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1.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 106, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male involvement in maternal healthcare has been widely recognized as essential for positive health outcomes for expectant mothers and their unborn babies. However, few studies have explored men's experiences of maternal health services. The purpose of this paper is to explore men's involvement in antenatal care in urban Ghana and to discuss how men navigate their roles in a space that has been constructed as feminine. The study draws upon theories of space, place, and gender. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory study using semistructured interviews, focus group discussion, and observation was conducted in Accra, Ghana. Expectant fathers and health workers were interviewed, and observation was conducted at a selected public hospital in Accra. RESULTS: The findings suggest that the few men who attend antenatal care with their expecting partners become involved to a limited extent in the clinic's activities. Beyond a few who take an active role, most men stay on the outskirts of the hospital grounds and rarely participate in consultations with their partner and midwife. Men still view their presence as necessary to acquire knowledge and as sources of emotional, financial, and physical support for their partners. On the health workers' side, the study found no clear agenda for engaging men at the clinic, and nurses/midwives felt there was a lack of staff who could engage more directly with the men. CONCLUSION: The study indicates that most expecting fathers feel too shy and uncomfortable to locate themselves in the female space that makes up antenatal care/maternity wards. Health workers do not feel they have the necessary resources to involve men fruitfully. Thus, men do not engage in the activity as hoped but rather remain on the outskirts of the maternity clinic. However, if men continue to negotiate their involvement at the clinic and become more assertive in their roles, the maternity clinic as a female space could, with time, be transformed into a space in which both expecting mothers and fathers can actively participate and be engaged to the benefit of all.


Assuntos
Pai/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Homens/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto , Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Gana , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Papel (figurativo) , Saúde da Mulher
2.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(1): 62-72, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617321

RESUMO

We have tracked belief in the effectiveness of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) among Australian gay and bisexual men (GBM) since 2013. National, online cross-sectional surveys of GBM were conducted every 2 years during 2013-2019. Trends and associations were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Data from 4,903 survey responses were included. Belief that HIV treatment prevents transmission increased from 2.6% in 2013 to 34.6% in 2019. Belief in the effectiveness of TasP was consistently higher among HIV-positive participants than other participants. In 2019, higher levels of belief in TasP were independently associated with university education, being HIV-positive, using pre-exposure prophylaxis, knowing more HIV-positive people, being recently diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and use of post-exposure prophylaxis. Belief that HIV treatment prevents transmission has increased substantially among Australian GBM, but remains concentrated among HIV-positive GBM, those who know HIV-positive people, and GBM who use antiretroviral-based prevention.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexo sem Proteção
3.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244550, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411823

RESUMO

Sexual violence against women and girls is a major public health problem globally and in South Africa. Although young men have been identified as an important risk group for prevention interventions, scant attention have been given to this age cohort in low and middle-income countries. There is strong evidence that perpetration starts early and increasing attention is being drawn to Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) as settings for prevention interventions. The main objective of this study was to adapt the One Man Can Intervention for use with male university students in residences and develop materials for implementation. This paper presents the qualitative findings of the adaptation process of the One Man Can Intervention with 15 young male student leaders at a HEI in South Africa. The same participants who started in the study, participated throughout. Only five of the 15 participants were located and participated in the interviews six months post intervention. The results show the emergence of a six-hour session adapted intervention that addresses key drivers of violence against women and girls (VAWG). Critical engagement and dialogue on sexual violence is shown to shift key norms on gender equality, on being a man and reflection on their role in preventing sexual violence. This paper contributes to the field where much learning, refining and improvement of prevention interventions for VAWG are ongoing.


