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2.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204163

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) gave rise to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A strong correlation has been demonstrated between worse COVID-19 outcomes, aging, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is primarily derived from obesity-induced systemic chronic low-grade inflammation with numerous complications, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The majority of COVID-19 deaths occurs in people over the age of 65. Individuals with MetS are inclined to manifest adverse disease consequences and mortality from COVID-19. In this review, we examine the prevalence and molecular mechanisms underlying enhanced risk of COVID-19 in elderly people and individuals with MetS. Subsequently, we discuss current progresses in treating COVID-19, including the development of new COVID-19 vaccines and antivirals, towards goals to elaborate prophylactic and therapeutic treatment options in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/terapia , Quimioprevenção/tendências , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/imunologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Quimioprevenção/métodos , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Populações Vulneráveis
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203956

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a family of particles/vesicles present in blood and body fluids, composed of phospholipid bilayers that carry a variety of molecules that can mediate cell communication, modulating crucial cell processes such as homeostasis, induction/dampening of inflammation, and promotion of repair. Their existence, initially suspected in 1946 and confirmed in 1967, spurred a sharp increase in the number of scientific publications. Paradoxically, the increasing interest for EV content and function progressively reduced the relevance for a precise nomenclature in classifying EVs, therefore leading to a confusing scientific production. The aim of this review was to analyze the evolution of the progress in the knowledge and definition of EVs over the years, with an overview of the methodologies used for the identification of the vesicles, their cell of origin, and the detection of their cargo. The MISEV 2018 guidelines for the proper recognition nomenclature and ways to study EVs are summarized. The review finishes with a "more questions than answers" chapter, in which some of the problems we still face to fully understand the EV function and potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool are analyzed.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Terminologia como Assunto
4.
J Anal Psychol ; 66(3): 583-604, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231888

RESUMO

In the struggle with COVID-19, art offered a way to face the solitude of the lockdown. The focus of this paper is primarily on Caravaggio's painting The Seven Works of Mercy, with references to other paintings to amplify some aspects of the artist's approach to life and his uniqueness in the artistic landscape of his time. Darkness was part of Caravaggio's research for spiritual truth and by entering the stories of his life and exploring the tales told through imaginative expression in his paintings, it is possible to understand his process of exploration of ancestral darkness. The author uses her imagination to reflect on how art can help to contact the profound fears buried in the unconscious which are now being awakened by the pandemic. The contemplation of this painting facilitated the emergence of emotions related to the darkness of our time, with the discovery that empathy and mercy offer a way to come to terms with the pandemic. This approach demands a different understanding of reality with Caravaggio's dark creative world becoming a companion that permits the exploration of what is not yet thinkable in daily life. Images accompany the author's research that relies on her imagination and amplifications.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pinturas/história , Religião e Psicologia , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Peste/história
5.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259430

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) gave rise to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A strong correlation has been demonstrated between worse COVID-19 outcomes, aging, and metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is primarily derived from obesity-induced systemic chronic low-grade inflammation with numerous complications, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The majority of COVID-19 deaths occurs in people over the age of 65. Individuals with MetS are inclined to manifest adverse disease consequences and mortality from COVID-19. In this review, we examine the prevalence and molecular mechanisms underlying enhanced risk of COVID-19 in elderly people and individuals with MetS. Subsequently, we discuss current progresses in treating COVID-19, including the development of new COVID-19 vaccines and antivirals, towards goals to elaborate prophylactic and therapeutic treatment options in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/terapia , Quimioprevenção/tendências , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/imunologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Quimioprevenção/métodos , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Populações Vulneráveis
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e156, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210370

RESUMO

We estimate the delay-adjusted all-cause excess deaths across 53 US jurisdictions. Using provisional data collected from September through December 2020, we first identify a common mean reporting delay of 2.8 weeks, whereas four jurisdictions have prolonged reporting delays compared to the others: Connecticut (mean 5.8 weeks), North Carolina (mean 10.4 weeks), Puerto Rico (mean 4.7 weeks) and West Virginia (mean 5.5 weeks). After adjusting for reporting delays, we estimate the percent change in all-cause excess mortality from March to December 2020 with range from 0.2 to 3.6 in Hawaii to 58.4 to 62.4 in New York City. Comparing the March-December with September-December 2020 periods, the highest increases in excess mortality are observed in South Dakota (36.9-54.0), North Dakota (33.9-50.7) and Missouri (27.8-33.9). Our findings indicate that analysis of provisional data requires caution in interpreting the death counts in recent weeks, while one needs also to account for heterogeneity in reporting delays of excess deaths among US jurisdictions.


