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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242486, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326432

RESUMO

Paper wasps (Polistes dominula), parasitized by the strepsipteran Xenos vesparum, are castrated and desert the colony to gather on plants where the parasite mates and releases primary larvae, thus completing its lifecycle. One of these plants is the trumpet creeper Campsis radicans: in a previous study the majority of all wasps collected from this plant were parasitized and focused their foraging activity on C. radicans buds. The unexpected prevalence and unusual feeding strategy prompted us to investigate the influence of this plant on wasp behavior and physiology through a multidisciplinary approach. First, in a series of laboratory bioassays, we observed that parasitized wasps spent more time than non-parasitized ones on fresh C. radicans buds, rich of extra-floral nectaries (EFNs), while the same wasps ignored treated buds that lacked nectar drops. Then, we described the structure and ultra-structure of EFNs secreting cells, compatible with the synthesis of phenolic compounds. Subsequently, we analysed extracts from different bud tissues by HPLC-DAD-MS and found that verbascoside was the most abundant bioactive molecule in those tissues rich in EFNs. Finally, we tested the immune-stimulant properties of verbascoside, as the biochemical nature of this compound indicates it might function as an antibacterial and antioxidant. We measured bacterial clearance in wasps, as a proxy for overall immune competence, and observed that it was enhanced after administration of verbascoside-even more so if the wasp was parasitized. We hypothesize that the parasite manipulates wasp behavior to preferentially feed on C. radicans EFNs, since the bioactive properties of verbascoside likely increase host survival and thus the parasite own fitness.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Holometábolos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Fenóis/farmacologia , Vespas/parasitologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bignoniaceae/parasitologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunocompetência , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Néctar de Plantas/química , Vespas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vespas/imunologia
2.
Zootaxa ; 4890(4): zootaxa.4890.4.8, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311110

RESUMO

New taxa of Dipseudopsidae from Madagascar are described, including a new genus, Ollieopteryx, and three new species, Ollieopteryx fianarana, O. inopinata, and O. dakshan. The hypothetical phylogenetic tree of the Dipseudopsidae (Weaver Malicky 1994) is revised to include Ollieopteryx, an isolated relic. Scenarios on the historical biogeography of the family are hypothesized.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Madagáscar , Filogenia
3.
Zootaxa ; 4890(3): zootaxa.4890.3.6, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311120

RESUMO

This paper gives a description of the hitherto unknown larva of Chaetopteryx rugulosa Kolenati 1848 (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Information on the morphology of the larva is given, and the most important diagnostic features are figured. In the context of the known European Chaetopterygini and Stenophylacini species, the larva of C. rugulosa can be separated from morphologically close species by metanotal sclerite morphology, setation, the extension of the lateral fringe, and by case morphology.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Larva
4.
Zootaxa ; 4881(1): zootaxa.4881.1.11, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311136

RESUMO

Six new species of Neotrichia Morton 1905 from Brazil are described: Neotrichia anaua sp. nov., Neotrichia catrimani sp. nov., Neotrichia cauame sp nov., Neotrichia mucajai sp nov., Neotrichia quitauau sp nov., and Neotrichia xereuini sp nov. Illustrations of male genitalia are provided with each description.


Assuntos
Besouros , Holometábolos , Animais , Brasil , Genitália Masculina , Insetos , Masculino
5.
Zootaxa ; 4890(2): zootaxa.4890.2.9, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311239

RESUMO

Two new species of Flintiella Angrisano 1995 are described and illustrated from specimens collected with light traps in the states of Pará and Roraima, northern Brazil. Flintiella serrana sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other species in the genus by the subgenital plate with incised apex, and two pairs of ventral processes. Flintiella triaena sp. nov. is distinctive with no clearly similar congeners and can be distinguished from all known species in the genus by the trident-like subgenital plate in ventral view. Additionally, we record the genus Flintiella for the first time in Roraima State.


