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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(3): 038003, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031851

RESUMO

Lotus leaves floating on water usually experience short-wavelength edge wrinkling that decays toward the center, while the leaves growing above water normally morph into a global bending cone shape with long rippled waves near the edge. Observations suggest that the underlying water (liquid substrate) significantly affects the morphogenesis of leaves. To understand the biophysical mechanism under such phenomena, we develop mathematical models that can effectively account for inhomogeneous differential growth of floating and freestanding leaves to quantitatively predict formation and evolution of their morphology. We find, both theoretically and experimentally, that the short-wavelength buckled configuration is energetically favorable for growing membranes lying on liquid, while the global buckling shape is more preferable for suspended ones. Other influencing factors such as the stem or vein, heterogeneity, and dimension are also investigated. Our results provide a fundamental insight into a variety of plant morphogenesis affected by water foundation and suggest that such surface instabilities can be harnessed for morphology control of biomimetic deployable structures using substrate or edge actuation.


Assuntos
Lotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Água/química , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Lotus/anatomia & histologia , Morfogênese , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(2): 178-185, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anchorage, which is defined as resistance against undesired tooth movements, is one of the most important factors in success of orthodontic treatment. In recent years, mini-implants have been used instead of uncomfortable headgears and Nance appliances. The pullout test is the most common method for measuring the anchorage capacity of mini-implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cortical bone thickness and cortical layer bone density on pullout strength of mini-implants. METHODS: Mini-implants were placed in polyurethane foam blocks representing 3 different cortical thicknesses (1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm) and 3 different cortical bone densities (grade 40, grade 45, and grade 50). Pullout tests were performed with 5 mm/min loading rate. Load vs displacement values were recorded during the tests. RESULTS: Comparing cortical thicknesses on the same bone densities, statistically significant differences were found between 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm thicknesses. Likewise, comparing bone densities on the same cortical thicknesses, statistically significant differences were found among all groups. Spearman rank tests showed that both cortical thickness and cortical bone density are correlated with pullout strength (rs, 0.548; P <0.001 and rs, 0.691; P <0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although both factors are positively correlated with pullout strength, the effect of cortical bone density was the dominant factor affecting primary stability.


Assuntos
Osso Cortical , Implantes Dentários , Procedimentos de Ancoragem Ortodôntica , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos , Osso Cortical/anatomia & histologia , Humanos
3.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(2): 218-227, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005474

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the vestibular anatomy of teeth in samples of adult Italian and Mozambican subjects in ideal occlusion and permanent dentition and identify any anatomic characteristics that may influence bonding in the straight-wire technique. METHODS: Linear measurements and coordinates of each curve representing the clinical crown height and width of each tooth were acquired from digital models of each subject categorized to 1 of 2 groups: Italian (18 males, 22 females; mean age, 29.6 ± 5.7 years) or Mozambican (14 males, 15 females; mean age, 23.4 ± 5.9 years). All subjects had normal dentition and no previous orthodontic treatment, fillings, or prostheses. Method error and systematic error were calculated according to the Dahlberg formula (S2 = ∑ d2/2n) and dependent Student t test (P <0.05), respectively. Tooth symmetry was investigated through a paired-samples t test (P <0.05) and sex difference via an independent-samples t test (P <0.05). After neither asymmetry nor sexual dimorphism was found, all data were pooled, inverting the signs of the X coordinates and then mirroring data. Subsequently, a 2-samples t test (P <0.05) and a multivariate cluster analysis were performed on the mirrored data to compare the 2 groups and to identify any within-group diversity for number of clusters for each tooth. Means of all linear measurements and coordinates (crown height and width) calculated for each cluster were reported and compared using a standard 2-samples t test (P <0.05). RESULTS: Two clusters were identified for the maxillary second premolars and molars in Italian subjects, whereas in the Mozambican subjects, there were 2 clusters for the maxillary first premolars and lateral incisors and 3 clusters for the maxillary canines and central incisors. The mandibular arch was remarkably homogeneous, with only 1 cluster per tooth in each group. In the mandibular arch, statistical differences were recorded between ethnic groups in crown height at the central incisors and second molars and in crown width in the sector from the second premolar to the second molar. CONCLUSIONS: There were considerable differences both between and within racial groups in crown height, crown width, and numbers of clusters, which should be taken into account during bonding. Although single-bracket placement guides specific for ethnicity may be feasible for the mandibular arch, the significant diversity in number of clusters in the maxillary arch indicates that more accurate bracket placement guides that take into account such heterogeneity are required.