Assuntos
Consciência , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Homens/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 29, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Historically, men's experiences of grief following pregnancy loss and neonatal death have been under-explored in comparison to women. However, investigating men's perspectives is important, given potential gendered differences concerning grief styles, help-seeking and service access. Few studies have comprehensively examined the various individual, interpersonal, community and system/policy-level factors which may contribute to the intensity of grief in bereaved parents, particularly for men. METHODS: Men (N = 228) aged at least 18 years whose partner had experienced an ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, stillbirth, termination of pregnancy for foetal anomaly, or neonatal death within the last 20 years responded to an online survey exploring their experiences of grief. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the factors associated with men's grief intensity and style. RESULTS: Men experienced significant grief across all loss types, with the average score sitting above the minimum cut-off considered to be a high degree of grief. Men's total grief scores were associated with loss history, marital satisfaction, availability of social support, acknowledgement of their grief from family/friends, time spent bonding with the baby during pregnancy, and feeling as though their role of 'supporter' conflicted with their ability to process grief. Factors contributing to grief also differed depending on grief style. Intuitive (emotion-focused) grief was associated with support received from healthcare professionals. Instrumental (activity-focused) grief was associated with time and quality of attachment to the baby during pregnancy, availability of social support, acknowledgement of men's grief from their female partner, supporter role interfering with their grief, and tendencies toward self-reliance. CONCLUSIONS: Following pregnancy loss and neonatal death, men can experience high levels of grief, requiring acknowledgement and validation from all healthcare professionals, family/friends, community networks and workplaces. Addressing male-specific needs, such as balancing a desire to both support and be supported, requires tailored information and support. Strategies to support men should consider grief styles and draw upon father-inclusive practice recommendations. Further research is required to explore the underlying causal mechanisms of associations found.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/psicologia , Pesar , Homens/psicologia , Morte Perinatal , Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Família , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Feto , Amigos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Masculinidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apego ao Objeto , Gravidez , Apoio Social , Natimorto/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 20(1): 88-93, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400407

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States, and men experience higher rates of skin cancer than women. Despite publicized preventative measures, men are less likely than women to use sunscreen. OBJECTIVE: To assess men's motivations, behaviors, and preferred product characteristics towards daily sunscreen use. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional online survey of 705 men, administered July– August 2019, using Survey Monkey and distributed through Amazon Mechanical Turk. PARTICIPANTS: Men ages 20–70, having completed at least High School/GED, and living in the United States were eligible. Sampling strategy ensured diversity in terms of race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Main Outcome(s) and Measures: Men’s sunscreen use, behaviors, and preferred skincare product characteristics. RESULTS: Final participants included 705 men. The most frequent skincare products used regularly were liquid soap/body wash (65%), bar soap (47%), and moisturizers (32%). Most men (n=612; 83%) reported not using sunscreen daily, and 38% reported using sunscreen weekly. Income was related to daily and weekly sunscreen use, as males who earned between $40-$50,000 annually used sunscreen less often compared to people who earned $100,000 annually (OR 0.54%, 95% CI −0.34% to .88%; P = .01). Age, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, and region were not related to daily or weekly sunscreen use. Main motivators for daily sunscreen use included reducing skin cancer risk (n=575; 82%) and looking younger (n=299; 42%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This survey shows lapses in evidenced-based sunscreen behaviors to reduce skin cancer among men. Campaigns to reduce skin cancer should focus on increasing men's interest in daily sunscreen use and adherence to wearing sun-protective products. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021;20(1):88-93. doi:10.36849/JDD.5470.


Assuntos
Homens/psicologia , Higiene da Pele/psicologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Higiene da Pele/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Queimadura Solar/complicações , Queimadura Solar/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239914, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112868