Assuntos
Insetos , Animais , Brasil , Holometábolos
6.
Zootaxa ; 4885(1): zootaxa.4885.1.3, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311286

RESUMO

We present the description of two new subspecies of the Rhyacophila fasciata Group: Rhyacophila fasciata delici Kucinic Valladolid (ssp. nov.), broadly distributed in Croatia and present also in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and R. fasciata viteceki Valladolid Kucinic (ssp. nov.), found in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Our study of the morphology of adults, as well as our analysis of the barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene and geographical distribution confirm the differences of the two new subspecies with the nominal species R. f. fasciata, also found in both countries.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Croácia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4885(1): zootaxa.4885.1.6, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311289

RESUMO

Trichoptera is the largest order of exclusively aquatic insects, comprising more than 16,000 described species with cosmopolitan distribution. There are about 800 species recorded from Brazil so far, mostly from the North, Southeast, and South regions. In Northeastern Brazil, the state of Rio Grande do Norte has only one Trichoptera species recorded so far (Oecetis excisa). Here, Chimarra (Chimarra) potiguar n. sp. is described and illustrated. The new species can be easily distinguished from its congeners by the following features: Segment X has its mesal lobe elongate, sub-rectangular; lateral lobes long and rounded apically, dorsal margin with subapical invagination; the apex of each inferior appendage has a pronounced apicodorsal acute projection, and the phallotremal sclerite complex is curved, with small spines dorsally. Chimarra (C.) potiguar is morphologically similar to Chimarra (Chimarra) bidens, but the new species differs from it by the length and shape of the mesal lobe and lateral lobes of segment X, and by general shape of the basal regions of inferior appendages. Five additional caddisfly species are recorded for the first time from Rio Grande do Norte state: three in Hydropsychidae (Leptonema sparsum, Macrostemum hyalinum, and Smicridea (Smicridea) palifera) and two in Polycentropodidae (Cyrnellus fraternus and Cernotina bibrachiata).


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Brasil , Extremidades
8.
Zootaxa ; 4869(3): zootaxa.4869.3.3, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311350

RESUMO

The species of the antlion genus Distoleon Banks, 1910 (Myrmeleontidae, Myrmeleontinae, Nemoleontini) from Pakistan are revised. Three species, Distoleon sambalpurensis Ghosh, 1984, Distoleon tappa (Walker, 1853), and Distoleon verendus (Walker, 1853), all known from northern Pakistan, are re-described. Myrmeleon vesanus Walker, 1853 syn. nov. is assigned as a junior synonym of Distoleon verendus (Walker, 1853). The female of Distoleon tappa is described for the first time. Discussions about the geographical distribution of all these species are provided in detail. A key to known species of Distoleon from Pakistan is provided.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Feminino , Paquistão , Ácidos Fenilpirúvicos
9.
Zootaxa ; 4868(4): zootaxa.4868.4.2, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311379

RESUMO

A collection of microcaddisflies from sites on the Cuito, Cuanavale, Cuembo, Cuando, Cubango, and Lungue Bungo Rivers in Angola has yielded seven new species and led to new records for a further five species. The new species include Hydroptila cuembica sp. nov., Hydroptila moxica sp. nov., Oxyethira palisada sp. nov., Orthotrichia ferreirae sp. nov., Or. meyi sp. nov., and Or. mlamboi sp. nov., and another species for which we erect a new genus, Aenigmatrichia asymmetrica gen. et sp. nov. The new records are for Catoxyethira kunenica Mey de Moor 2019, Hydroptila brigittae Gibon 1987b, Hydroptila cruciata Ulmer 1912, Hydroptila maoae Gibon, Guenda, Coulibaly 1994, Oxyethira sechellensis Malicky 1993, and a larva identified as that of a species of Tricholeiochiton. Beyond the known Angolan microcaddisfly fauna we resolve several taxonomic problems: We refer to Orthotrichia a species described by Jacquemart in Hydroptila, to become Orthotrichia trifurcata (Jacquemart 1962), comb. nov., with Orthotrichia hydroptiloides Wells Andersen 1995 (from Tanzania) as a junior synonym; and we recognise Orthotrichia kivuensis Jacquemart 1956 (from Bukana, on Lake Kivu) as a junior synonym of Or. sanya Mosely 1948a from the Orange and Fish rivers. A list is given of the 16 microcaddisfly species now known from Angola: Representation is probably typical of sand and silt-based streams and pools, with the exception of Catoxyethira and Orthotrichia.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Angola , Animais , Rios
10.
Zootaxa ; 4883(1): zootaxa.4883.1.1, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311297

