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2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232939, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male involvement in maternal health has been linked to positive health outcomes for women and children, as they control household resources and make significant decisions, which influence maternal health. Despite of the important role they have in maternal health care, their actual involvement remains low. The objective of this study was to explore community perspectives on potential barriers to men's involvement in maternity care in central Tanzania. METHODS: Qualitative research methods were used in data collection. We conducted 32 focus group discussions (16 FGDs with men and 16 FGDs with women) and 34 in-depth interviews with community leaders, village health workers and health care providers. Interview guides were used to guide the focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. The interviews and discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and translated into English and imported into QSR NVivo 9 software for thematic analysis. Three themes emerged from the data; men's maternity care involvement indicators, benefits of men's involvement in maternity health care services and barriers to men's involvement in maternity health care services. RESULTS: Both men and women participants acknowledged the importance of men's involvement in maternity health care services, even though few men actually got involved. Identified benefits of men's involvement in maternity health care services include: Learning any risk factors directly from the health care providers and getting prepared in addressing them; and reinforcing adherence to instruction received from the health care provider as family protectors and guardians. Barriers to men's involvement in maternity health care services are systemic; starting from the family, health care and culture-specific gender norms for maternity related behaviour as well as healthcare facilities structural constrains inhibiting implementation of couple-friendly maternity health care services. CONCLUSIONS: Men's involvement in maternity care is influenced by culture-specific maternity-related gender norms. This situation is compounded by the conditions of deprivation that deny women access to resources with which they could find alternative support during pregnancy. Moreover, structures meant for maternal health care services lack privacy, thus inhibiting male partners' presence in the delivery room. Intervention to increase men's involvement in maternity care should address individual and systemic barriers to men's involvement.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna/tendências , Homens/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/tendências , Adulto , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Identidade de Gênero , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Materna/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obstetrícia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Parceiros Sexuais , Tanzânia
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 275, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Engaging and retaining young men in community-based interventions is highly challenging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the individual factors that predict intervention engagement and adherence in a sample of at-risk South African men. METHODS: Baseline data were collected as a part of a cluster randomised control trial (RCT) situated in Khayelitsha and Mfuleni, two peri-urban settlements situated on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. Neighbourhoods were randomised to one of three intervention conditions. We performed univariate descriptive statistics to report neighbourhood and individual socio-demographic factors, and ran multivariate models, adjusting for entry of study, to determine if high adherence and consistency of engagement with the intervention were associated with socio-behavioural demographics and risk behaviours, such as hazardous substance use, gangsterism, and criminal activity. RESULTS: Total of 729 men were on average 22.5 years old (SD 2.8), with a mean of 10 years of education. More than half of the sample were single (94%), lived with their parents (66%) and had an income below ~$30 (52%). The overall mean of adherence is 0.41 (SD 0.24) and mean of consistency of engagement is 0.61 (SD 0.30). Our data indicated that completing more years of education, living with parents, and having higher socioeconomic status were significantly associated with higher rates of engagement and adherence. Men with a history of gang membership demonstrated higher levels of adherence and consistent engagement with the intervention, compared with other men who were recruited to the intervention. Crucially, our data show that young men with a history of substance use, and young men who report symptoms of depression and high levels of perceived stress are equally likely as other young men to adhere to the intervention and attend intervention sessions consistently. CONCLUSION: Our results may contribute to a better understanding of young men's patterns of engagement and adherence to public health interventions. The results may have important implications for policy and practice, as they may be useful in planning more effective interventions and could potentially be used to predict which young men can be reached through community-based interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov registration, NCT02358226. Prospectively registered 24 November 2014.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Homens/psicologia , Saúde Pública , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 249, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Engagement of men with commercial and UK National Health Service (NHS) weight loss services is low, and few studies report on why this may be. However, evidence shows that men who do participate in weight loss programmes tend to lose as much, or more weight than women. The present study aimed to explore men's experiences and expectations of mainstream weight loss services in the UK, following referral from a medical professional, particular in relation to barriers and motivators. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 men with a BMI over 25 kg/m2 including those who had, and had not, attended group-based or one-to-one weight loss services. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Two themes were identified; 'Fear as a motivation for change' (1) and 'Attitudes towards existing weight loss services' (2). Within theme two, two subthemes were identified; 'Female dominated services' and 'Incompatibility of existing services for men'. The findings suggest that fear, as a result of a medical diagnosis or referral is a mechanism for motivating men to engage with weight loss services. This was often augmented by awareness of other people's experiences of poor health due to their weight. The gender imbalance and attitudes towards existing weight loss services deterred men from engaging with or continuously attending sessions. This imbalance resulted in feelings of self-consciousness, shame and a perceived stigma for men using weight loss services. These experiences highlighted the importance of providing services which align with men's preferences to promote engagement. CONCLUSIONS: A medical diagnosis or referral serves as a strong motivator for men to engage with weight loss services by invoking fear of negative consequences of not losing weight. Men perceived weight loss services to be feminised spaces, in which they felt self-conscious and out of place. As a result, men were deterred from engaging and considered their options were limited. Implications for service design and commissioning are discussed. Involving men in research, service design and evaluation is key to improving their engagement and weight loss.