Assuntos
Odontometria , Dente , Adolescente , Adulto , Dente Pré-Molar , Dente Canino , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Coroa do Dente , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(3): 182-186, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008283

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze morphological changes in central sulcus of the cerebral cortex in children with complete growth hormone deficiency (CGHD). Methods: Patients attending the Shandong Provincial Hospital who were diagnosed with CGHD or idiopathic short stature were recruited from January 2015 to January 2019. Thirty children with CGHD (18 males and 12 females, 5 to 14 years old) and 30 children with idiopathic short stature (22 males and 8 females, 5 to 14 years old) were included. Measurements of the central sulcus, including the average width, maximum depth, average depth, top length, bottom length and depth position-based profiles (DPP), were obtained using Brain VISA software. The significant differences between groups were statistically analyzed. Results: The average width of bilateral central sulci in children with CGHD (left: (2.26±0.41) mm; right: (2.19±0.34) mm) were significantly higher than those in children with idiopathic short stature (left: (2.10±0.27) mm; right: (2.02±0.18) mm) (P<0.05) ; The maximum depth of the left central sulcus ((19.67±1.29) mm) and the average depth of the right central sulcus ((14.18±1.41) mm) were significantly lower than those in children with idiopathic short stature (left maximum depth: (20.69±1.43) mm; right average depth: (14.92±1.21) mm) (P<0.05) . Children with CGHD had significantly lower DPP at the middle part of the left central sulcus (sites: 46-54) and the inferior part of the right central sulcus(sites: 91-98). Conclusion: There are significant morphological changes of the central sulcus in children with CGHD, which may represent the structural basis of their relatively slower development in motor, cognitive and linguistic functional performance.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/deficiência , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18305, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasonic measurements of tongue thickness and condylar translation were recently introduced to predict difficult laryngoscopy in non-obstetric patients. We designed the present study to evaluate the performance of these two ultrasonic indicators in predicting difficult laryngoscopy in healthy parturients. METHODS: The 119 parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery were enrolled. Tongue thickness and condylar translation measured by ultrasonography, and Modified Mallampati test (MMT) score, inter-incisor distance (IID) and modified Cormack-Lehane grading system (MCLS) were measured and recorded before anesthesia. The primary outcome was difficult laryngoscopy defined as MCLS 3 or 4. The association between these variables and difficult laryngoscopy were analyzed by using multivariable logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Compared to the Easy Laryngoscopy Group, the tongue thickness was significantly higher and the condylar translation and IID were significantly lower in the Difficult Laryngoscopy Group. Tongue thickness and condylar translation but not MMT score and IID were proved to be two independent predictors for difficult laryngoscopy by multivariate logistic regression, with the odds ratios of 2.554 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.715 to 3.802) and 0.457 (95% CI, 0.304 to 0.686). The area under the ROC curve to predict difficult laryngoscopy for tongue thickness was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.98) and for condylar translation was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.86), which were significantly higher than those for MMT score (0.67, 95% CI, 0.56-0.77) and IID (0.65, 95% CI, 0.55-0.76). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with MMT and IID, tongue thickness and condylar translation measured by ultrasonography appear to be better indicators for predicting difficult laryngoscopy in parturients.The trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR)(www.chictr.org), registration number ChiCTR-ICR-1800019991.