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that menstruation-related teasing is a common experience among adolescent girls with ramifications on their school participation, yet empirical evidence on the prevalence and determinants of period teasing in schools remain scarce. Menstrual hygiene research and policies almost exclusively focus on girls and women, leading to a dearth of knowledge of male attitudes. We conducted the first quantitative survey of period teasing in schools in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on 432 male and 524 female students in four co-educational secondary schools in northern Tanzania. Period teasing is prevalent; 13% of girls have experienced period teasing, and more than 80% fear being teased, especially by male classmates. Girls' fears are associated with insufficient menstrual hygiene management resources and practices. Girls cope by reducing school attendance, participation, and concentration in the classroom during periods. Boys engage in period teasing because they perceive periods as embarrassing, especially visible markers of periods (odor or stains). Social norms, such as peer behavior and home restrictions on menstruating women, are associated with more teasing. Boys believe it is strongly inappropriate for girls to reveal period status or to discuss periods with males, including male teachers. In contrast, boys are well informed about basic biological facts of menstruation (scoring 60% on a knowledge quiz, not statistically different from the girls) and have received information from school curricula and health workers. Lack of suitable menstrual hygiene practices and restrictive social norms is correlated with period teasing, which hinders gender equality in educational opportunities. Providing narrowly bio-medical focused education about menstruation may not be enough to reduce period teasing in contexts with period stigma.