Assuntos
Homens/psicologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Programas de Redução de Peso/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Medo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 199, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impacts of interventions designed to change health behaviours are potentially affected by the complex social systems in which they are embedded. This study uses Scottish data to explore how men receive and utilise partner support when attempting to change dietary practices and physical activity within the context of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a gender-sensitised weight management and healthy living programme for men who are overweight/obese. METHODS: Separate semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 20 men and their cohabiting female partners (total n = 40), 3-12 months after the men had completed FFIT. Data were thematically analysed and individual interviews were combined for dyadic analysis. RESULTS: Men's and women's accounts suggested variations in men's need for, and utilisation of, partner support in order to make changes to dietary practices and physical activity. There were also differences in descriptions of women's involvement in men's behaviour changes. Typologies were developed categorising men as 'resolute', 'reliant'/'receptive' and 'non-responsive' and women as 'very involved', 'partially involved' and 'not involved'. Men were more reliant, and women more involved, in changes to dietary practices compared to physical activity. The role of partner involvement in promoting men's behaviour change seemed contingent on men's resoluteness, or their reliance on the partner support. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight how interactions between men's resoluteness/reliance on cohabiting female partners and the partners' involvement impact the extent to which female partners influence men's changes to dietary practices and physical activity following a weight loss intervention. Understanding this interaction could increase the impact of health interventions aimed at one individual's behaviour by considering other family members' roles in facilitating those changes. The typologies developed for this study might contribute towards the development of behaviour change theories within the cohabiting couple context.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Apoio Social , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Escócia/epidemiologia , Futebol
7.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229719, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101571

RESUMO

In the last decade, a cross-national community of like-minded young men has emerged, commonly known as 'the seduction community'. This community is led by professional 'pick-up artists' who teach these young men a variety of techniques and mindsets with the stated aim of improving their success with women, or 'game'. There has been little research on the men who participate in this community, and none from a mental health angle. As such, this study is propelled by two specific objectives, namely documenting and understanding (i) the reasons why young men join the seduction community; and (ii) the impacts of community involvement on participants' lives. To meet these aims, we used an inductive qualitative methodology giving ample scope for bottom-up understandings to emerge. Specifically, we recruited young men participating in the seduction community for an in-depth qualitative interview (N = 34) to explore self-reported motives and impacts. Interviews were augmented by lengthy participant observation, and data was analyzed by content analysis techniques. The results reveal that men often join the community to address a range of psychosocial deficits, and that community involvement successfully equips participants with numerous valued social and communication skills. The community appears to fill a void in providing a place of hope, fellowship and learning for young (often immigrant) men. The findings are summarized in five themes (i) loneliness and social inclusion; (ii) lack of male role models and need for guidance; (iii) mental health and well-being issues; (iv) skill acquisition and personal development; and (v) the dark side of pick-up. Interestingly, some of the practices commonly taught and utilized within the community resemble aspects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and mental health peer support. This may explain its evident appeal. We conclude by reflecting on the implications of the findings for official mental health service provision for young men.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Casamento/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Homens/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autorrelato , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
10.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 23(2): 56-64, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433594