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , COVID-19/mortalidade , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Mortalidade/história , Vigilância da População , Estados Unidos
7.
J Surg Oncol ; 124(2): 162-173, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245579

RESUMO

The first era of the global proliferation of surgical advancements involved surgical infection rate and technique breakthroughs by Lister, Halsted, and others. This was propagated by letters, academic papers, and international visits. While success was achieved, it was at a suboptimal pace. In the current era of minimally invasive surgical approaches, these methods are inadequate. This paper chronicles the development and application of virtual learning and telementoring as force multipliers to speed procedural adoption and proliferation.


Assuntos
Educação à Distância/história , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/história , Tutoria/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/educação , Treinamento por Simulação/história , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/educação , Telemedicina/história , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação à Distância/tendências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/tendências , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Tutoria/métodos , Tutoria/tendências , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/tendências , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/tendências , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/história , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/métodos , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/tendências , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/tendências , Estados Unidos
8.
Clin Ter ; 172(4): 264-267, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247207

RESUMO

Abstract: In the modern era, when prolonging life is not an option, the end-of-life discussions are unavoidably influenced by Neuroethics. Despite this, it is interestingly evident how the sentiments of a terminal patient of 1885 and a physician of 2020, are still comparable. This paper pre-sents the arguments behind the so-called "Therapeutic Misconception" and the aim of palliative care to provide dying patients support. It is essential to address priorities of informed consent, signed before any remedy is provided. A key component of the newest Neuroscience research is the analysis of motivation and free will. So, it is necessary to comprehend if the patient struggles to feel at peace with these aspects of his "right to die": Is he free to choose or is he influenced by the doctors? Is this confusion an example of "Therapeutic Misconception"? Is his Informed Consent totally "Informed"? In order to broaden our understanding, we account for many critical situations, such as the mentally impaired Psychiatric patients or the famous Italian case of Eluana Englaro. In addition, we suggested some current approaches such as Artificial Intelligence, useful in preserving some cognitive functions the patient may have lost. Furthermore, research in this field is very critical and in some Catholic countries like Italy, people faced difficulties accepting the idea of the "Anticipated directives". In general, whatever the mental status and whatever the terminal state, the patients seem still far from handling their own auto-determination and their Consent, even if the ultimate goal is to die with dignity.


Assuntos
Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos do Paciente/ética , Direitos do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Direito a Morrer/ética , Direito a Morrer/legislação & jurisprudência , Assistência Terminal/ética , Assistência Terminal/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , História do Século XIX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/história , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/psicologia , Itália , Masculino , Direitos do Paciente/história , Autonomia Pessoal , Médicos/ética , Médicos/psicologia , Direito a Morrer/história , Federação Russa , Assistência Terminal/história , Assistência Terminal/psicologia
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 677701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122351

RESUMO

Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), a receptor for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to enter host cells, is widely expressed in testes and prostate tissues. The testis and prostate produce semen. At present, there are contradictory reports about whether SARS-CoV-2 can exist in the semen of infected men. Objective: To provide a comprehensive overview of the topic of whether COVID-19 can impact on male reproductive system. Methods: We reviewed the relevant publications on the possible impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on male reproductive system and summarized the latest and most important research results so far. Literature published in English from December 2019 to January 31, 2021 regarding the existence of SARS-CoV-2 in semen, testis, and prostatic fluid and the effects of COVID-19 on male reproductive were included. Results: We identified 28 related studies, only one of which reported the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in semen. The study found that the semen quality of patients with moderate infection was lower than that of patients with mild infection and healthy controls. The impaired semen quality may be related to fever and inflammation. Pathological analysis of the testis/epididymis showed that SARS-CoV-2 viral particles were positive in 10 testicular samples, and the spermatogenic function of the testis was impaired. All 94 expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Conclusion: The likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 in the semen of COVID-19 patients is very small, and semen should rarely be regarded as a carrier of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material. However, COVID-19 may cause testicular spermatogenic dysfunction via immune or inflammatory reactions. Long-term follow-up is needed for COVID-19 male patients and fetuses conceived during the father's infection period.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Genitália Masculina/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Genitália Masculina/fisiologia , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/virologia , Masculino , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/fisiologia , Próstata/virologia , Sêmen/virologia , Análise do Sêmen , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/patologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/virologia , Testículo/patologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Testículo/virologia
10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(2): C1-C7, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132200