Assuntos
Laringoscopia/métodos , Côndilo Mandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Anestesia , Cesárea , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Côndilo Mandibular/anatomia & histologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Língua/anatomia & histologia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e19069, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028430

RESUMO

Nutritional assessment is feasible with computed tomography anthropometry. The abdominal muscle at the L3 vertebra is a well-known nutritional biomarker for predicting the prognosis of various diseases, especially sarcopenia. However, studies on nutritional assessment of the brain using computed tomography are still scarce. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of the masseter muscle as a nutritional biomarker.Patients who underwent simultaneous brain and abdominopelvic computed tomography in the emergency department was retrospectively analyzed. We assessed their masseter muscle 2 cm below the zygomatic arch and abdominal muscle at L3 via computed tomography anthropometry. The skeletal muscle index, prognostic nutritional index, and other nutritional biomarkers were assessed for sarcopenia using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.A total of 314 patients (240 men and 72 women) were analyzed (mean age, 50.24 years; mean areas of the masseter and abdominal muscles, 1039.6 and 13478.3 mm, respectively). Masseter muscle areas significantly differed in sarcopenic, obese, and geriatric patients (P < .001). The areas under the curve of the masseter muscle in sarcopenic, geriatric, and obese patients were 0.663, 0.686, and 0.602, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed a correlation with the abdominal muscle area, weight, and age.The masseter muscle, analyzed via computed tomography anthropometry, showed a statistically significant association with systemic nutritional biomarkers, and its use as a nutritional biomarker would be feasible.


Assuntos
Músculo Masseter/diagnóstico por imagem , Estado Nutricional , Biomarcadores , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Masseter/anatomia & histologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 523-530, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of migraine headaches may involve the entrapment of peripheral craniofacial nerves at specific sites. Cadaveric studies in the general population have confirmed potential compression points of the supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves at the frontal trigger site. The authors' aim was to describe the intraoperative anatomy of the supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves at the level of the supraorbital bony rim in patients undergoing frontal migraine surgery and to investigate associated pain. METHODS: PATIENTS: scheduled for frontal-site surgery were enrolled prospectively. The senior author (W.G.A.) evaluated intraoperative anatomy and recorded variables using a detailed form and operative report. The resulting data were analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred eighteen sites among 61 patients were included. The supraorbital nerve traversed a notch in 49 percent, a foramen in 41 percent, a notch plus a foramen in 9.3 percent, and neither a notch nor a foramen in one site. The senior author noted macroscopic nerve compression at 74 percent of sites. Reasons included a tight foramen in 24 percent, a notch with a tight band in 34 percent, and supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves emerging by means of the same notch in 7.6 percent or by means of the same foramen in 4.2 percent. Preoperative pain at a site was significantly associated with nerve compression by a foramen. CONCLUSIONS: The intraoperative anatomy and cause of nerve compression at the frontal trigger site vary greatly among patients. The authors report a supraorbital nerve foramen prevalence of 50.3 percent, which is greater than in previous cadaver studies of the general population. Lastly, the presence of pain at a specific site is associated with macroscopic nerve compression.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca/cirurgia , Pontos-Gatilho/cirurgia , Nervo Facial/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Testa/inervação , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/patologia , Dor Processual/etiologia , Dor Processual/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Pontos-Gatilho/anatomia & histologia
8.
J Insect Sci ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925424

RESUMO

Urbanization has a significant impact on abiotic and biotic factors in nature. We examined the morphometric characters of four carabid species (Abax parallelepipedus, Carabus scheidleri, Carabus violaceus, and Pterostichus oblongopunctatus) along urbanization gradients in and around the cities of Vienna (Austria) and Debrecen (Hungary). We found significant differences among urban, suburban, and rural areas in the parameters of antennomers, the maxillary palpus, the labial palpus, and the length of the tibia and the elytra of the carabids studied. We also found significant differences between males and females based on the parameters of antennomers, the maxillary palpus, the labial palpus, the femur, and the elytra. An interaction between urbanization and sex was found in the case of antennomers, the maxillary palpus, the labial palpus, the femur, and the elytra. Our findings suggested that in the cases of species from Carabini tribus the parameters of antennomers, the maxillary palpus, and the elytra could be useful for assessing the effects of urbanization because these morphometric characters responded sensitively to the environmental stress, whereas the most useful parameters are those of antennomers and the tibia for the species of Pterostichini tribus. Our findings also revealed that females are more sensitive to environmental stress than males.