RESUMO

The Natural History Museum, London, houses of one of the largest insect collections in the world including several hundred specimens of the small lacewing family Osmylidae. Herein we provide the complete label information, specimen condition, locality and habitus pictures of the Osmylidae primary types of the Natural History Museum, with some historical information about the specimens.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Museus , Animais , Insetos , Londres , História Natural
11.
Zootaxa ; 4820(1): zootaxa.4820.1.6, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056084

RESUMO

Chloroniella Esben-Petersen is a relict, monotypic genus of Corydalidae (Megaloptera), considered sister to the remaining dobsonfly genera (Corydalinae); it is the only genus of Corydalinae known from the Afrotropical region. The larva of its only species, C. peryngueyi Esben-Petersen, 1924, was originally described by Barnard in 1931. Herein we redescribe the larva of C. peryngueyi using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), colored focus-stacked images, and drawings in order to provide greater morphological detail of this significant species. Also, we propose a standardized terminology for Corydalidae larval sclerites.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Larva
12.
Zootaxa ; 4822(1): zootaxa.4822.1.4, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056301

RESUMO

Contrary to the typical southern distribution of the extant Kempyninae, a subfamily of Osmylidae, its fossil group shows the high diversification in the northern hemisphere during the Mesozoic. Herein a new genus with a new species, Mirokempynus profundobifurcus gen. et sp. nov., and a new species, Jurakempynus loculosus sp. nov., of Kempyninae, are described from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China. The new species share the characteristic synapomorphies of Kempyninae, e.g. subcostal veinlets mostly irregularly forked in the forewing and the distinctly expanded intramedial area with multiple rows of cells in the hind wing. The new genus distinctly shows a particular condition of intramedial area and MP branching in the hind wing. However, the condition of the region between MA and MP significantly broadened in the hind wing appear distinctively different to other known kempynine genera. A key is provided for all the genera of documented kempynines, both fossil and extant.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , China , Fósseis , Asas de Animais
13.
Zootaxa ; 4822(1): zootaxa.4822.1.5, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056302

RESUMO

A taxonomic study of the green lacewing genus Austrochrysa Esben-Petersen, 1928 from China is presented. Three species of Austrochrysa are recorded from China. Two new species, Austrochrysa lihongyui sp. nov. and Austrochrysa angusta sp. nov., which are described in this study, and a new combination, i.e. Austrochrysa tropica (Yang Wang, 1994) comb. nov., is proposed. The genus Yunchrysopa Yang Wang, 1994 is here considered as a junior synonym of Austrochrysa Esben-Petersen, 1928.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Animais , China
14.
Zootaxa ; 4860(2): zootaxa.4860.2.5, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056164

RESUMO

Four new species of the genus Psychomyia from China are described, illustrated and diagnosed: P. complexa n. sp. (Zhe-jiang), P. conoidea n. sp. (Zhe-jiang), P. obtorta n. sp. (Jiang-xi), and P. tripetala n. sp. (Jiang-xi). Two known species, P. martynovi Hwang 1957 and P. extensa Li, Sun Yang 1999 are re-described and re-illustrated, with new distributional data.


Assuntos
Insetos , Animais , China , Holometábolos
15.
Zootaxa ; 4852(3): zootaxa.4852.3.8, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056418

RESUMO

This study presents the first morphological description and illustration of the late instar larva of Limnephilus atlanticus Nybom 1948, an endemic caddisfly from the Azores. Taxonomic comparisons with a recently recorded limnephilid species, Limnephilus affinis (Limnephilidae), and notes of their ecology and distribution in the Azores are also provided.


Assuntos
Insetos , Animais , Açores , Holometábolos , Larva
16.
Zootaxa ; 4796(1): zootaxa.4796.1.1, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056683