Assuntos
Atitude , Bullying , Homens/psicologia , Menstruação/psicologia , Normas Sociais , Estigma Social , Mulheres/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/provisão & distribuição , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3481-3491, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to understand how men's feelings and emotions contribute to the Covid-19 framing in Brazil. METHOD: Asocial-historical, qualitative study, carried out with 200 men resident in Brazil, through online search on digital platform.The grasped data were analyzed by the Collective Subject Discourse method in the light of the reference of epidemic disease proposed by Charles Rosemberg. RESULTS: Negative feelings and anxiety prevailed due to the knowledge about the growing number of hospitalized patients and deaths from the pandemic conveyed in the news. For men, the optimism is necessary to encourage attitudes with responsibility and trust that the crisis will be overcome.Subsequently, men present a set of attitudes and behaviors for coping with the pandemic.Moreover,the acceptance signals the emergence of the fourth dramaturgical act of the Covid-19framing. CONCLUSION: Men's feelings and emotions, in this historic context, pervade three of the four acts of the Covid-19 framingin Brazil.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emoções , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1089, 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sexual behaviour of adolescents is of importance due to the engagement in risky sexual activity at a too early age, which may be associated with the adverse outcomes. The study aims to understand the transitions in adolescent boys and young men's high-risk sexual behaviour in India using two rounds of Indian demographic health survey, NFHS-3 (2005-06) and NFHS-4 (2015-16). METHODS: A total of 25,538 in NFHS-3 (2005-06) and 35,112 in NFHS-4 (2015-16) men were considered for the analysis. Men have been divided into two age groups as 15-19 years (adolescent) and 20-24 (young men) for comparison purposes. Descriptive and multivariate statistics have been used. RESULTS: Overall, high-risk sexual behaviour has increased among adolescent boys (64 to 70%) and young men (18 to 27%) from 2005-06 to 2015-16. The trend of live-in relationship has increased among adolescent boys of rural areas (0.6 to 6.0%) as well as in urban areas (3.1 to 10.9%) over the last 10 years. Adolescent boys having 10th and above years of schooling (AOR = 1.98; p < 0.01), residing in urban areas (AOR = 2.23; p < 0.01), and belonging to the affluent class of households (AOR = 1.41; p < 0.05) were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual activity than the young men in India. The odds of high-risk sexual behaviour was higher among alcohol-using adolescent boys (AOR = 1.82; p < 0.01) and young men (AOR = 2.38; p < 0.01) in 2015-16. CONCLUSIONS: The study concludes that early sexual debut, lower prevalence of condom use at first sexual experience, tendency of live-in-relationship, and alcohol consumption indicate the hazardous interconnection between such behaviours among adolescent boys over the last decade which placed them at higher-risky sexual behaviour as compared to young men. Adolescent' sexual behaviours have both short-term and long-term consequences, and interventions that focus on multiple domains of risk may be the most effective in helping to promote broad reproductive health among young adults.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Homens/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Sexo Seguro/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Autoeficácia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 276, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The underestimation of depression among men may result from atypical depression symptoms and male help-seeking behaviour. However, higher suicide rates among men than among women indicate a need for gender-specific services for men with depression. In order to develop gender-specific services, it is essential to examine professionals' attitudes towards men's depressive symptoms and treatment needs as well as barriers to and facilitators of treatment. This study examined gender-specific treatment needs in male patients and treatment approaches to male patients from a professional perspective. METHODS: Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 33 mental health professionals (MHPs) from five German psychiatric institutions. The study assessed the characteristics and attributes of male patients with depression risk factors for the development of depression among men, their condition at the beginning of treatment, male patients' depressive symptoms, the needs and expectations of male patients, the importance of social networks in a mental health context, and MHPs' treatment aims and treatment methods. Transcripts were analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The professionals' reference group of male patients were men who were characterised in accordance with traditional masculinity. Attributes reported as in line with this type of men were late initiations of inpatient treatment after crisis, suicidal ideation or attempted suicide, and high expectations towards treatment duration, success rate in recovery and therapeutic sessions. In contrast, male patients who deviate from these patterns were partially described with reference to female stereotypes. Professionals referred to psychosocial models in their explanations of the causes of depression and provided sociological explanations for the development of masculine ideals among men. The consequences of these for treatment were discussed against the background of normative expectations regarding the male gender. From the professionals' point of view, psychoeducation and the acceptance of depression (as a widespread mental illness) were the most important goals in mental health treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve mental health among men, gender-specific services should be offered. Awareness of the role of gender and its implications on mental health treatment should be an integral part of MHPs' education and their daily implementation of mental health treatment practices.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Homens/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Saúde do Homem/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes/psicologia , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232939, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male involvement in maternal health has been linked to positive health outcomes for women and children, as they control household resources and make significant decisions, which influence maternal health. Despite of the important role they have in maternal health care, their actual involvement remains low. The objective of this study was to explore community perspectives on potential barriers to men's involvement in maternity care in central Tanzania. METHODS: Qualitative research methods were used in data collection. We conducted 32 focus group discussions (16 FGDs with men and 16 FGDs with women) and 34 in-depth interviews with community leaders, village health workers and health care providers. Interview guides were used to guide the focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. The interviews and discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and translated into English and imported into QSR NVivo 9 software for thematic analysis. Three themes emerged from the data; men's maternity care involvement indicators, benefits of men's involvement in maternity health care services and barriers to men's involvement in maternity health care services. RESULTS: Both men and women participants acknowledged the importance of men's involvement in maternity health care services, even though few men actually got involved. Identified benefits of men's involvement in maternity health care services include: Learning any risk factors directly from the health care providers and getting prepared in addressing them; and reinforcing adherence to instruction received from the health care provider as family protectors and guardians. Barriers to men's involvement in maternity health care services are systemic; starting from the family, health care and culture-specific gender norms for maternity related behaviour as well as healthcare facilities structural constrains inhibiting implementation of couple-friendly maternity health care services. CONCLUSIONS: Men's involvement in maternity care is influenced by culture-specific maternity-related gender norms. This situation is compounded by the conditions of deprivation that deny women access to resources with which they could find alternative support during pregnancy. Moreover, structures meant for maternal health care services lack privacy, thus inhibiting male partners' presence in the delivery room. Intervention to increase men's involvement in maternity care should address individual and systemic barriers to men's involvement.