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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 1-13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583582

RESUMO

Neuroglia represent a diverse population of non-neuronal cells in the nervous systems, be that peripheral, central, enteric or autonomic nervous system. Arguably, these cells represent about half of the volume of the human brain. This volumetric ratio, and by extension glia to neurone ratio, not only widely differ depending on the size of the animal species brain and its positioning on the phylogenetic tree, but also vary between the regions of an individual brain. Neuroglia derived from a dual origin (ectoderm and mesodermal) and in an assorted morphology, yet their functional traits can be mainly classified into being keepers of homeostasis (water, ions, neurotransmitters, metabolites, fuels, etc.) and defenders (e.g., against microbial organisms, etc.) of the nervous system. As these capabilities go awry, neuroglia ultimately define their fundamental role in most, if not, all neuropathologies. This concept presented in this chapter serves as a general introduction into the world of neuroglia and subsequent topics covered by this book.


Assuntos
Neuroglia/fisiologia , Animais , Homeostase , Humanos , Neurônios , Neurotransmissores , Filogenia
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 45-91, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583584

RESUMO

Astrocytes are principal cells responsible for maintaining the brain homeostasis. Additionally, these glial cells are also involved in homocellular (astrocyte-astrocyte) and heterocellular (astrocyte-other cell types) signalling and metabolism. These astroglial functions require an expression of the assortment of molecules, be that transporters or pumps, to maintain ion concentration gradients across the plasmalemma and the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. Astrocytes sense and balance their neurochemical environment via variety of transmitter receptors and transporters. As they are electrically non-excitable, astrocytes display intracellular calcium and sodium fluctuations, which are not only used for operative signalling but can also affect metabolism. In this chapter we discuss the molecules that achieve ionic gradients and underlie astrocyte signalling.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Cálcio , Homeostase , Humanos , Bombas de Íon/fisiologia , Neuroglia , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Sódio
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 129-148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583587

RESUMO

Microglia constitute the major immune cells that permanently reside in the central nervous system (CNS) alongside neurons and other glial cells. These resident immune cells are critical for proper brain development, actively maintain brain health throughout the lifespan and rapidly adapt their function to the physiological or pathophysiological needs of the organism. Cutting-edge fate mapping and imaging techniques applied to animal models enabled a revolution in our understanding of their roles during normal physiological conditions. Here, we highlight studies that demonstrate the embryonic yolk sac origin of microglia and describe factors, including crosstalk with the periphery and external environment, that regulate their differentiation, homeostasis and function in the context of healthy CNS. The diversity of microglial phenotypes observed across the lifespan, between brain compartments and between sexes is also discussed. Understanding what defines specific microglial phenotypes is critical for the development of innovative therapies to modulate their effector functions and improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/citologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo , Homeostase , Humanos , Saco Vitelino/citologia
4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(8): 1042-1047, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the serum annexin V and anti-annexin V levels and their relationship with metabolic parameters in patients recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic. METHODS: A total of 143 patients recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 133 control subjects were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), hs-CRP, HOMA-IR, carotid intima-media thickness, and serum levels of annexin V and anti-annexin V were investigated. RESULTS: HOMA-IR, serum hs-CRP, and carotid intima-media thickness were found to be statistically significant. The Pearson correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant positive relationship between the carotid intima-media thickness and the annexin V level (r=0.29, p=0.006*). A statistically significant positive relationship was also detected between the Annexin V level and level of serum hs-CRP (r=0.29 p=0.006*). CONCLUSION: A positive relationship was observed between the carotid intima-media thickness and annexin V at the end of our investigation. In this regard, we also believe that serum levels of annexin V may be increased for cardiovascular protection in the elevation of carotid intima-media thickness.


Assuntos
Anexina A5/sangue , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Anexina A5/imunologia , Anexina A5/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1159: 109-138, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502202

RESUMO

Despite the advancements in modern medicine, there are still difficulties in diagnosing common illnesses. The invasiveness and price of the tests used to follow up certain diseases can be a barrier to proper patient follow-up. Sphingolipids are a diverse category of lipids. They are structural molecules in cell membranes and signaling molecules involved in the regulation of crucial cell functions, including cell growth, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Recent research has shown that abnormal sphingolipid metabolism is associated with genetic and metabolic disease processes. Given their crucial role to maintain homeostasis within the body, sphingolipids have been investigated as potential biomarkers to predict disease in the population. Here we discuss how sphingolipids levels are altered in different diseases, thus illustrating their possible use as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Transdução de Sinais , Esfingolipídeos , Ciclo Celular , Membrana Celular , Homeostase , Humanos
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1178: 57-76, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493222