RESUMO

Maternal health can be improved if men give support to their partners. This study determined the socio-demographic and structural predictors of male partner involvement in maternal health in Hohoe, Ghana. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was adopted, collecting data through self-administered questionnaires from a multistage sample of 193 respondents and analysing using Stata version 14 at the 0.05 level. Age groups 31-40 years and 41-51 years were 6 times [AOR=6.28, p=0.04] and 4 times [AOR=4.32 (95%, p=0.08] respectively more likely to get involved in maternal health issues compared to age group 20-30 years. Married men were 63% less likely to be involved in maternal issues compared to single men [AOR=0.37, p=0.08]. Men with tertiary and senior high school levels of education were 9 times [AOR=9.13, p=0.001] and 5 times [AOR=4.52, p=0.01] respectively more likely to be involved in maternal health than men with a basic level of education. Men with a high level of knowledge on maternal health were 4 times more likely to be involved in maternal health than men with a low level of knowledge [AOR=4.14, p=0.002]. Strategies to improve male partner involvement in maternal health should target the younger, the legally married, and male partners with a low level of education.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Materna , Homens/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cônjuges/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1136, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, HIV remains a major public health challenge, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Literature indicates that men's involvement in HIV testing, care, and treatment services is lower compared to women, therefore novel approaches are required to engage men in the cascade of HIV care. This study aimed to explore men's perception on the provision of HIV testing services in venues where English Premier League football games are televised. METHODS: An exploratory qualitative study was conducted between February and May 2018. Six focus group discussions were conducted with 50 conveniently selected men aged 18 years and older using a pre-tested discussion guide. All focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. RESULTS: Overall, HIV testing at venues telecasting English Premier League football games was acceptable to men. There was a very strong preference for health workers providing testing and counseling services be external or unknown in the local community. Possible motivators for testing services provided in these settings include subsidizing or eliminating entrance fee to venues telecasting games, integrating testing and counseling with health promotion or screening for other diseases, use of local football games as mobilization tools and use of expert clients as role models. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that HIV testing services at venues where EPL football games are televised is generally acceptable to men. In implementing such services, consideration should be given to preferences for external or unknown health workers and the motivating factors contributing to the use of these services. Given that HIV testing is currently not conducted in these settings, further research should be conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a means of enhancing HIV testing among Ugandan men.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Futebol , Adulto , Idoso , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
12.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2600-2609, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367967

RESUMO

Men diagnosed with HIV face gender-related barriers to initiating and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This qualitative study (73 in-depth interviews; 28 focus group discussions), conducted with men in three urban sites in Côte d'Ivoire in 2016, examined perceptions of ART, including benefits and challenges, to explore how ART mitigates HIV's threats to men's sexuality, economic success, family roles, social status, and health. Participants perceived that adhering to ART would reduce risk of transmitting HIV to others, minimize job loss and lost productivity, and help maintain men's roles as decision makers and providers. ART adherence was thought to help reduce the threat of HIV-related stigma, despite concerns about unintentional disclosure. While ART was perceived to improve health directly, it restricted men's schedules. Side effects were also a major challenge. Social and behavior change approaches building on these insights may improve male engagement across the HIV care continuum.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação , Homens/psicologia , Adulto , Costa do Marfim , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Identidade de Gênero , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Sexual , Estigma Social
13.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 11(1): e1-e7, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men have a lot of influence on their partners' and children's health. However, studies have shown their involvement in antenatal care (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC) is relatively low owing to several factors. AIM: To explore the barriers to men's involvement in ANC and PNC in Butula sub-county, western Kenya. SETTING: Butula sub-county, Busia county, western Kenya. METHODS: A mixed methods study design, descriptive in nature, was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 96 men were selected to participate in the surveys. Also, four focus group discussions and four key informant interviews were conducted. RESULTS: We found out that some men still participate in ANC and PNC despite the barriers. The perception that maternal health is a women's domain and existence of alternative traditional maternal services were key cultural barriers. The men's nature of work, low income and expenses incurred at ANC/PNC clinics were significant economic barriers. The lack of services targeting men, provider attitude, non-invitation to the clinic, time spent at the clinic and lack of privacy at the clinics were key facility-based barriers. CONCLUSION: A myriad of cultural, economic and health-facility barriers hinder men from active involvement in ANC and PNC. Awareness creation among men on ANC and PNC services and creating a client-friendly environment at the clinics is key in enhancing their involvement. This should be a concerted effort of all stake holders in maternal health services, as male involvement is a strong influencer to their partners' and children's health outcomes.


