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1.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 357, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of factors may determine family planning decisions; however, some may be dependent on the social and cultural context. To understand these factors, we conducted a qualitative study with family planning providers and community stakeholders in a diverse, low-income neighborhood of Istanbul, Turkey. METHODS: We used purposeful sampling to recruit 16 respondents (eight family planning service providers and eight community stakeholders) based on their potential role and influence on matters related to sexual and reproductive health issues. Interviews were audio-recorded with participants' permission and subsequently transcribed in Turkish and translated into English for analysis. We applied a multi-stage analytical strategy, following the principles of the constant comparative method to develop a codebook and identify key themes. RESULTS: Results indicate that family planning decision-making-that is, decision on whether or not to avoid a pregnancy-is largely considered a women's issue although men do not actively object to family planning or play a passive role in actual use of methods. Many respondents indicated that women generally prefer to use family planning methods that do not have side-effects and are convenient to use. Although women trust healthcare providers and the information that they receive from them, they prefer to obtain contraceptive advice from friends and family members. Additionally, attitude of men toward childbearing, fertility desires, characteristics of providers, and religious beliefs of the couple exert considerable influence on family planning decisions. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous factors influence family planning decision-making in Turkey. Women have a strong preference for traditional methods compared to modern contraceptives. Additionally, religious factors play a leading role in the choice of the particular method, such as withdrawal. Besides, there is a lack of men's involvement in family planning decision-making. Public health interventions should focus on incorporating men into their efforts and understanding how providers can better provide information to women about contraception.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Homens , Anticoncepção , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Turquia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Race disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) related morbidity and mortality are evident among men. While previous studies show health in young adulthood and racial residential segregation (RRS) are important factors for CVD risk, these factors have not been widely studied in male populations. We sought to examine race differences in ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) among young men (ages 24-34) and whether RRS influenced this association. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from young men who participated in Wave IV (2008) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 5080). The dichotomous outcome, achieving ideal CVH, was defined as having ≥4 of the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 targets. Race (Black/White) and RRS (proportion of White residents in census tract) were the independent variables. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Young Black men had lower odds of achieving ideal CVH (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.49, 0.92) than young White men. However, RRS did not have a significant effect on race differences in ideal CVH until the proportion of White residents was ≥55%. CONCLUSIONS: Among young Black and White men, RRS is an important factor to consider when seeking to understand CVH and reduce future cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Homens , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Raciais , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360200