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna/tendências , Homens/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/tendências , Adulto , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Identidade de Gênero , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Materna/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obstetrícia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Parceiros Sexuais , Tanzânia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 724, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally only 79% of adults living with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) know their status and men in sub-Saharan Africa are considered a particularly hard-to-reach population for HIV testing. Home-based HIV couple testing during the antenatal period is a safe and effective method that has been used to test male partners of pregnant women. The goal of this qualitative study was to identify elements that made couple testing successful and describe important characteristics of this home-based intervention from couples' perspectives. METHODS: Couples who received scheduled home-based couple testing during pregnancy in Kisumu, Kenya, were purposively sampled based on HIV status from January to May 2015. An interviewer administered all of the in-depth interviews and two coders were directly involved in the data analysis and reconciled codes several times in the process. RESULTS: Twenty-one couples were enrolled: 9 concordant HIV-negative couples, 8 HIV discordant couples, 3 HIV concordant HIV-positive couples, and 1 whose concordance status was unknown. Median age at the time of home-based couple testing was 24 and 28 years for women and men, respectively. Median relationship duration was 3 years and couples had a median of two pregnancies. The major themes that emerged were that home-based couple testing 1) removed the female burden of requesting couple testing, 2) overcame logistical barriers associated with clinic-based testing, 3) encouraged participants to overcome their fear of testing and disclosure, 4) provided privacy in the home, and 5) provided quality time with the health advisors. Importantly, some women appreciated individual testing at the clinic before couple testing and some couples preferred skilled, anonymous health advisors delivering the intervention rather than known community health workers. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this qualitative study suggest that home-based couple testing during pregnancy overcame many of the barriers that limit men's access to and uptake of clinic-based testing. It encouraged participants to overcome their fear of testing and disclosure through a setting that afforded privacy and quality time with skilled health advisors. These qualitative results may help design effective partner and couple HIV testing programs in the antenatal setting and alongside or within other assisted partner notification services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov registry: NCT01784783. Registered prospectively on June 15, 2012.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homens/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Testes Sorológicos/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Revelação , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Testes para Triagem do Soro Materno/métodos , Testes para Triagem do Soro Materno/psicologia , Motivação , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 730, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Along with sexual partners of other high-risk groups, men who purchase sex (MWPS) represented 18% of new HIV diagnoses worldwide in 2018. They are therefore an important population for HIV prevention globally. Despite very low HIV testing coverage among MWPS in many countries, the role of HIV self-testing to increase testing coverage has not been explored. We, therefore, conducted a pilot intervention study to evaluate the uptake and acceptability of assisted and unassisted HIV self-testing among MWPS in Indonesia. METHODS: MWPS attending seven brothels in Bali between December 2017 and January 2018 were recruited by lay health providers to participate in a brief health survey, and then invited to have a HIV self-test (assisted or unassisted) with an OraQuick® ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test and complete a post-test acceptability survey. RESULTS: A total of 292 men completed the health survey (response rate: 70%) and 188 (64.6%) accepted HIV self-testing. Of these men, 13.3% had ever tested for HIV and 58.9% reported condom use at their last sexual encounter with a brothel-based female sex worker. Nearly all men (98.9%) who accepted a HIV self-test preferred assisted HIV self-testing - of whom 83.9% preferred to be fully assisted and 16.1% opted to be partially assisted and read their results privately. Of the men who accepted the test and showed the result to the lay health providers, 4 (2.1%) received reactive results. Linkage following HIV self-test is a concern, as none of the four men with a reactive result attended HIV testing at the recommended referral HIV testing clinic over a two-month follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to investigate the acceptance of HIV self-testing when offered to MWPS in brothels by lay health providers. The high uptake of HIV self-testing suggests that this testing model is acceptable and could increase the very low HIV testing coverage among MWPS. The strong preference for fully assisted HIV self-testing highlights the importance of involving lay health providers in future testing programs. When scaling up HIV self-testing programmatically, strategies to improve linkage-to-care should be considered and evaluated.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homens/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Autoadministração/psicologia , Testes Sorológicos/psicologia , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Adulto , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Autoadministração/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 682, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to reduce women's exposure to violence and develop culturally appropriate interventions, it is important to gain an understanding of how men who use violence rationalize it. The present study sought to explore the perspectives of men who had used violence on their female partners, specifically their views on intimate partner violence (IPV), gender norms, manhood, their gender attitudes and to understand how these may drive male perpetrated IPV against women in the Central Region of Ghana. METHODS: This was a qualitative study involving purposively sampled adult men who had participated in a household-based survey in selected districts in the Central Region of Ghana and who had self-reported perpetration of IPV in the past 12 months. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 men. RESULTS: Data revealed how a range of social, cultural, and religious factors ̶ stemming from patriarchy ̶ combined to inform the construction of a traditional masculinity. These factors included the notion that decision-making in the home is a man's prerogative, there should be rigid and distinct gender roles, men's perceptions of owning female partners and having the right to have sex with them whenever they desire, and the notion that wife beating is legitimate discipline. Findings suggest that it was through performing, or aspiring to achieve, this form of masculinity that men used varying forms of violence against their female partners. Moreover, data show that the men's use of violence was a tactic for controlling women and emphasizing their authority and power over them. CONCLUSIONS: Developers of interventions to prevent IPV need to recognize that there is a coherent configuration of aspirations, social norms and behaviours that is drawn on by some men to justify their use of IPV. Understanding the perspectives of men who have perpetrated IPV against women and their motivations for perpetration is essential for interventions to prevent IPV. This is discussed as drawing authority from 'tradition' and so engaging traditional and religious leaders, as well as men and women throughout the community, in activities to challenge this is likely to be particularly fruitful.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Homens/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Características Culturais , Características da Família , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Normas Sociais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(5): 281-289, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286866