RESUMO

Aging is a natural process defined by the gradual, time-dependent decline of biological and behavioural functions, for which individuals of the same chronological age show variability. The capacity of biological systems to continuously adjust for optimal functioning despite ever changing environments is essential for healthy aging, and variability in these adaptive homeostatic mechanisms may reflect such heterogeneity in the aging process. With an ever-increasing aging population, interest in biomarkers of aging is growing. Although no universally accepted definition of biomarkers of healthy aging exists, mediators of homeostasis are consistently used as measures of the aging process. As important sex differences are known to underlie many of these systems, it is imperative to consider that this may reflect, to some extent, the sex differences observed in aging and age-related disease states. This chapter aims to outline sex differences in key homeostatic domains thought to be associated with the pathophysiology of aging, often proposed as biomarkers of aging and age-related disease states. This includes considering sex-based differences and hormonal status with regards to the gonadal and adrenal endocrine systems and immune function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores , Homeostase , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 259-281, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496716

RESUMO

Background: Small vessels have the pivotal role for the brain's autoregulation. The arteriosclerosis-dependent alteration of the brain perfusion is one of the major determinants in small vessel disease. Endothelium distress can potentiate the flow dysregulation and lead to subcortical vascular dementia (sVAD). sVAD increases morbidity and disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that sVAD shares with cerebrovascular disease most of the common risk factors. The molecular basis of this pathology remains controversial. Purpose: To detect the possible mechanisms between small vessel disease and sVAD, giving a broad vision on the topic, including pathological aspects, clinical and laboratory findings, metabolic process and cholinergic dysfunction. Methods: We searched MEDLINE using different search terms ("vascular dementia", "subcortical vascular dementia", "small vessel disease", "cholinergic afferents", etc). Publications were selected from the past 20 years. Searches were extended to Embase, Cochrane Library, and LILIACS databases. All searches were done from January 1, 1998 up to January 31, 2018. Results: A total of 560 studies showed up, and appropriate studies were included. Associations between traditional vascular risk factors have been isolated. We remarked that SVD and white matter abnormalities are seen frequently with aging and also that vascular and endothelium changes are related with age; the changes can be accelerated by different vascular risk factors. Vascular function changes can be heavily influenced by genetic and epigenetic factors. Conclusion: Small vessel disease and the related dementia are two pathologies that deserve attention for their relevance and impact in clinical practice. Hypertension might be a historical problem for SVD and SVAD, but low pressure might be even more dangerous; CBF regional selective decrease seems to be a critical factor for small vessel disease-related dementia. In those patients, endothelium damage is a super-imposed condition. Several issues are still debatable, and more research is needed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Artérias Cerebrais/inervação , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Fibras Colinérgicas , Demência Vascular/fisiopatologia , Acoplamento Neurovascular , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/epidemiologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/patologia , Fibras Colinérgicas/patologia , Demência Vascular/epidemiologia , Demência Vascular/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Homeostase , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1173: 21-32, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456203

RESUMO

Iron is an essential trace element in the human body, but excess iron is toxic as it contributes to oxidative damage. To keep iron concentration within the optimal physiologic range, iron metabolism at the cellular level and the whole systemic level are tightly regulated. Balance of iron homeostasis depends on the expression levels and activities of iron carriers, iron transporters, and iron regulatory and storage proteins. Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) at the apical membrane of intestinal enterocyte brings in non-heme iron from the diet, whereas ferroportin 1 (FPN1) at the basal membrane exports iron into the circulation. Plasma transferrin (Tf) then carries iron to various tissues and cells. After binding to transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), the complex is endocytosed into the cell, where iron enters the cytoplasm via DMT1 on the endosomal membrane. Free iron is either utilized in metabolic processes, such as synthesis of hemoglobin and Fe-S cluster, or sequestered in the cytosolic ferritin, serving as a cellular iron store. Excess iron can be exported from the cell via FPN1. The liver-derived peptide hepcidin plays a major regulatory role in controlling FPN1 level in the enterocyte, and thus controls the whole-body iron absorption. Inside the cells, iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) modulate the expressions of DMT1, TfR1, ferritin, and FPN1 via binding to the iron-responsive element (IRE) in their mRNAs. Both the release of hepcidin and the IRP-IRE interaction are coordinated with the fluctuation of the cellular iron level. Therefore, an adequate and steady iron supplement is warranted for the utilization of cells around the body. Investigations on the molecular mechanisms of cellular iron metabolism and regulation could advance the fields of iron physiology and pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Sobrecarga de Ferro , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transferrina/metabolismo
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1173: 145-152, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456209