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to identify differences in obesity-related parameters between active sports students and semi-active or sedentary students, differentiated by sex, in order to optimize health. The study sample included 286 students, of which the male experimental sample consisted of 86 active sports students, age X ± SD 21.25 ± 0.32 years; height X ± SD 181.08 ± 3.52 cm; control group consisting of 89 semi-active students aged X ± SD 21.07 ± 0.1.13 years; height X ± SD 182.11 ± 1.32. The female experimental sample includes 57 active sports students, age X ± SD 21.02 ± 0.92 years; height X ± SD 167.48 ± 1.34 cm; the control group includes 54 semi-active students aged X ± SD 21.57 ± 0.1.98 years; height X ± SD 168.42 ± 1.76. The study used a thalliometer, Tanita Health Ware software and Quantum Resonance Magnetic Analyzer equipment to investigate height (cm), Body Mass Index (BMI), muscle mass (kg, %), as well as the obesity analysis report, and componential analysis of body and nourishment. The differences registered between the samples of active and semi-active sports subjects were predominantly statistically significant for p < 0.05. The differences registered between the samples of active and semi-active sports subjects were predominantly statistically significant for p < 0.05. The most important parameters regarding obesity and body composition that registered significant differences between the two male groups were in favor of the group of active athletes: triglyceride content of abnormal coefficient 0.844 (CI95% 0.590-1.099), abnormal lipid metabolism coefficient 0.798 (CI95% 1.091-0.504), obesity degree of body (ODB %) 10.290 (CI95% 6.610-13.970), BMI 2.326 (CI95% 1.527-3.126), body fat (kg) 2.042 (CI95% 0.918-3.166), muscle volume (kg) 2.565 (CI95% 1.100-4.031), Lean body weight (kg) 2.841 (CI95% 5.265-0.418). In the case of female samples, the group of active sportswomen registered the biggest differences compared to the group of students who were significantly active in the parameters: abnormal lipid metabolism coefficient 1.063 (CI95% 1.380-0.746), triglyceride content of abnormal coefficient 0.807 (CI95% 0.437-1.178), obesity degree of body (ODB%) 8.082 (CI95% 2.983-13.181), BMI 2.285 (CI95% 1.247-3.324), body fat (kg) 2.586 (CI95% 0.905-4.267), muscle volume (kg) 2.570 (CI95% 0.154-4.985), lean body weight (kg) 4.118 (CI95% 1.160-7.077). The results of the study directly facilitate the understanding of the complexity of the impact of obesity on multiple parameters of body composition and health.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Homens , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Masculino , Estudantes
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 730, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The caregiving's impact on informal carers' quality of life and gender-based stereotypes make older individuals' informal care a complex process for which our knowledge is still limited. The purpose of this review is to identify how gender relates to informal carers' experiences of providing care for people aged 60 years and over with mental and physical health needs by synthesising the available empirical data published between 2000 to 2020. DESIGN AND METHODS: The systematic method for reviewing and synthesising qualitative data was performed using the PRISMA checklist and ENTREQ statement. The CASP tool was used to examine the quality of the included papers. Thematic synthesis was used as the methodological framework. RESULTS: This review produced two analytical themes, the impact of gender on the caregivers' labour and negotiating gender identity with self, society, and cultural norms. While informal caregivers share motivators, a linkage between traditional gender stereotypes impacts caregiving burden and coping strategies. Informal carers' experiences entail a constant pursuit of self-agency after acquiring the caregiver role. Cultural values and their intersection with gender appear to influence caregivers' healthy adjustment into their new caregiving identities. The flexibility to move beyond gender boundaries could mediate caregivers' negotiations between self and society on developing their new caregiving identity. Providing intensive informal primary care to older people affects both men's and women's mental and physical health. Gender ideals of the feminine nurturing role further disadvantage women as they determine the caregiving arrangements, the strategies and resources to sustain the caring burden, and the adaptability to experience their new caregiving role positively. Men appear more flexible to debate their hegemonic masculinity and defend their existence in the caregiving role. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Transgressing gender lines and expanding gender possibilities can ease the caregiving burden and strengthen caregivers coping potentials. Health professionals can empower informal careers to challenge gender binaries and expand gender possibilities by intentionally injecting the language of diversity in caring information and caring processes. The review findings outline a path for research on gender identity development in older people's care.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Cuidadores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência ao Paciente
6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203986

RESUMO

Despite concerns about the coexistence of overnutrition, undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, which is compositely referred to as the triple burden of malnutrition (TBM), little is known about the phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We, therefore, aimed to examine the prevalence and investigate the factors associated with TBM in SSA. This study uses cross-sectional survey data collected through the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program from 2010 to 2019. Data from 32 countries in SSA were used for the analysis. The prevalence of TBM were presented in tables and maps using percentages. The predictors of TBM were examined by fitting a negative log-log regression to the data. The results were then presented using adjusted odds ratios (aORs) at 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs). Out of the 169,394 children, 734 (1%) suffered from TBM. The highest proportion of children with TBM in the four geographic regions in SSA was found in western Africa (0.75%) and the lowest in central Africa (0.21%). Children aged 1 [aOR = 1.283; 95% CI = 1.215-1.355] and those aged 2 [aOR = 1.133; 95% CI = 1.067-1.204] were more likely to experience TBM compared to those aged 0. TBM was less likely to occur among female children compared to males [aOR = 0.859; 95% CI = 0.824-0.896]. Children whose perceived size at birth was average [aOR = 1.133; 95% CI = 1.076-1.193] and smaller than average [aOR = 1.278; 95% CI = 1.204-1.356] were more likely to suffer from TBM compared to those who were larger than average at birth. Children born to mothers with primary [aOR = 0.922; 95% CI = 0.865-0.984] and secondary [aOR = 0.829; 95% CI = 0.777-0.885] education were less likely to suffer from TBM compared to those born to mothers with no formal education. Children born to mothers who attended antenatal care (ANC) had lower odds of experiencing TBM compared to those born to mothers who did not attend ANC [aOR = 0.969; 95% CI = 0.887-0.998]. Children born to mothers who use clean household cooking fuel were less likely to experience TBM compared to children born to mothers who use unclean household cooking fuel [aOR = 0.724; 95% CI = 0.612-0.857]. Essentially, higher maternal education, ANC attendance and use of clean cooking fuel were protective factors against TBM, whereas higher child age, low size at birth and being a male child increased the risk of TBM. Given the regional variations in the prevalence and risk of TBM, region-specific interventions must be initiated to ensure the likelihood of those interventions being successful at reducing the risk of TBM. Countries in Western Africa in particular would have to strengthen their current policies and programmes on malnutrition to enhance their attainment of the SDGs.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Homens , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Hipernutrição , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199325

