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1.
J World Fed Orthod ; 9(3S): S3-S14, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023729

RESUMO

The idea of a global orthodontic organization, the World Federation of Orthodontists (WFO), made up of national and regional orthodontic organizations, was realized in 1995 in San Francisco at the 4th International Orthodontic Congress that was held in conjunction with the 95th annual American Association of Orthodontists meeting. This umbrella organization strives to promote quality orthodontic care, practiced and delivered by orthodontic specialists in all parts of the world. In addition, it supports its member organizations with governing principles that promote appropriate membership criteria, qualified individual leadership participation, and long-term stability of the organization over time. In response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic, the WFO has responded proactively and plans to augment its digital resources even further in the near future. This article describes the formation of the organization, the idea that germinated through the first three international orthodontic congresses, its workflow and membership criteria, the accountability and commitment it has toward its affiliates and individual members, and its plans for future years to come.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ortodontia/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sociedades Odontológicas/história , Betacoronavirus , Congressos como Assunto/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional/história , Objetivos Organizacionais , Pandemias
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 316-319, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030446

RESUMO

The paper gives an overview of the spatial conditions, human resources and development course of child and adolescent psychiatry as an independent profession. The beginnings of the development date back to 1959, when the Department of children and youth is opened in Sarajevo at the Neuropsychiatric Clinic, which continues without interruption even today. After that was opened same department in Banja Luka and after a certain period of outpatient work, and stationary departments in Tuzla and Mostar. Over time, as the world's developed and improved understanding of the needs of treatment of mental disorders, and as the trends of professional approaches changed from time to time, the same set of guidelines were followed by the professional work of staff members in the departments. As the material opportunities allowed, in all localities there is a clear tendency to improve spatial conditions. However, personnel capability has improved at a slightly faster pace, so by the war time in Bosnia-Herzegovina (BH) between 1992 and 1995, in BH were mostly trained professional teams. In meanwhile, the need for psychiatric assistance has largely exceeded the human resource capabilities. The situation of war has changed dramatically in the present situation, departments are empty, and there is a paradoxical situation that the patient in the hospitals does not exist, but the reason is bizarre, since because of the war, physically, patients are not able to access to hospitals. This situation also contributes to the departure a large number of staff, which is in the child psychiatry, and so was insufficient. Despite this, during the war in Sarajevo, the Psychiatric Clinic conducts research on psychiatric morbidity and evaluation of population trauma due to war stress in the city of Sarajevo, and included the population of children and adolescents who remained in the city. The project is implemented only in the city area, because Sarajevo was city, three and half years under the total military siege. Further on, the paper elaborates the status of spatial and human resources capacity in the post-war period up to the present day. There is an evident expansion of the psychological assistance service throughout the territory of BH, which has been largely on the initiative and all the necessary assistance of the international community through non-governmental organizations, but with the involvement of the remaining domestic staffs. They were also stated the government projects, in the last two decades, on the professional training of staff working in Mental Health Centers across the country. In the latest age of the last ten years, a number of private psychological counselling centers have been opened that, beside the psychiatrists, are led by certified psychotherapists, psychologists, pedagogues, and teachers. This fact is very important for the future, because this is a good part solving the current lack of professionalism to provide psychological assistance to the population in developmental age. All professionals involved in the human psyche were aware of how important the timely recognition and provided expert assistance, when it comes to developmental age. In the post-war period, certain scientific researches on the psychological trauma severity of the population are being carried out, and the results of some of these researches are mentioned in this paper. The paper concludes with the statement that the current state of development of child psychiatry in the country is satisfactory in relation to the conditions that we had the past decade, but with the suggestion that a long way to furthering this profession and its affirmation at the global level is in the future.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/história , Psiquiatria Infantil/história , Adolescente , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Criança , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Humanos
7.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 481-488, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879094

