in their roles on the frontlines.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/história , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , /diagnóstico , /virologia , Empoderamento , Feminino , 57444 , Pessoal de Saúde/tendências , História do Século XX , Humanos , Liderança , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribuição , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , I Guerra Mundial , II Guerra Mundial
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