RESUMO

Men are faced with trends that give rise to the desire for a muscular and lean body; this may result in body dissatisfaction. Body dissatisfaction is associated with a plethora of health consequences. Social media has been named as one contributing factor for male body dissatisfaction. Up till now, women have been the focus of body image-related social media studies. Therefore, we conducted a quantitative content analysis of 1,000 relevant Instagram posts that were posted by men (and/or depicted men) to understand how the male body is depicted on Instagram and how user respond to those images. The majority of sampled posts showed high levels of muscularity and leanness. In addition, posts depicting men adhering to this specific body type received significantly more responses (likes and comments). Norms and outcomes related to health (i.e., training to be healthy) were more commonly shown than appearance-related constructs (i.e., training to become attractive), and promotion of physical activity was more common than dietary behavior. However, findings are potential harmful to men's body image, even if one considers that health-related messaging and physical active promotion was prominent. It remains debatable if men need to view very lean and very muscular men to encourage health-related behaviors.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Insatisfação Corporal/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 418, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the relationship between men's health and violence is flawed by narrow and faulty conceptualization and measurement of violence that often results in attribution of health problems to one form or type of violence without consideration of other exposures. Our purpose is to describe the development and initial testing of the Cumulative Lifetime Violence Severity scale designed for use in health research to measure men's perceptions of the severity of their cumulative lifetime violence. METHODS: We framed the dimensions of violence severity as: type (physical, psychological, sexual), timing (childhood, adulthood), focus (perpetrator, target), context, frequency, and degree of distress. Items reflecting these dimensions were vetted by local experts including individuals who identified as men, with particular attention to meaningful language for men. The measure was pretested, revised to 64 items, and tested for test-retest reliability prior to use in a study of 685 English-speaking Eastern Canadian men, ages 19 to 65 years. We used Principal Components Analysis to illuminate the underlying dimensionality of the items. RESULTS: Principal Components Analysis yielded a 44-item 11 component solution that accounted for 64.06% of variance with good model fit and a Cronbach's alpha of .92. All dimensions of our conceptualization of violence severity were reflected in the components, except Adult Target Sexual Violence. Convergent validity between the Cumulative Lifetime Violence Severity-44 Scale and a global lifetime violence rating scale was r = .750 (p < .001) and concurrent validity was moderate and significant between the Cumulative Lifetime Violence Severity-44 scale and measures of mental health problems commonly experienced by people with violence histories. CONCLUSIONS: The Cumulative Lifetime Violence Severity-44 scale shows promise as the first comprehensive measure of cumulative lifetime violence for health research that considers gender, individual distress and experiences as both perpetrator and target. Next steps include further exploratory analysis with a more diverse sample of men and confirmatory factor analysis.