Assuntos
Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Urbanização , Animais , Áustria , Cidades , Feminino , Hungria , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 33-38, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893391

RESUMO

Monitoring of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS oximetry) has great potential to reduce the incidence of hypoxic and hyperoxic events and thus prevent long-term disabilities in preterm neonates. Since the light has to penetrate superficial layers (bone, skin and cerebrospinal fluid) before it reaches the brain, the question arises whether these layers influence cerebral StO2 measurement. We assessed this influence on the accuracy of cerebral StO2 values. For that purpose, we simulated light propagation with 'N-layered medium' software. It was found that with a superficial layer thickness of ≤6 mm, typical for term and preterm neonates, StO2 accurately reflects cerebral tissue oxygenation.


Assuntos
Oximetria , Oxigênio , Crânio , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipóxia/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido , Oximetria/normas , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18069, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914012

RESUMO

This study aims to find and locate foramens exactly in maxilla and mandible in case of complications during surgeries.Computer topographic angiography (CTA) images of 120 cases were reviewed. The measurements were performed on coronal, sagittal and axial planes after the 3 dimension volume reconstruction. The distances among foramens, bony landmarks, teeth, and facial artery were all measured with the angles as adjustments.The incisive foramen (IF) was measured 20.55 ±â€Š2.81 mm to margo inferior of incisor, and 45.27 ±â€Š5.27 degree from the axial midline. The greater palatine foramen located 43.17 ±â€Š2.55 mm from the IF, while 21.08 ±â€Š3.75 degree from the midline in axial plane. The lesser palatine foramina located 44.56 ±â€Š5.74 mm from the IF and 20.05 ±â€Š3.59 degree to the midline. The Mandibular foramen (MBF) was 91.15 ±â€Š1.86 mm horizontally to the margo inferior of incisor. The angle that the MBF-margo inferior of incisor line made with the axial midline was 31.25 ±â€Š2.89 degree. The shortest horizontal distance from the mental foramen (MF) to the facial artery in sagittal plane was 21.90 ±â€Š1.86 mm, while it became 13.00 ±â€Š2.05 mm in coronary section. The horizontal distance from the MF to the margo inferior of incisor in sagittal plane was 22.04 ±â€Š3.22 mm. It turned out to be 25.78 ±â€Š5.23 mm between MF and mid-sagittal line in coronary section. The vertical distance was 25.20 ±â€Š3.06 mm from the upper margin of the second premolar to the MF.The foramens were clearly seen through CTA. Moreover, linear and angular measurements were presented, which makes it safer and wiser for surgeons to consider the biometric data before operations.


Assuntos
Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , /diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artérias , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/cirurgia , Criança , Face/irrigação sanguínea , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/patologia , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1106): 20190467, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899660

RESUMO

Recognition of key concepts of structural and functional anatomy of the cerebellum can facilitate image interpretation and clinical correlation. Recently, the human brain mapping literature has increased our understanding of cerebellar anatomy, function, connectivity with the cerebrum, and significance of lesions involving specific areas.Both the common names and numerically based Schmahmann classifications of cerebellar lobules are illustrated. Anatomic patterns, or signs, of key fissures and white matter branching are introduced to facilitate easy recognition of the major anatomic features. Color-coded overlays of cross-sectional imaging are provided for reference of more complex detail. Examples of exquisite detail of structural and functional cerebellar anatomy at 7 T MRI are also depicted.The functions of the cerebellum are manifold with the majority of areas involved with non-motor association function. Key concepts of lesion-symptom mapping which correlates lesion location to clinical manifestation are introduced, emphasizing that lesions in most areas of the cerebellum are associated with predominantly non-motor deficits. Clinical correlation is reinforced with examples of intrinsic pathologic derangement of cerebellar anatomy and altered functional connectivity due to pathology of the cerebral hemisphere. The purpose of this pictorial review is to illustrate basic concepts of these topics in a cross-sectional imaging-based format that can be easily understood and applied by radiologists.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/anatomia & histologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 92-96, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915342