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The etiology and pathogenesis of this devastating disease remain largely unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that iron accumulation is involved in the onset and progression of ALS. In this review, we discuss the regulation of iron homoeostasis in the brain, the misregulation of iron homeostasis in ALS, and its possible roles in the mechanism of the disease. Finally, we summarize the recent progress and problems with respect to iron chelator therapies on ALS, aiming to propose a new therapeutic strategy to ameliorate the progression of the disease.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Degeneração Neural
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1173: 179-194, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456211

RESUMO

Iron has been proposed to be responsible for neuronal loss in several diseases of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke, Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In many diseases, abnormal accumulation of brain iron in disease-affected area has been observed, without clear knowledge of the contribution of iron overload to pathogenesis. Recent evidences implicate that key proteins involved in the disease pathogenesis may also participate in cellular iron metabolism, suggesting that the imbalance of brain iron homeostasis is associated with the diseases. Considering the complicated regulation of iron homeostasis within the brain, a thorough understanding of the molecular events leading to this phenotype is still to be investigated. However, current understanding has already provided the basis for the diagnosis and treatment of iron-related CNS diseases, which will be reviewed here.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/terapia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Homeostase , Humanos , Ferro
12.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(8): 1433-1440, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441614

RESUMO

The social problems and medical burdens caused by obesity have become more serious in recent years. Obesity is mainly caused by the imbalance of energy intake and consumption in the body. The central nervous system and related neurons regulate the balance of energy metabolism. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) contains anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and orexigenic neuropeptid Y(NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons that regulate the feeding behavior of body. High-fat diet induces phosphorylation of Rb protein in POMC neurons, and inactivation of Rb phosphorylation leads to re-entry of POMC neurons from the resting-state into the cell cycle, which rapidly shifts to apoptosis. High-fat diet also causes the inhibition of neuronal regeneration, induces inflammation and neuronal damage, loss of neuronal homeostasis, leptin resistance, and ultimately leads to obesity. This review discusses the relationship between loss of neuronal homeostasis and dietary obesity, as well as the underlying mechanisms, which might provide the evidence for prevention and treatment of these diseases.


Assuntos
Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo , Obesidade , Homeostase , Humanos , Leptina , Pró-Opiomelanocortina
13.
Wiad Lek ; 72(7): 1236-1242, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA) is a tissue-specific disease of the hair follicles, manifested by foci of baldness on the head and other areas of the skin. The aim of the study was to identify the tissue homeostasis state on the basis of pathomorphological and immunohistochemical changes taking into account the features of Ki67, bcl-2, caspase-3, and CD31 expression in patients with AA in the chronic stage associated with metabolic syndrome and the non-burdened course of the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Pathomorphological and immunohistochemical studies of Ki67, bcl-2, caspase-3, and CD31 expression in biopsies specimens from skin lesions in the chronic stage of the disease were performed in 11 patients with AA associated with metabolic syndrome and the non-burdened course of the disease. RESULTS: Results: The results of complex morphological study showed that in skin biopsies of patients with AA with metabolic disorders pathomorphological changes were more affected both in the epidermis and skin appendages - degenerative changes in the epithelium, in the dermis, manifestations of appendage atrophy and stromal fibrosis. In patients with AA without metabolic disorders the proliferative potential of epithelial cells (Ki67 proliferation index) was 20-25%, in cases of AA with metabolic syndrome - 5-10%, indicating a decrease in regenerative capacity of the tissue. The state of the microcirculatory bed (CD31) in cases of AA without metabolic disorders is more favorable for the trophic tissue function and decreases in the group of AA with metabolic disorders. It was found that activation of pathological cell apoptosis was observed in cases of AA with metabolic disorders and lower level of bcl-2 expression. In our observations, the level of expression of caspase-3 was at a relatively high level, indicating the activation of pathological apoptosis in the tissues of the affected areas. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Our pathomorphological, immunohistochemical data allows us to assert that it is advisable to carry out a biopsy of the affected areas with the establishment of levels of proliferative activity of epithelial and stroma cells, the state of the microcirculatory vessels, the possibilities of repair of the affected areas, assessment of the level of apoptosis in order to predict the course of the disease and usage of the personified approach to treatment.