Assuntos
Homens/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Cuidado Pós-Natal/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Saúde Materna , Percepção , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Perspect Sex Reprod Health ; 51(3): 125-133, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449728

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Unintended pregnancy is disproportionately reported by low-income individuals in the United States, and studies of men's roles in preventing pregnancy have largely focused on adolescents and young adults. Less is known about the pregnancy-related attitudes and behaviors among men older than 24, who are involved in the majority of pregnancies ending in a birth. METHODS: Between December 2015 and August 2016, in-depth interviews were conducted with 26 low-income men in Alabama who were aged 25-55, were sexually active and did not want more children. Interviews explored men's reasons for not wanting more children, their contraceptive knowledge and attitudes, and their involvement in contraceptive decision making. Transcripts were examined using content analysis to identify themes related to men's perspectives about preventing pregnancy and using contraceptives. RESULTS: Participants' motivations to prevent a pregnancy centered primarily on their age and financial circumstances. Most men had limited contraceptive knowledge and perceived their risk of causing a pregnancy to be low, regardless of method use. Few men engaged in decisions about contraceptive use, despite their beliefs that men and women had a shared responsibility to prevent pregnancy. Although some men were interested in vasectomy, a few were hesitant about undergoing the procedure because they might want to have children later if their life circumstances changed, and others worried that vasectomy might affect sexual performance. CONCLUSIONS: Some low-income adult men were uncertain about their pregnancy desires, and many lacked contraceptive knowledge that would help them avoid unwanted pregnancy. Research is needed to identify the types of programs that could effectively promote men's constructive engagement in preventing pregnancies over their reproductive life course.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Intenção , Homens/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Alabama , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Fertilidade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1048, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Participation of men in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) is crucial for the reduction of infant and maternal mortality. Men may be influential in making health care decisions that may affect their female partner's access to health care services, but also as individuals, whose health status has a significant impact on the health of their partners' and that of their children. However, male involvement is still inadequate due to various reasons. This paper sought to explore the community perspectives towards participation of men in maternal and child health care in Kabale District, Western Uganda. METHODS: The study used a case study approach. Household questionnaires, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, direct field observation and document review were employed to collect data. One hundred and twenty-four respondents completed a household questionnaire, eight key informants took part in semi-structured interviews and thirty-six community members (two men and two women groups) participated in focus group discussions. RESULTS: The participation of men in maternal and child health care was found to be low. Patriarchal community values and norms influencing gender roles hindered male involvement in MCH. More so, sensitisation on the importance of male involvement was inadequate. CONCLUSION: Men's participation in MCH is affected by multiple factors emanating from the community and health institutions. Involving men in MCH is critical, and therefore participatory and comprehensive approaches should be applied to encourage participation. Sensitisation of communities is fundamental for increasing awareness of the significance of male involvement in MCH.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Homens/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Características da Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Normas Sociais , Valores Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
16.
JAMA Facial Plast Surg ; 21(5): 369-374, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294743