RESUMO

A cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 40 postmortem vermiform appendix (male 24 and female 16) to find out the diameter of lymphoid follicle of vermiform appendix of Bangladeshi people. The specimens were collected from autopsy laboratory of the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh by purposive sampling technique and were divided into four age groups. They were Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 40 years), Group C (41 to 60 years) and Group D (above 60 years). For this purpose, about 3mm long of whole thickness transverse section was taken from the middle of the vermiform appendix and thus the permanent slides were made for microscopic examination. To measure the diameter of the lymphoid follicle two measurements were taken. One was taken at the maximum diameter and another was perpendicular to it by ocular micrometer. Diameter of one largest and one smallest lymphoid follicles were measured and find out the mean diameter of lymphoid follicle between them. Diameter of lymphoid follicle = (Maximum transverse diameter + perpendicular diameter) /2. All data were recorded in the predesigned data sheet, analyzed by SPSS program (version 21, 2012) and compared with the findings of other national and international studies and standard text books. It was observed that diameter of lymphoid follicle of vermiform appendix gradually decreased as age advanced. The mean±SD diameter of lymphoid follicle was 580.31±37.07, 545.58±38.37, 485.68±40.20 and 428.12±68.41µm in Group A, B, C and D respectively. Statistical analysis shows that the mean differences of diameter of lymphoid follicle between A&B, C&D were statistically non significant at p= or >0.05 level, difference between Group B&C was statistically moderately significant at p<0.01 level and differences between Group A&C, B&D, A&D were statistically highly significant at p<0.001 level. Mean diameter of lymphoid follicle of vermiform appendix in male was higher (584.30±12.65µm in Group A, 549.42±38.36µm in Group B, 487.38±39.91µm in Group C, 430.68±70.30µm in Group D) than in female (576.31±53.77µm in Group A, 536.61±45.14µm in Group B, 483.14±46.68µm in Group C, 424.28±75.95µm in Group D) but mean difference between sexes in the different groups was statistically non significant at p=or >0.05 level. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the diameter of lymphoid follicle of vermiform appendix of Bangladeshi people.


Assuntos
Apêndice , Autopsia/métodos , Tecido Linfoide , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Apêndice/anatomia & histologia , Apêndice/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Bangladesh , Cadáver , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Tecido Linfoide/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Linfoide/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 169-176, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915354

RESUMO

This cross sectional analytical type of study was conducted at department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2015 to June 2016 on 50 adult Bangladeshi male sprinters (Group A) and 50 adult Bangladeshi male cricket batsman (Group B). Sample collection was done by convenient purposive sampling technique. History of any injury of hand during playing was excluded to construct standard measurement. Hand breadth was measured with the help of slide calipers. Hand grip strength Dynamometer was used to measure the hand grip strength. Paired Student's 't' test, unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were done for statistical analysis of the result. The aim of the present study was to determine hand breadth and average hand grip strength of Bangladeshi male cricket batsman to find out correlation between them that may be used as a baseline for other professions as well for future research in our country. The mean right and left hand grip strength was significantly higher in the cricket batsman than in the sprinters. The mean right and left hand breadth was found to be significantly higher in the cricket batsman than in the sprinters. Right and left hand grip strength showed significant positive correlation with hand breadth in both hand. The study findings suggest that regular physical exercise and training increase hand grip strength.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Mãos/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Animais , Antropometria , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Atletas , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Masculino , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Corrida
14.
Curr Urol Rep ; 21(1): 2, 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960158

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Classically, kidney transplantation (KT) consists of heterotopic implantation of the renal graft in the iliac fossa with vascular anastomosis on the iliac vessel and reimplantation of the graft ureter in the bladder of the recipient. However, a wide range of variations exist in both vascular anastomosis and urinary diversion that the non-transplant surgeon should know. RECENT FINDINGS: For any pelvic surgery in a KT patient, the non-transplant surgeon should preoperatively evaluate the anatomy of the graft, its vascularization and its urinary tract. The transplant ureter should be identified and secured by preoperative JJ stenting whenever needed. For any surgery, maintenance and control of both immunosuppressive treatment and renal function is crucial. The advice or even the assistance of a transplant surgeon should be required because any damage to vascularization or urinary drainage of the renal graft could have dramatic and definitive consequences on graft function.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/métodos , Pelve/cirurgia , Transplantes/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Transplantados , Transplantes/irrigação sanguínea , Derivação Urinária/métodos
15.
Eur J Histochem ; 64(1)2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941265