RESUMO

(1) Introduction: Stigmatization is a multi-level process leading to depreciation of particular social groups. It is particularly visible among people suffering from mental illnesses. Patient stigmatization is a serious problem in psychiatric care; thus, a reliable assessment of its level is important in the context of effective medical interventions. The aim of this paper is to assess the level of stigmatization of psychiatric patients among doctors. (2) Methods: An online, quantitative, CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interview) study was conducted in the form of an anonymous, voluntary survey addressed to doctors working in Poland. The questionnaire questions included a socio-geographic assessment and questions assessing the level of stigmatization. A standardized psychometric tool, the MICA-4 Scale for doctors, was also used. The results obtained were compared with the evaluation of the existing reports on stigmatization among Polish society. (3) Results: 501 doctors of various specialties and at various stages of career participated in the study. Most of the respondents were women (75%). The average score of MICA-4 obtained by the respondents was 40.26 (minimum 17; maximum 67; SD 8.93). The women's score was lower than the men's (p = 0.034). (4) Conclusions: Stigmatization of psychiatric patients is a common phenomenon among doctors. The type of performed work and career stage has an impact on the perception of psychiatric patients. Specialists scored highest in the MICA-4 Scale, similarly to physicians of surgical fields. Due to the prevalence of the phenomenon of stigmatization, especially among people who are meant to provide patients with help, there is an urgent need to implement anti-stigma programs.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Médicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Polônia , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200739

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to describe personality profiles and determinants of success in sports in relation to the Big Five Personality Model. In order to achieve this aim, personality profiles of players from various sports disciplines was set against the personality profile of champions-players who are considerably successful in sports competitions. Subsequently, an attempt was made to determine which personality traits significantly determine belonging to the group of champions-and therefore determine success in sport. The participants were men aged between 20 and 29 from the Polish population of sportsmen. A total of 1260 athletes were tested, out of whom 118 were qualified to the champions sample-those athletes had significant sports achievements. The research used the NEO-FFI Personality Questionnaire. Basic descriptive statistics, a series of Student's t-tests for independent samples using the bootstrapping method, as well as a logistic regression model were performed. In relation to other athletes, champions were characterized by a lower level of neuroticism and a higher level of extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. An important personality determinant was neuroticism: the lower the level of neuroticism, the greater the probability of an athlete being classified as a champion. There are differences between champions and other athletes in all personality dimensions in terms of the Big Five. Based on the result of the research, it can be stated that personality differences should be seen as a consequence of athletes' success, rather than as a reason for athletes' success, based on their age between 20 and 29.