RESUMO

Importance: Facial cosmetic surgery has previously focused on improvements in perceived physical attractiveness and youthfulness. However, human beings are judged throughout life based on many other characteristics and personal qualities that are conveyed by their faces. Objective: To examine the association of facial cosmetic surgery in men with perceptions of attractiveness, masculinity, and personality traits. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study with retrospective evaluation by blinded raters of preoperative and postoperative photographs of 24 male patients who underwent facial cosmetic surgery between January 1, 2009, and January 31, 2016. A total of 6 surveys were constructed with 8 sets of photographs each (4 preoperative and 4 postoperative). Each of these surveys was then sent to at least 36 lay people via the web-based survey tool Survey Monkey. Additional invites were sent for individual surveys until a minimum of 24 responses were received for each survey. Preoperative and postoperative photographs of the same patient were not placed in the same survey to avoid recall bias. Anonymous raters used a 7-point Likert scale to rate their perception of each patient's personality traits (aggressiveness, extroversion, likeability, risk seeking, sociability, and trustworthiness), attractiveness, and masculinity based on photographs in their assigned survey. Raters were blinded to study intent. Data analysis was performed between August 2018 and March 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Ratings of personality, attractiveness, and masculinity. Results: This survey study included photographs of 24 men who underwent facial cosmetic surgery; the mean (SD) age of the patients was 49.3 (16.4) years. A total of 145 participants completed the survey; the majority of respondents were men (n = 81; 56%) between the ages of 25 and 34 years (n = 116; 80%). Score increases were significant for perceived attractiveness (0.29; 95% CI, 0.13-0.46), likeability (0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.57), social skills (0.25; 95% CI, 0.08-0.40), and trustworthiness (0.27, 95% CI, 0.11-0.44) when evaluating all facial cosmetic procedures together (upper blepharoplasty, lower blepharoplasty, face-lift, brow-lift, neck-lift, rhinoplasty, and/or chin implant). Upper blepharoplasty was associated with positive changes in perceived likeability (0.72; 95% CI, 0.06-1.50) and trustworthiness (0.74; 95% CI, 0.22-1.25). Lower blepharoplasty was associated with decreased perception of risk seeking (-0.78; 95% CI, -1.45 to -0.10). Face-lift was associated with increased perception of likeability (0.69; 95% CI, 0.08-1.30) and trustworthiness (0.66; 95% CI, 0.05-1.27). Neck-lift was associated with increased perception of extroversion (0.60; 95% CI, 0.10-1.09) and masculinity (0.70; 95% CI, 0.21-1.19). Patients who underwent rhinoplasty had improvements in perceived attractiveness (0.51; 95% CI, 0.03-1.00) and likeability (0.40; 95% CI, 0.03-1.00). Chin augmentation did not show any significant improvements. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study suggest that men undergoing facial cosmetic surgery may experience changes in perceived attractiveness, masculinity, and a variety of personality traits. These findings complement those from a previous study on female patients, which together broaden the understanding of the association of cosmetic surgery with societal perceptions of persona. Level of Evidence: NA.


Assuntos
Beleza , Técnicas Cosméticas/psicologia , Masculinidade , Homens/psicologia , Personalidade , Percepção Social , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotografação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1780): 20180080, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303164

RESUMO

Matriliny is a system of kinship in which descent and inheritance are conferred along the female line. The theoretically influential concept of the matrilineal puzzle posits that matriliny poses special problems for understanding men's roles in matrilineal societies. Ethnographic work describes the puzzle as the tension experienced by men between the desire to exert control over their natal kin (i.e. the lineage to which they belong) and over their affinal kin (i.e. their spouses and their biological children). Evolutionary work frames the paradox as one resulting from a man investing in his nieces and nephews at the expense of his own biological offspring. In both cases, the rationale for the puzzle rests on two fundamental assumptions: (i) that men are in positions of authority over women and over resources; and (ii) that men are interested in the outcomes of parenting. In this paper, we posit a novel hypothesis that suggests that certain ecological conditions render men expendable within local kinship configurations, nullifying the above assumptions. This arises when (i) women, without significant assistance from men, are capable of meeting the subsistence needs of their families; and (ii) men have little to gain from parental investment in children. We conclude that the expendable male hypothesis may explain the evolution of matriliny in numerous cases, and by noting that female-centred approaches that call into doubt assumptions inherent to male-centred models of kinship are justified in evolutionary perspective. This article is part of the theme issue 'The evolution of female-biased kinship in humans and other mammals'.