RESUMO

The seed morphology of three Pseudocereal Grains (PSCg), i.e. quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd, Chenopodiaceae), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Polygonaceae) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L., Amaranthaceae) was studied by light microscopy (LM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS). LM was used with visible light to evaluate either unstained sections or sections stained with Azan mixture and with fluorescent light. The aim of the study was to compare the architecture of the three seeds in order to connect their morphology with nutrient localization. The Azan staining allowed for the visualization of the seed coat, the embryo - with its shoot apical meristem - and the radicle cell layers, whereas the use of fluorescent microscopy identified the cells rich in phenolic compounds. Finally, the ESEM-EDS analysis revealed that the seed coat of the quinoa was thinner than that of amaranth or buckwheat. In all PSCg, starch granules appeared to be located in large polygonal cells, surrounded by a thin cell wall. Several globoids of proteins were observed in the embryo cells. In the radicle section, the vascular bundles of the procambium were evident, while Amaranth only showed a consistent layer of calcium crystals, located between the embryo and the perysperm. The morphological differences of the three PSCg were discussed in the context of their structural resistance to processing technologies which impact on nutritional value of derived foods.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/anatomia & histologia , Chenopodium quinoa/anatomia & histologia , Grão Comestível/anatomia & histologia , Fagopyrum/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Amaranthus/embriologia , Chenopodium quinoa/embriologia , Grão Comestível/embriologia , Fagopyrum/embriologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Sementes/embriologia
16.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 39(1): 1, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatoglyphics has been used widely in fields of medicine as a non-invasive diagnostic tool and an early assessment of risk for certain medical conditions. It reflects disturbances in fetal development during early prenatal weeks 14-22 when fingerprints develop. Dermatoglyphic asymmetry has been used to measure developmental instability during a specific period of human fetal development. Thus, the present study was planned to investigate whether digital and palmar dermatoglyphics of chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu) patients in Sri Lanka are different from healthy people. METHODS: A case control study was carried out among CKDu patients (90 males, 90 females) from a CKDu endemic area and gender-matched two control groups; one group from a CKDu endemic region (90 males, 90 females) and another group from a CKDu non-endemic region (90 males, 90 females). Dermatoglyphics were obtained using photographic methods. Both qualitative and quantitative dermatoglyphic variables were defined and analyzed according to standard criteria. Both directional (DA) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) were assessed. RESULTS: Several qualitative dermatoglyphic variables had significant association with CKDu. The triradii a1 variable was less evident in palms of CKDu cases in both genders when compared to both control groups. The FA of pattern discordance (right vs left hands) between CKDu cases and control group were significant in several digits. The FA of the ridge count was found significant in several digits, and also significant for A-B ridge count and total ridge count. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, it is proposed that the mechanisms responsible for the development of CKDu might be associated with those responsible for FA observed in CKDu patients. Accordingly, a diagnostic tool based on FA could be developed for predicting risk prior to the development of CKDu.


Assuntos
Dermatoglifia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Dedos/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
17.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 53-55, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995718

RESUMO

A new species of monogenean, Dactylogyrus pisolabrae n. sp., was found parasitizing the gills of the Pealip Redhorse, Moxostoma pisolabrum, from Oklahoma. Dactylogyrus pisolabrae is morphologically similar to Dactylogyrus apos, Dactylogyrus atripinnei, Dactylogyrus duquesnei, and Dactylogyrus niger, all parasitizing other species of suckers, by possessing a robust, sickle-shaped male copulatory organ, but differs from these and all other species of North American Dactylogyrus by possessing 2 unique wing-like projections opposite each other on the proximal portion of the accessory piece. Dactylogyrus pisolabrae represents the first monogenean reported from the Pealip Redhorse.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Platelmintos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Masculino , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , Platelmintos/anatomia & histologia , Platelmintos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
18.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 56-70, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995719