Assuntos
Alopecia em Áreas , Síndrome Metabólica , Folículo Piloso , Homeostase , Humanos , Microcirculação
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 13-24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468382

RESUMO

Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid which has strong activities in enhancing immunity. Gut microbiota is closely interrelated with intestinal mucosal immunity, but the effects and mechanisms of taurine on intestinal microbiota and mucosal immune cells under an immunosuppressive condition remain unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of taurine on gut microbiota and immune cells in Peyer's patches (PPs) of dexamethasone (Dex)-induced immunosuppressive mice. Mice (4-week-old, Male) were randomly divided into three groups: the Control group (n = 12), the Dex-induced immunosuppressive model group (n = 12) and the taurine intervention group (n = 12). The model was established by Dex injection for 7 days and the taurine intervention group was gavaged 100 mg/kg soluble taurine for 30 days. The changes of intestinal microbiota and immune cells in PPs were tested by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and flow cytometry, respectively. Results showed that the microbiota in immunosuppressive mice was obvious different compared with control group, in which, the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae groups were significantly reduced, and their reduction were reversed after taurine intervention. Compared to the control group, the total cell number in PPs, as well as the subsets of CD3+ cells (T cells), CD19+ cells (B cells) in model groups were significantly lower, and they were dramatically improved after taurine treatment. Our results suggested that taurine has a positive effect on i ntestinal homeostasis of the immunosuppressive mice.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância Imunológica , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Homeostase , Masculino , Camundongos , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 429-442, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468420

RESUMO

Taurine is traditionally used to treat Down Syndrome (DS); however, the actual foundation for this treatment is not well understood. DS patients suffer from disturbance of the proteostasis network (PN) due to aberrant calcium signaling, which eventually causes endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Taurine has been suggested to play a role in modulating calcium homeostasis and ERS. This study examined whether taurine affects DS symptoms using C. elegans - a DS model in which calcineurins, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase is mutated to null. The DS nematode model has short body length, slow growth, fertility defects, serotonin-resistant egg-laying defects, and faulty thermal sensing. This study focused on whether taurine may ameliorate the severity of DS at the whole-body level, including reduction in ERS. When treated with taurine, DS nematodes appeared to have lower levels of ERS and phenotypes closer to the wild type. DS nematodes also showed improved egg laying efficiency and thermal sensing index comparable to the wild type. Our findings offer a new perspective on the effectiveness of taurine in treating DS and designing therapeutic strategies to lower ERS and restore disrupted PN.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Cálcio/fisiologia , Síndrome de Down , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Homeostase , Humanos
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 977-985, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468461

RESUMO

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a sulfur-containing amino acid. It is one of the most abundant free amino acids in many excitable tissues, including the brain, skeletal and cardiac muscles. Physiological actions of taurine are widespread and include regulation of plasma glucose levels, bile acid conjugation, detoxification, membrane stabilization, blood pressure regulation, osmoregulation, neurotransmission, and modulation of mitochondria function and cellular calcium levels. Taurine plays an important role in modulating glutamate and GABA neurotransmission and prevents excitotoxicity in vitro primarily through modulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Taurine supplementation prevents age-dependent decline of cognitive functions. Because of the wide spread actions of taurine, its levels are highly regulated through enzymatic biosynthesis or dietary intake. Furthermore, depletion of endogenous or dietary supplementation of exogenous taurine have been shown to induce wide spread actions on multiple organs. Cysteine sulfonic acid decarboxylase (CSAD) was first identified in the liver and is thought to be the rate-limiting enzyme in taurine biosynthesis. CSAD mRNA is expressed in the brain in astrocytes. Homozygous knockout mice lacking CSAD (CSAD-KO) have very reduced taurine content and show severe functional histopathology in the visual system, skeletal system, heart, pancreas and brain. Conversely, dietary supplementation of taurine results in significant health benefits acting through the same organ systems. Fluctuation of taurine bioavailability lead to changes in the expression levels of taurine transporters in neuronal plasma membranes, endothelial cells forming the blood-brain barrier and proximal cells of the kidneys. Suggesting a highly regulated mechanism for maintaining taurine homeostasis and organ systems function. Here we show how alterations in taurine levels directly affect the function of one organ system and through functional interaction and compensatory adaptation; these effects extend to another organ systems with focus on the nervous system.