Assuntos
Extroversão Psicológica , Homens , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 689156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307283

RESUMO

As mobility within the European Economic Area (EEA) is on the rise, it is important to understand migrants' health-related behaviors (such as physical activity [PA]) within this context. This study investigated i) the extent to which Italian immigrants in Norway perceive that moving had a negative or positive impact on their PA; ii) possible differences between the PA of the Italian immigrants compared with the Norwegian population; and iii) possible associations of the Italian immigrants' PA with key sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, region of residence, and educational level). The data were retrieved from the Mens Sana in Corpore Sano study. In order to enhance the sample's representativeness, the original dataset (n = 321) was oversampled in accordance with the proportion of key sociodemographic characteristics of the reference population using the ADASYN method (resampled n = 531). The results indicate that a large majority of Italian immigrants perceived that they were as or even more physically active in Norway than they would have been if they continued living in Italy, while 20% of the Italians perceived instead a negative impact. No significant differences were found in the PA levels of the Italians in comparison with the Norwegian population, though some differences were found in relation to specific modes of PA. After controlling for multiple sociodemographic characteristics, men, those with lower educational levels and, to a certain extent, older adults tended to perceive a more negative impact and be less physically active than their respective counterparts. Compared with those living in the most urbanized regions, a larger proportion of those living in less urbanized regions perceived a negative impact, though no differences were observed in terms of PA levels. The findings are discussed in light of acculturation, gender, and social gradient. The knowledge generated by this study sheds light on an important health-related behavior among Italians in Norway, which can inform initiatives that aim at promoting PA in this specific group as well as other similar contexts of intra-EEA migration.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Idoso , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Homens , Noruega
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044944, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193484

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Men have a higher prevalence of undiagnosed tuberculosis (TB) than women and can spend up to a year longer contributing to ongoing transmission in the community before receiving treatment. Health outcomes are often worse for patients with TB living in informal settlements especially men. This study aimed to understand the barriers preventing men from seeking care for TB and cocreate interventions to address these barriers. METHODS: We used qualitative research methods including in-depth interviews and participatory workshops. Researchers worked with women and men living in Bangwe, an informal settlement in Blantyre, Malawi to develop interventions that reflected their lived realities. The study took place over two phases, in the first phase we undertook interviews with men and women to explore barrier to care seeking, in the second phase we used participatory workshops to cocreate interventions to address barriers and followed up on issues emerging from the workshops with further interviews. In total, 30 interviews were conducted, and 23 participants joined participatory workshops. The team used a thematic analysis to analyse the data. RESULTS: Three interconnected thematic areas shaped men's health TB seeking behaviour: precarious socioeconomic conditions; gendered social norms; and constraints in the health system. Insecurity of day labour with no provision for sick leave; pressure to provide for the household and a gendered desire not to appear weak and a severely under-resourced health system all contributed to men delaying care in this context. Identified interventions included improved patient-provider relations within the health-system, improved workers' health rights and broader social support for households. CONCLUSION: Improving mens' pathways to care requires interventions that consider contextual issues by addressing individual level socioeconomic factors but also broader structural factors of gendered social dynamics and health systems environment.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Tuberculose , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Homens , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/terapia
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(7): 2729-2738, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231686

RESUMO

This paper discusses the phenomenon of violence in the affective-sexual trajectories of young, cisgender gay men, from popular strata, in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Brazilian literature on violence against gay men generally focuses on the discrimination suffered by this population. However, the violence they are submitted to among family relationships due to their sexual orientation, or even their relationships known as "dating" or "hookup", is hardly discussed. This qualitative study used in-depth interviews based on a semi-structured guide to discuss violence during the young gay men's affective-sexual trajectory. The results evidenced multiple faces of violence during childhood and adolescence in family relationships, spanning their affective-sexual relationships in adolescence and youth, including sexual, physical, psychological, and institutional violence. Support networks are limited, for example, to a few friends and access to blogs on the Internet. No health professional was cited as a helping source. There is a need to discuss the prevention of violence and discuss health promotion of this social group, expanding the perspective on the various contemporary ways of relating intimately.