RESUMO

Rhadinorhynchus hiansi Soota and Bhattacharya, 1981 , has remained unknown since its original incomplete description from 2 male specimens collected from the flat needlefish Ablennes hians Valenciennes (Belonidae) off Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Recent collections of fishes along the Pacific coast of Vietnam in 2016 and 2017 produced many specimens of the same species from the striped bonito Sarda orientalis Temminck and Schlegel (Scombridae) off the southern Pacific coast of Vietnam at Nha Trang. We describe females for the first time, assign a female allotype status, and provide an expanded description of males from a larger collection completing missing information on hooks and hook roots, receptacle, lemnisci, cement glands, Saefftigen's pouch, and trunk spines. Specimens of R. hiansi characteristically have no dorsal spines in the posterior field of trunk spines and a long proboscis with 36-48 dorso-ventrally differentiated proboscis hooks per row becoming progressively smaller posteriorly then increasing in size near the posterior end to a maximum at the posterior-most ring. Trunk, testes, and lemnisci in our specimens were considerably larger than those reported in the original description, but the proboscis was relatively smaller. The females had long reproductive system and corrugated elliptic eggs without polar prolongation of fertilization membrane. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) demonstrates high levels of calcium and phosphorus in large gallium cut hooks and high levels of sulfur in tip cuts of large and small hooks and in spines. This EDXA pattern is a characteristic fingerprint of R. hiansi. The molecular profile of R. hiansi is described from 18S rDNA and COI genes, and phylogenetic relationships with most closely related species are discussed.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/genética , Beloniformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Algoritmos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Peixes , Gálio , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , Espectrometria por Raios X/veterinária , Vietnã
19.
Int J Oral Sci ; 12(1): 4, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932579

RESUMO

The morphology of the alveolar bone at the maxillary anterior teeth in periodontitis patients was evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to investigate the distribution of alveolar defects and provide guidance for clinical practice. Ninety periodontitis patients and 30 periodontally healthy individuals were selected to determine the morphology of the alveolar bone at the maxillary anterior teeth according to the degree of bone loss, tooth type, sex and age. The differences in the dimensions between periodontitis patients and healthy individuals were compared, and the distribution of alveolar bone defects was analyzed. A classification system was established regarding the sagittal positions and angulations of the teeth. The buccal residual bone was thicker and the lingual bone was thinner in the periodontitis patients than in the periodontally healthy individuals, and there were differences between the different tooth types, sexes and age subgroups. The buccal undercut was close to the alveolar ridge, while fenestration was reduced and the apical bone height was higher in periodontitis patients than in periodontally healthy individuals. The apical bone height increased with the aggravation of bone loss and age. The proportions of different sagittal positions changed with the aggravation of bone loss. Moreover, the teeth moved more buccally regarding the positions of the maxillary anterior teeth. The morphology of the alveolar bone at the maxillary anterior teeth differed between periodontitis patients and healthy individuals, and the differences were related to the degree of bone loss, tooth type, sex and age.


Assuntos
Processo Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Periodontite/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Processo Alveolar/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ápice Dentário/anatomia & histologia , Ápice Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Dente/anatomia & histologia , Colo do Dente/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110115, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918164

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In a case of child pornography, only the dorsum of the offender's hand was clearly visible. After identification of a suspect, the question arose of whether and how it is possible to identify or exclude the suspect as perpetrator according to the morphology of the hand vein pattern. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A simple approach to use the hand vein pattern in crime suspects as a tool for identification was tested. In this study, the hand vein patterns of 30 study participants were analysed from conventional frames on videography. A standardised grid system consisting of six lines and four sectors was applied on the dorsum of the hands. Vein branchings within the sectors and line crossings of the veins were counted, leading to a total of 11 variables for each hand. RESULTS: A positive identification of each of the 30 test participants was possible for each hand when taking only the first five variables into account. A random overlapping prediction was obtained by statistically simulating hand vein patterns of different numbers of persons using this sample. Considering the hand vein frequencies in this sample, the results indicate that the chance for two persons having the same pattern is smaller than 1:1000. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the introduced grid system approach can be an appropriate simple and non-costly tool for the analysis of the pattern of hand veins for identification purposes.


Assuntos
Mãos/irrigação sanguínea , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Literatura Erótica/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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