RESUMO

The species of the former antlion subtribe Periclystina (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) are revised. Prior to this work Periclystina comprised 10 genera and 63 species endemic to Australia (62 spp.) and New Guinea (1 sp.). In this work two former genera are synonymized and four new genera are proposed (for a total of 12 valid genera), and six former species are synonymized and 16 new species are proposed (for a total of 73 valid species). A parsimony analysis utilizing 62 morphological characters is used to infer phylogenetic relationships among all 73 species, and suitable outgroups. Based on the results of the phylogenetic analysis, the tribal and/or generic assignments of 55 (75%) of former Periclystina species are modified here. Periclystina and its two largest genera-Austrogymnocnemia and Glenoleon-were all recovered as polyphyletic in their former circumscriptions. Ten species-placed here in six genera: Anomaloplectron, Csiroleon, Fissuleon gen. nov., Franzenia, Fusoleon and Latileon gen. nov.-clustered phylogenetically with Acanthoplectron and are transferred to the tribe Acanthoplectrini. The remaining 63 species-placed in six additional genera: Austrogymnocnemia, Glenoleon, Megagonoleon gen. nov., Minyleon gen. nov., Periclystus and Riekoleon-form a monophyletic Periclystus genus group and are transferred to the tribe Dendroleontini. All 73 species are (re)described and illustrated. New identification keys are provided for the tribes of Dendroleontinae, for the Australian genera of Acanthoplectrini and Dendroleontini, and for each of the non-monotypic genera treated. In addition, five new lectotypes are designated and 35 new combinations are created.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Austrália , Filogenia
17.
Zootaxa ; 4838(2): zootaxa.4838.2.6, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056825

RESUMO

Some regions, such as the Northeast Region of Brazil, are still severely understudied and the trichopteran fauna of this region is not entirely known, mainly in areas from Cerrado and Caatinga biomes. Currently, 25 species have been reported from Piauí State, but most of these records are concentrated from one locality. This study aimed to update the knowledge of Trichoptera diversity in this state, including the description of a new species and new geographic records for the Northeast region and Brazil. The samples were collected in seven municipalities, using various traps. Specimens were also received from the municipality of Bom Jesus. Thirty-two species were added for Trichoptera fauna of Piauí, 14 of these represent new records for Northeast Brazil; furthermore, Neotrichia palma Flint 1982 is a new record for Brazil. Additionally, a new species, Cernotina longa sp. nov., is describe and illustrate, being the third nominal record of the genus for the Caatinga biome. Thus, with the contribution of this study, 57 species, 20 genera and seven families of caddisflies are known for Piauí State.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Brasil , Geografia
18.
Zootaxa ; 4816(1): zootaxa.4816.1.8, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055718

RESUMO

This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Plectrocnemia scruposa McLachlan 1880. Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of existing identification keys, P. scruposa keys together with P. brevis McLachlan 1871, P. conspersa (Curtis 1834), and P. laetabilis McLachlan 1880. These species can be separated by the length of the outermost seta of the posterolateral trio on the last abdominal tergum and by presence/absence of a central pigmented mark on the posterior margin of the labrum. According to mandible morphology, the larva of this species appears to be mainly a predator and passive filter feeder of particulate organic matter.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Larva
19.
Zootaxa ; 4816(1): zootaxa.4816.1.12, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055722

RESUMO

Megaloptera is a small order of conspicuous holometabolous insects with 397 species and 35 genera distributed worldwide. The order comprises two extant families, the Sialidae (8 genera and 83 species) and the Corydalidae (27 genera and 314 species), both with aquatic larvae, wherea eggs, pupae, and adults are terrestrial (Rivera-Gasperín et al. 2019). Three Corydalidae genera are known from Brazil: Corydalus Latreille, 1802 (11 species), Chloronia Banks, 1908 (4 species) and the monospecific Puri Cardoso-Costa, 2013 (Cardoso-Costa et al. 2013; Rafael Câmara 2020). Whereas, for the Sialidae, only the genus Ilyobius Enderlein, 1910 (3 species) has been found to occur in Brazil (Liu et al. 2015; Rafael Câmara 2020, as ProtosialisVan der Wheele, 1909).


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Brasil , Larva , Pupa
20.
Zootaxa ; 4816(3): zootaxa.4816.3.2, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055690

RESUMO

The following six new Oecetis species have been described and illustrated: O. lata, O. gretae, O. malickyi, O. porntipae, O. olahi, and O. hageni. The following three Oecetis species are recorded for the first time from Vietnam: O. maron Malicky Chantaramongkol 2005 (in Malicky 2005), O. iakchos Malicky 2005, and O. jachin Malicky Mey 2010 (in Malicky 2010a). We present new records of the following six Oecetis species that are previously known from Vietnam: O. raghava Schmid 1995, O. biramosa Martynov 1936, O. tripunctata (Fabricius 1793), O. meleagros Malicky Thani 2005, O. asmada Malicky 1979, and O. empusa Malicky Chaibu 2000. A map presents the distribution of the Oecetis species included in this report.


Assuntos
Insetos , Animais , Holometábolos , Vietnã
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