Assuntos
Homens , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Violência
12.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 95, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the pregnancy and postpartum period, both women and men experience physiological and psychological changes, which may negatively impact their eating behavior. A clear understanding of determinants of changes in eating behavior during this period is needed to facilitate the development of targeted family-based interventions countering unfavorable dietary changes during this critical life period. METHODS: Thirteen focus group discussions targeting determinants of changes in eating behavior during pregnancy and postpartum were conducted, involving a total of 74 expecting and first-time parents. A semi-structured question guide was used to facilitate the discussions. An inductive thematic approach was used to derive main and sub-categories of determinants from the data. The Determinants of Nutrition and Eating (DONE)-framework was employed to systematically organize and label the categories and determinants. RESULTS: Two frameworks were developed; one for the pregnancy and one for the postpartum period, comprising determinants of changes in eating behavior in both women and men. Three main levels of determinants were identified: (1) the individual level, including psychological (e.g., 'health consciousness'), situational (e.g., 'effort and convenience') and biological (e.g., 'discomfort'); (2) the interpersonal level (e.g., 'social influence') and (3) the environmental level, including micro- and meso/macro (e.g., 'home/environment food availability'). Determinants acting as barriers (e.g., 'time constraints') or facilitators (e.g., 'being a role model') were identified. Many determinants were mentioned during both (e.g., 'food knowledge') or just one investigated period (e.g., 'physiological changes' during pregnancy, 'influence of the baby' postpartum). Finally, some were described by both parents (e.g., 'self-regulation'), whereas others were mentioned by women (e.g., '(perceived) food safety') or men (e.g., 'other priorities') only. CONCLUSION: The developed frameworks set the foundation for the development of future family-based interventions and may be used already by healthcare providers to provide dietary guidance and support for women and men transitioning into parenthood. A focus on the interplay of individual factors at the biological and psychological level together with situational difficulties during pregnancy is recommended. Postpartum, focus should go to support first-time parents to obtain balance of both maintaining one's own health and taking care of the baby, on improving self-regulation skills, and on coping with related situational constraints.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Homens , Período Pós-Parto , Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207087

RESUMO

Caffeine is the most common psychoactive substance available to adults, as well as to children and adolescents. The safety of its use in younger age groups requires further research. The aim of this study was to evaluate caffeine intake, to identify products and drinks that are the main sources of caffeine intake in the diet of the subjects and the risk of excessive caffeine intake with the diet of adolescents, stratified by gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 508 adolescents aged 16-18 years from southern Poland. Black tea, cola-based soft drinks and milk chocolate were the most frequently consumed products containing caffeine in the diet of the examined persons. The average caffeine intake was 95.54 mg/day (1.54 mg/kg b.w.). In 12.2% of the subjects the dose of 3 mg/kg b.w./day was exceeded, and in over 41.3% the dose causing sleep disorders was exceeded. The dose causing anxiety was also exceeded in 18.1% of the respondents, significantly more often in girls than boys (p = 0.0487).


Assuntos
Cafeína/análise , Café , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Bebidas/análise , Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Polônia , Medição de Risco , Chá/anatomia & histologia , Mulheres
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1398, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is often labelled a couple's disease wherein the partner plays an important role in the man's illness management and related health promotion activities. The aim of this study was to explore partner experiences of prostate cancer patients' engagement with a community-based football program. METHODS: Eight audio-visual recorded semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 39 female partners of men with prostate cancer who participated in a community-based football program as part of the nationwide FC Prostate Community Trial (NCT02430792). Data was managed with the software program Nvivo 11 and analysed inductively to derive thematic findings. RESULTS: The four thematic findings were: 1) 'Hope of a new beginning' which included stories of hope that football would mitigate the negative effects of men's prostate cancer treatment [s]; 2) 'My new partner' was characterized by attributing connections between physical activity and elevated mood as a by-product of men's involvement in the program; 3) 'Football first' included assertions of the couples mutual commitment to the football program; and 4) 'Invisible needs' contrasted insecurity, and unforeseen challenges for partners feeling somewhat neglected. Overall, the results confirm the need for cohesion and flexibility amongst couple-dyads to ensure partners and men with prostate cancer benefit from their involvement in football programs. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that partners of prostate cancer survivors' engaging with community-based football align to idealized gender relations, roles and identities. In many instances, these gendered dimensions aided positive dyadic coping and long-term exercise adherence.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Neoplasias da Próstata , Futebol , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Participação do Paciente , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255050, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324522