Assuntos
Exposição à Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Homens/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
18.
AIDS Behav ; 24(9): 2616-2623, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124109

RESUMO

Few studies have explored the relationship between transactional sex and HIV in adult men, with even fewer exploring the predictors of providing money or goods in exchange for sex. This study aimed to characterise the predictors and patterns of transactional sex in adult men in an urban informal area in South Africa. We used baseline, cross-sectional data from a study of 2406 men aged 18-40 years from an urban informal area. Past year transactional sex was assessed through questions adapted from those used previously. Controlling behaviour was measured using an adapted Sexual Relationship Power Scale. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine associations between transactional sex and other potential explanatory variables. Nearly half (47%) of respondents who had ever had sex reported at least one type of transactional sex with a casual partner in the past year. A third of men provided support or money for a sex partner's family, 30% provided cash and 28% provided somewhere to stay. Controlling for other factors, men with higher levels of controlling behaviour had nearly double the odds of engaging in transactional sex. Men reporting three or more sexual partners had significantly higher odds of engaging in transactional sex. Hazardous drinkers had 33% higher odds of engaging in transactional sex. Men's provision of money or goods in exchange for sex with women is related to other high-risk behaviours, such as multiple sexual partners, hazardous drinking and controlling behaviour. To address transactional sex-related HIV risks, programming should address harmful masculinities, including relationship control.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , África do Sul/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 249, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Engagement of men with commercial and UK National Health Service (NHS) weight loss services is low, and few studies report on why this may be. However, evidence shows that men who do participate in weight loss programmes tend to lose as much, or more weight than women. The present study aimed to explore men's experiences and expectations of mainstream weight loss services in the UK, following referral from a medical professional, particular in relation to barriers and motivators. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 men with a BMI over 25 kg/m2 including those who had, and had not, attended group-based or one-to-one weight loss services. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Two themes were identified; 'Fear as a motivation for change' (1) and 'Attitudes towards existing weight loss services' (2). Within theme two, two subthemes were identified; 'Female dominated services' and 'Incompatibility of existing services for men'. The findings suggest that fear, as a result of a medical diagnosis or referral is a mechanism for motivating men to engage with weight loss services. This was often augmented by awareness of other people's experiences of poor health due to their weight. The gender imbalance and attitudes towards existing weight loss services deterred men from engaging with or continuously attending sessions. This imbalance resulted in feelings of self-consciousness, shame and a perceived stigma for men using weight loss services. These experiences highlighted the importance of providing services which align with men's preferences to promote engagement. CONCLUSIONS: A medical diagnosis or referral serves as a strong motivator for men to engage with weight loss services by invoking fear of negative consequences of not losing weight. Men perceived weight loss services to be feminised spaces, in which they felt self-conscious and out of place. As a result, men were deterred from engaging and considered their options were limited. Implications for service design and commissioning are discussed. Involving men in research, service design and evaluation is key to improving their engagement and weight loss.


Assuntos
Homens/psicologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Programas de Redução de Peso/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Medo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Infant Ment Health J ; 41(3): 327-339, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045009

RESUMO

Young children of color-especially boys-are at disproportionate risk for suspension and expulsion from early care and education settings. Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (IECMHC) is an approach associated with lower than expected expulsion rates, but the mechanisms through which it may influence preschool expulsion are unknown. This paper reflects on the parallels between IECMHC and interventions created to reduce implicit bias. Based on interviews with leaders in IECMHC practice, implementation, and evaluation, a theoretical framework was created to articulate how IECMHC is hypothesized to affect expulsion by first reducing the influence of implicit bias on disciplinary decisions. Implications for practice and research are provided.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Saúde da Criança/normas , Saúde Mental , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Comportamento Infantil/ética , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/normas , Proteção da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/ética , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/métodos , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Masculino , Homens/psicologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Saúde Mental/normas , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/normas , Psicologia Educacional , Fatores de Risco
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