Assuntos
Relações Familiares , Homens/psicologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mulheres/psicologia
18.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1780): 20190006, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303165

RESUMO

The question of when and why societies have transitioned away from matriliny to other types of kinship systems-and when and why they transition towards matriliny-has a long history in anthropology, one that is heavily engaged with both evolutionary theory and cross-cultural research methods. This article presents tabulations from a new coding of ethnographic documents from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS), tallying claims of transitions in kinship systems both away from and to matriliny using various levels of stringency. We then use our counts as the outcome variables in a set of Bayesian analyses that simultaneously estimate the probability of a transition occurring given societal covariates alongside the conditional probability of detecting a transition given the volume of ethnographic data available to code. Our goal is to estimate the cross-cultural and comparative frequency of transitions away from and to matriliny, as well as to explore potential causes underlying these patterns. We find that transitions away from matriliny have been significantly more common than 'reverse transitions' to matriliny. Our evidence suggests that both rates may be, in part, an artefact of the colonial and globalizing period during which the data comprising much of the current ethnographic record were recorded. Analyses of the correlates of transitions away from matriliny are consistent with several of the key causal arguments made by anthropologists over the past century, especially with respect to subsistence transition (to pastoralism, intensive agriculture and market economies), social complexity and colonialism, highlighting the importance of ecological factors in such transitions. This article is part of the theme issue 'The evolution of female-biased kinship in humans and other mammals'.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Homens/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Mulheres/psicologia , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Cultural , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/psicologia
19.
Evol Psychol ; 17(3): 1474704919856800, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284747

RESUMO

Heterosexual men, as opposed to heterosexual women, desire mates who experience same-sex attractions and are willing to have same-sex sexual contacts. Yet not all men share such desires, and the current study aims to examine whether the male preferences for same-sex attraction and contact are predicted by desires for sexual variety and having sex without commitment. Using an online sample of 1,277 Greek-speaking participants, we found that men and women who experienced same-sex attractions and desired sexual variety and sex without commitment were more likely to prefer same-sex attraction and contact in a partner. Moreover, we found that a considerable proportion of heterosexual men, but only a small proportion of heterosexual women, preferred same-sex attraction and contact in partner. This sex-difference was statistically significant even after the desire for sexual variety and sociosexual orientation were controlled for.


Assuntos
Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Libido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Health Psychol ; 38(11): 997-1000, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the rates, predictors, and associated sexual risk indices of young men's nonconsensual condom removal (also known as stealthing). METHODS: Participants were 626 male inconsistent condom users aged 21-30 years recruited from an urban area in the Pacific Northwest. Participants completed survey measures assessing sexual aggression history, sexual aggression-related attitudes, sexually transmitted infection history, unplanned pregnancies, and nonconsensual condom removal experiences. RESULTS: Almost 10% of the participants (n = 61) reported engaging in nonconsensual condom removal since the age of 14 years, with an average of 3.62 times (SD = 3.87) and range of 1-21 times (maximum possible). After controlling for condom use self-efficacy, men with greater hostility toward women (odds ratio = 1.47) and more severe sexual aggression history (odds ratio = 1.06) had significantly higher odds of engaging in nonconsensual condom removal behavior. χ2 analyses demonstrated that men who had a history of nonconsensual condom removal were significantly more likely to have had a sexually transmitted infection diagnosis (29.5% vs. 15.1%) or have had a partner who experienced an unplanned pregnancy (46.7% vs. 25.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Nonconsensual condom removal, which involves elements of both sexual risk and sexual aggression, confers multiple sexual risks to its recipients, thus meriting increased clinical and research attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homens/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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