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study aimed to investigate whether the psychological impact of the COVID-19 crisis varied with regards to young Swiss men's pre-crisis level of education and socioeconomic status and to changes in their work situation due to it. METHODS: A cohort of 2345 young Swiss men (from 21 out of 26 Swiss cantons; mean age = 29) completed survey-based assessments shortly before (April 2019 to February 2020) and early on during the COVID-19 crisis (May to June 2020). Outcomes measured were psychological outcomes before and during the COVID-19 crisis (depression, perceived stress and sleep quality), and the fear, isolation and psychological trauma induced by it. We investigated associations between these outcomes and their predictors: pre-crisis socioeconomic status (relative financial status, difficulty paying bills, level of education), changes in work situation during the crisis (job loss, partial unemployment, working from home, change in workload) and working in contact with potentially infected people, both inside and outside the healthcare sector. For outcomes measured before and during the crisis, the analyses were adjusted for their pre-crisis levels. RESULTS: About 21% of participants changed their employment status (job loss, partial unemployment or lost money if self-employed) and more than 40% worked predominantly from home during the COVID-19 crisis. Participants with a lower relative socioeconomic status already before the crisis experienced a higher psychological impact due to the COVID-19 crisis, compared to participants with an average socioeconomic status (major depression (b = 0.12 [0.03, 0.22]), perceived stress (b = 0.15 [0.05, 0.25]), psychological trauma (b = 0.15 [0.04, 0.26]), fear (b = 0.20 [0.10, 0.30]) and isolation (b = 0.19 [0.08, 0.29])). A higher impact was also felt by participants who lost their job due to the COVID-19 crisis, the partially unemployed, those with an increased workload or those who worked mainly from home (e.g. depression b = 0.25 [0.16, 0.34] for those working 90%+ at home, compared to those not working at home). CONCLUSIONS: Even in a country like Switzerland, with relatively high social security benefits and universal healthcare, the COVID-19 crisis had a considerable psychological impact, especially among those with a lower socioeconomic status and those who experienced deteriorations in their work situation due to the COVID-19 crisis. Supporting these populations during the crisis may help to prevent an amplification of inequalities in mental health and social status. Such support could help to lower the overall impact of the crisis on the mental well-being of Switzerland's population.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Classe Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça , Desemprego/psicologia
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1354, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although health care providers are beginning to focus on men's roles as fathers and husbands, there is limited understanding of how men view their ability to promote sexual and reproductive health in families affected by HIV and their experiences with receiving education through antenatal care. This paper aims to explore men's perceptions of the education they need regarding sexual and reproductive health within the family in the context of HIV. METHODS: We interviewed a convenience sample of 18 male partners of pregnant women living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. Atlas.ti was used to facilitate data management and content analysis. RESULTS: Men reported being the primary decision-makers regarding sexual and reproductive issues in the family; however, they admitted far-reaching unmet needs in terms of information on sexual and reproductive health in the context of HIV. Most men felt that antenatal care was not a conducive setting to fully educate men on sexual and reproductive health because it is a woman's space where their health concerns were generally neglected. There was a strong desire for more education that was specific to men's sexual and reproductive health, especially because all the couples were affected by HIV. Men especially requested education on sexual preparedness, safe sex, the use of condoms in sero-concordant and sero-discordant relationships and general health information. Although men stated they were the main decision-makers regarding sexual and reproductive issues such as pregnancy, most men were not confident in their ability to promote sexual and reproductive health in the family because of limited knowledge in this area. CONCLUSION: There is need to change the environment and messaging of antenatal care, as well as offer relevant education opportunities outside health facility settings to empower men with essential information for meaningful involvement in sexual and reproductive health in the context of HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Saúde Reprodutiva , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Percepção , Gravidez , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072550