RESUMO

Based on archival materials, the Xiangya's anti-epidemic history in a century from its establishment to 2020 is divided into 4 stages. The first stage (1906-1926), Edward Hicks Hume and YAN Fuqing, the founders of Xiangya, prevented and controlled smallpox and plague. The second stage (1929-1953), during the resumption of Xiangya, students prevented and controlled cholera, plague, dysentery, typhus, and other infectious diseases. In the third stage (1953-1999), in a peacetime, Xiangya actively fought against schistosomiasis, hydatidosis, malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis and other epidemics. The fourth stage (2000-2020), the era of Central South University. Medical staff in Xiangya fight SARS, influenza A (H1N1) flu, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, coronavirus disease 2019, etc. Over the past hundred years, Xiangya people joined together to spread benevolence and love, apply medical knowledge and skills, combat the epidemic and rescue people in difficulties, which made a great contribution to the motherland and the people.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Epidemias/história , Betacoronavirus , China , Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Infecções por Coronavirus , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
12.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8): 777-782, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880306

RESUMO

History provides wonderful insights into how society develops, providing innumerable lessons that can be used as individuals and institutions move into the future. The history of medicine provides particular value, yet it is so often overlooked by the present, society taking for granted what has often been a tremendous struggle to achieve. This overview of the history of paediatric surgery at the University of the Witwatersrand provides amazing insights into what has been achieved in a period spanning three centuries.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/história , Hospitais Universitários/história , Pediatria/história , Docentes de Medicina/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , África do Sul
14.
Tex Med ; 116(8): 12-13, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866274

RESUMO

Stephanie Stephens received a not-so-welcome gift entering her new job running Medicaid operations for the nation's second-largest state: A global pandemic. In that sense, the universe wasn't easy on Ms. Stephens, the new director of Medicaid and CHIP for the Texas Health and Human Services Commission (HHSC).


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Administração de Serviços de Saúde , Liderança , Medicaid/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Texas , Estados Unidos
16.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907877

RESUMO

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ética Médica/história , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Hospitais/história , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/história , Betacoronavirus , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/história , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Juramento Hipocrático , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/história , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Alocação de Recursos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 68(5): 302-305, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948360

RESUMO

Following the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic and the alerts issued by the World Health Organization, for several months attention has been focused on Africa as a potentially severely endangered continent. A sizable number of African countries, mainly low and middle income, suffer from limited available resources, especially in critical care, and COVID-19 is liable to overwhelm their already fragile health systems. To effectively manage what is shaping up as a multidimensional crisis, the challenge unquestionably goes beyond the necessary upgrading of public health infrastructures. It is also a matter of anticipating and taking timely action with regard to factors that may mitigate the propagation of SARS-CoV2 and thereby cushion the shock of the pandemic on the African continent. While some of these factors are largely unmanageable (climate, geography…), several others (socio-cultural, religious, audio-visual, and potentially political…) could be more or less effectively dealt with by African governments and populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/economia , Controle de Infecções/história , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Áreas de Pobreza , Papel Profissional , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/história , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais , Responsabilidade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 328, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) will progress rapidly to acute respiratory failure or death. We aimed to develop a quantitative tool for early predicting mortality risk of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: 301 patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to Main District and Tumor Center of the Union Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Wuhan, China) between January 1, 2020 to February 15, 2020 were enrolled in this retrospective two-centers study. Data on patient demographic characteristics, laboratory findings and clinical outcomes was analyzed. A nomogram was constructed to predict the death probability of COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Age, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, D-dimer and C-reactive protein obtained on admission were identified as predictors of mortality for COVID-19 patients by LASSO. The nomogram demonstrated good calibration and discrimination with the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.921 and 0.975 for the derivation and validation cohort, respectively. An integrated score (named ANDC) with its corresponding death probability was derived. Using ANDC cut-off values of 59 and 101, COVID-19 patients were classified into three subgroups. The death probability of low risk group (ANDC < 59) was less than 5%, moderate risk group (59 ≤ ANDC ≤ 101) was 5% to 50%, and high risk group (ANDC > 101) was more than 50%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prognostic nomogram exhibited good discrimination power in early identification of COVID-19 patients with high mortality risk, and ANDC score may help physicians to optimize patient stratification management.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Escore de Alerta Precoce , Nomogramas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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