RESUMO

Changes that COVID-19 induced in endocrine daily practice as well as the role of endocrine and metabolic comorbidities in COVID-19 outcomes were among the striking features of this last year. The aim of this statement is to illustrate the major characteristics of the response of European endocrinologists to the pandemic including the disclosure of the endocrine phenotype of COVID-19 with diabetes, obesity and hypovitaminosis D playing a key role in this clinical setting with its huge implication for the prevention and management of the disease. The role of the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) as a reference point of the endocrine community during the pandemic will also be highlighted, including the refocusing of its educational and advocacy activities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Endocrinologistas/organização & administração , Endocrinologia/organização & administração , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Redes Comunitárias/tendências , Atenção à Saúde/história , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde/tendências , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/terapia , Endocrinologistas/história , Endocrinologistas/tendências , Endocrinologia/história , Endocrinologia/tendências , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Papel do Médico , Padrões de Prática Médica/história , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Sociedades Médicas/história , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Telemedicina/história , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Telemedicina/tendências
13.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 615-618, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082568

RESUMO

This interview was conducted by Atiya Henry, Commissioning Editor of Future Microbiology. Joseph M Blondeau, MSc, PhD, RSM(CCM), SM(AAM), SM(ASCP), FCCP is a Clinical Microbiologist and Head of Clinical Microbiology at Royal University Hospital (Saskatoon Health Region) and the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada. He is also the Provincial Clinical Lead for Microbiology in Saskatchewan, Canada. He holds a Masters of Sciences in Microbiology from Dalhousie University (1985) and a Doctor of Philosophy in Medical Microbiology from the University of Manitoba (1989). Following completion of his PhD, he completed an 1-month post-doctoral training in an infectious diseases research laboratory at Dalhousie University and following which he completed a 2-year post-doctoral residency training program in Clinical Microbiology, also at Dalhousie University. He holds appointments as a Clinical Associate Professor of Pathology, Adjunct Professor of Microbiology and Immunology and Clinical Associate Professor of Ophthalmology. He teaches to undergraduate and graduate students in the areas of microbiology, infectious diseases, antimicrobial agents and pharmacology. Dr Blondeau's main research interests are in the area of antimicrobial agents and antimicrobial resistance, clinical microbiology and clinical outcomes associated with antimicrobial therapy in both human and veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina Clínica , Microbiologia , Medicina Clínica/história , Medicina Clínica/tendências , Previsões , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Laboratórios , Microbiologia/história , Microbiologia/tendências
15.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 17(1): 36-42, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104318

RESUMO

The treatment of drug-refractory chronic ventricular tachycardia (VT) has undergone a revolution over the last 50 years. We now have automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy with pace-terminating capabilities, and catheter ablation of VT has refined mapping and improved methods of lesion generation. Between 1980 and 1993, Houston Methodist Hospital became a leader in the diagnosis and surgical ablation of VT and other arrhythmias. This is a brief account of that period and some of the experiences and lessons that have led to significant advances used today.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Frequência Cardíaca , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Potenciais de Ação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/história , Difusão de Inovações , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Recidiva , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/história , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009620, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282317

RESUMO

Questions persist as to the origin of the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence is building that its origin as a zoonotic spillover occurred prior to the officially accepted timing of early December, 2019. Here we provide novel methods to date the origin of COVID-19 cases. We show that six countries had exceptionally early cases, unlikely to represent part of their main case series. The model suggests a likely timing of the first case of COVID-19 in China as November 17 (95% CI October 4). Origination dates are discussed for the first five countries outside China and each continent. Results infer that SARS-CoV-2 emerged in China in early October to mid-November, and by January, had spread globally. This suggests an earlier and more rapid timeline of spread. Our study provides new approaches for estimating dates of the arrival of infectious diseases based on small samples that can be applied to many epidemiological situations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias/história , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/história , COVID-19/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/história , Zoonoses/transmissão
18.
Development ; 148(12)2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282286

RESUMO

The third 'Symposium for the Next Generation of Stem Cell Research' (SY-Stem) was held virtually on 3-5 March 2021, having been cancelled in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As in previous years, the meeting highlighted the work of early career researchers, ranging from postgraduate students to young group leaders working in developmental and stem cell biology. Here, we summarize the excellent work presented at the Symposium, which covered topics ranging from pluripotency, species-specific aspects of development and emerging technologies, through to organoids, single-cell technology and clinical applications.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto/organização & administração , Invenções/tendências , Pesquisa com Células-Tronco , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Congressos como Assunto/história , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Internet , Invenções/história , Sistemas On-Line , Pandemias , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/tendências , Pesquisa com Células-Tronco/história , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/tendências
19.
J Nucl Med Technol ; 49(2): 126-131, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278346

RESUMO

Infection prevention and control practices represent a vital behavioral skill set, especially in the era of COVID-19. Standard precautions, correct use of personal protective equipment, proper hand hygiene, and appropriate cleaning and disinfecting are necessary to prevent health-care-acquired infections in care facilities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Teste para COVID-19 , Atenção à Saúde , Luvas Protetoras , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Higiene , Máscaras , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
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