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health and widespread problem, and perpetrator programmes are in a unique position to work towards the end of gender-based violence. However, in order to promote safe perpetrator work, it is crucial to focus on the impact of IPV on the victims and survivors. In this context, little research has triangulated data by including both, victim's perspectives on the impact that IPV has on them and also men's level of awareness of the impact of their violent behaviour. In this paper, results from the "Impact Outcome Monitoring Toolkit (Impact Toolkit)" from one perpetrator treatment programme in the UK are presented. Participants were 98 in total; 49 men that were following treatment in a perpetrator program and their (ex-) partners. The differences in their perceptions of the IPV, but also on the impact of this abusive behavior on the victims, is described. Finally, recommendations for research and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Homens , Humanos , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1194, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage and risk factors, Black Americans have a lower prevalence of depression than whites. Given the emerging focus of depression as a public mental health crisis, culturally informed depression measures and scale development techniques are needed to better alleviate the mental health burden of socially marginalized populations. Yet, for Black men, race- and gender-related factors that position emotional vulnerability as a sign of weakness, may potentially mask the timely identification of mental health needs in this population. Thus, we address these gaps by employing a stakeholder-driven, community-engaged process for understanding Black men's depression experience. METHODS: We use concept mapping, a structured mixed methods approach, to determine how stakeholders of Black men's health conceptualize their depressive symptoms. Thirty-six stakeholders participated in a three-phase concept mapping study conducted in 2018. Three separate stakeholder groups were engaged for this study, including Black men, Black women, and primary care providers. RESULTS: Participants generated 68 characteristics of Black men's depression which were reflected within five conceptual clusters: (1) physical states; (2) emotional states; (3) diminished drive; (4) internal conflicts; (5) communication with others; and (6) social pressures. Using a content analysis approach, we found that items comprising the "social pressures" cluster were not reflected in any common depression scales. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study illustrate the similar and divergent pathways in which Black men express depressed mood. Furthermore, concept mapping results also yield a novel opportunity for culturally informed scale development in future research.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Depressão , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Saúde do Homem , Saúde Mental
19.
J Interpers Violence ; 36(13-14): 5969-5990, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121496

RESUMO

The Vietnamese government has made efforts to promote gender equality and to discourage intimate partner violence (IPV), yet IPV remains a common experience for married women in Vietnam. IPV leads to severe injury, poor mental health, chronic disease, and substance abuse among women, yet little is known about why men perpetrate IPV. We explored how men defined IPV and perceived women's recourse-seeking following IPV in Vietnam. Using data from 10 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions with Vietnamese men, taken from a parent study on attitudes about IPV in Vietnam, we found that men often viewed IPV against women as normal and justified violence occurring when a husband was "hot-tempered," drunk, or when the wife was seen as at fault. Men interviewed were often reluctant to endorse recourse-seeking on the part of the woman unless the violence was both frequent and severe. While frequent and severe IPV was seen as warranting recourse-seeking, infrequent or less severe IPV was normalized and seen as a private family issue. For less severe IPV, men felt that women could potentially engage in recourse such as running or hiding from a husband to avoid instances of IPV. Only when IPV was happening multiple times per week and was severe enough to warrant medical treatment was recourse such as approaching family or neighbors for help, notifying authorities, and petitioning for divorce seen as appropriate. Interventions with men are needed to support recourse-seeking for women and to reduce IPV in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Homens , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Vietnã
20.
Qual Health Res ; 31(10): 1772-1785, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092141

RESUMO

Black men have the highest age-adjusted death rate of any major race-gender group in America. Understanding their perceived barriers to accessing health care may benefit future interventions working to increase Black men's health care engagement. Data collected from focus groups of Black men(N = 67), key informant interviews(N = 12), and interviews(N = 5) with participants who pilot tested an online health education system (called "Gabe") were analyzed to explore their health care experiences and how computer-based health programs might better assist Black men. Concerns pertaining to health care systems' failure to recognize the diversity among Black men, and physicians' lack of sociocultural awareness about the challenges they regularly face, were most salient. Building trust with providers was cited as being central to engagement, with Gabe users perceiving the system to be both trustworthy and accessible. Participants reported an openness to technology assisting with health management and provided suggestions of how online systems can meet the needs of Black men.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Homens , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Homem , Tecnologia
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