Assuntos
Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Membrana Celular , Células Endoteliais , Homeostase , Rim , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
17.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126309, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421713

RESUMO

The phosphorus availability in soil ranged from <0.01 to 1 ppm and found limiting for the utilization by plants. Hence, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) proficiently fulfill the phosphorus requirement of plants in an eco-friendly manner. The PSB encounter dynamic and challenging environmental conditions viz., high temperature, osmotic, acid, and climatic changes often hamper their activity and proficiency. The modern trend is shifting from isolation of the PSB to their genetic potentials and genome annotation not only for their better performance in the field trials but also to study their ability to cope up with stresses. In order to withstand environmental stress, bacteria need to restructure its metabolic network to ensure its survival. Pi starving condition response regulator (PhoB) and the mediator of stringent stress response alarmone (p)ppGpp known to regulate the global regulatory network of bacteria to provide balanced physiology under various stress condition. The current review discusses the global regulation and crosstalk of genes involved in phosphorus homeostasis, solubilization, and various stress response to fine tune the bacterial physiology. The knowledge of these network crosstalk help bacteria to respond efficiently to the challenging environmental parameters, and their physiological plasticity lead us to develop proficient long-lasting consortia for plant growth promotion.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Guanosina Pentafosfato/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Bactérias/genética , Plasticidade Celular , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Homeostase , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Nitrogênio , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas , Solo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 354, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High temperature is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth and agriculture productivity. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are highly conserved serine and threonine protein kinases that participate in response to diverse environmental stresses in plants. A total of 16 putative SlMAPK genes are identified in tomato, and SlMAPK3 is one of the most extensively studied SlMAPKs. However, the role of SlMAPK3 in response to heat stress is not clearly understood in tomato plants. In this study, we performed functional analysis of SlMAPK3 for its possible role in response to heat stress. RESULTS: qRT-PCR analyses revealed that SlMAPK3 relative expression was depressed by heat stress. Here, wild-type (WT) tomato plants and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated slmapk3 mutant lines (L8 and L13) were used to investigate the function of SlMAPK3 in response to heat stress. Compared with WT plants, slmapk3 mutants exhibited less severe wilting and less membrane damage, showed lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, and presented higher both activities and transcript levels of antioxidant enzymes, as well as elevated expressions of genes encoding heat stress transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs). CONCLUSIONS: CRISPR/Cas9-mediated slmapk3 mutants exhibited more tolerance to heat stress than WT plants, suggesting that SlMAPK3 was a negative regulator of thermotolerance. Moreover, antioxidant enzymes and HSPs/HSFs genes expression were involved in SlMAPK3-mediated heat stress response in tomato plants.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Homeostase , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9831-9839, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407897

RESUMO

Probiotic lactobacilli and their exopolysaccharides (EPS) are thought to modulate mucosal homeostasis; however, their mechanisms remain elusive. Thus, we tried to clarify the role of exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 (EPS116) in the intestinal mucosal homeostasis. Our results indicated that EPS116 regulated the colon mucosal healing and homeostasis, enhanced the goblet cell differentiation, and promoted the expression of Muc2 gene in vivo and in vitro. Further experiments showed that EPS116 promoted the expression and phosphorylation of transcription factor c-Jun and facilitated its binding to the promoter of Muc2. Moreover, knocking down c-Jun or inhibiting its function in LS 174T cells treated with EPS116 led to decreased expression of Muc2, implying that EPS116 promoted the colonic mucosal homeostasis and Muc2 expression via c-Jun. Therefore, our study uncovered a novel model where EPS116 enhanced colon mucosal homeostasis by controlling the epithelial cell differentiation and c-Jun/Muc2 signaling.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Mucina-2/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colo/citologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/fisiopatologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mucina-2/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 129-148, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267256

RESUMO

Iron and phosphorus are abundant elements in soils but poorly available for plant nutrition. The availability of these two nutrients represents a major constraint for fruit tree cultivation such as apple (Malus × domestica) leading very often to a decrease of fruit productivity and quality worsening. Aim of this study was to characterize common and specific features of plant response to Fe and P deficiencies by ionomic, transcriptomic and exudation profiling of apple roots. Under P deficiency, the root release of oxalate and flavonoids increased. Genes encoding for transcription factors and transporters involved in the synthesis and release of root exudates were upregulated by P-deficient roots, as well as those directly related to P acquisition. In Fe-deficiency, plants showed an over-accumulation of P, Zn, Cu and Mn and induced the transcription of those genes involved in the mechanisms for the release of Fe-chelating compounds and Fe mobilization inside the plants. The intriguing modulation in roots of some transcription factors, might indicate that, in this condition, Fe homeostasis is regulated by a FIT-independent pathway. In the present work common and specific features of apple response to Fe and P deficiency has been reported. In particular, data indicate similar modulation of a. 230 genes, suggesting the occurrence of a crosstalk between the two nutritional responses involving the transcriptional regulation, shikimate pathway, and the root release of exudates.


Assuntos
Ferro/deficiência , Malus/fisiologia , Fósforo/deficiência , Transcriptoma , Transporte Biológico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Ferro/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Fósforo/metabolismo , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
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