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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2036065, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528551

RESUMO

Importance: There is uncertainty about the role that military deployment experiences play in suicide-related outcomes. Most previous research has defined combat experiences broadly, and a limited number of cross-sectional studies have examined the association between specific combat exposure (eg, killing) and suicide-related outcomes. Objective: To prospectively examine combat exposures associated with suicide attempts among active-duty US service members while accounting for demographic, military-specific, and mental health factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed data from the Millennium Cohort Study, an ongoing prospective longitudinal study of US service members from all military branches. Participants were enrolled in 4 phases from July 1, 2001, to April 4, 2013, and completed a self-administered survey at enrollment and every 3 to 5 years thereafter. The population for the present study was restricted to active-duty service members from the first 4 enrollment phases who deployed in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Questionnaire data were linked with medical encounter data through September 30, 2015. Data analyses were conducted from January 10, 2017, to December 14, 2020. Exposures: Combat exposure was examined in 3 ways (any combat experience, overall combat severity, and 13 individual combat experiences) using a 13-item self-reported combat measure. Main Outcomes and Measures: Suicide attempts were identified from military electronic hospitalization and ambulatory medical encounter data using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Results: Among 57 841 participants, 44 062 were men (76.2%) and 42 095 were non-Hispanic White individuals (72.8%), and the mean (SD) age was 26.9 (5.3) years. During a mean (SD) follow-up period of 5.6 (4.0) years, 235 participants had a suicide attempt (0.4%). Combat exposure, defined broadly, was not associated with suicide attempts in Cox proportional hazards time-to-event regression models after adjustments for demographic and military-specific factors; high combat severity and certain individual combat experiences were associated with an increased risk for suicide attempts. However, these associations were mostly accounted for by mental disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder. After adjustment for mental disorders, combat experiences with significant association with suicide attempts included being attacked or ambushed (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% CI, 1.16-2.06), seeing dead bodies or human remains (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.78), and being directly responsible for the death of a noncombatant (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.04-3.16). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that deployed service members who experience high levels of combat or are exposed to certain types of combat experiences (involving unexpected events or those that challenge moral or ethical norms) may be at an increased risk of a suicide attempt, either directly or mediated through a mental disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição à Guerra/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Homicídio/psicologia , Humanos , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Masculino , Militares/psicologia , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/epidemiologia , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Am J Public Health ; 111(4): e1-e14, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621113

RESUMO

Background. Since 2005, most US states have expanded civilian rights to use deadly force in self-defense outside the home. In most cases, legislation has included removing the duty to retreat anywhere one may legally be, commonly known as stand-your-ground laws. The extent to which these laws affect public health and safety is widely debated in public and policy discourse.Objectives. To synthesize the available evidence on the impacts and social inequities associated with changing civilian rights to use deadly force in self-defense on violence, injury, crime, and firearm-related outcomes.Search Methods. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, National Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts, Education Resources Information Center, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Google Scholar, National Bureau of Economic Research working papers, and SocArXiv; harvested references of included studies; and consulted with experts to identify studies until April 2020.Selection Criteria. Eligible studies quantitatively estimated the association between laws that expanded or restricted the right to use deadly force in self-defense and population or subgroup outcomes among civilians with a comparator.Data Collection and Analysis. Two reviewers extracted study data using a common form. We assessed study quality using the Risk of Bias in Nonrandomized Studies of Interventions tools adapted for (controlled) before-after studies. To account for data dependencies, we conducted graphical syntheses (forest plots and harvest plots) to summarize the evidence on impacts and inequities associated with changing self-defense laws.Main Results. We identified 25 studies that estimated population-level impacts of laws expanding civilian rights to use deadly force in self-defense, all of which focused on stand-your-ground or other expansions to self-defense laws in the United States. Studies were scored as having serious or critical risk of bias attributable to confounding. Risk of bias was low across most other domains (i.e., selection, missing data, outcome, and reporting biases). Stand-your-ground laws were associated with no change to small increases in violent crime (total and firearm homicide, aggravated assault, robbery) on average across states. Florida-based studies showed robust increases (24% to 45%) in firearm and total homicide while self-defense claims under stand-your-ground law were more often denied when victims were White, especially when claimants were racial minorities.Author's Conclusions. The existing evidence contradicts claims that expanding self-defense laws deters violent crime across the United States. In at least some contexts, including Florida, stand-your-ground laws are associated with increases in violence, and there are racial inequities in the application of these laws.Public Health Implications. In some US states, most notably Florida, stand-your-ground laws may have harmed public health and safety and exacerbated social inequities. Our findings highlight the need for scientific evidence on both population and equity impacts of self-defense laws to guide legislative action that promotes public health and safety for all.Trial Registration. Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/uz68e).


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Florida , Humanos , Racismo , Estados Unidos
4.
Harv Rev Psychiatry ; 29(1): 81-89, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417376

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This article outlines a four-part strategy for future research in mental health and complementary disciplines that will broaden understanding of mass shootings and multi-victim gun homicides. First, researchers must abandon the starting assumption that acts of mass violence are driven primarily by diagnosable psychopathology in isolated "lone wolf" individuals. The destructive motivations must be situated, instead, within larger social structures and cultural scripts. Second, mental health professionals and scholars must carefully scrutinize any apparent correlation of violence with mental illness for evidence of racial bias in the official systems that define, measure, and record psychiatric diagnoses, as well as those that enforce laws and impose criminal justice sanctions. Third, to better understand the role of firearm access in the occurrence and lethality of mass shootings, research should be guided by an overarching framework that incorporates social, cultural, legal, and political, but also psychological, aspects of private gun ownership in the United States. Fourth, effective policies and interventions to reduce the incidence of mass shootings over time-and to prevent serious acts of violence more generally-will require an expanded body of well-funded interdisciplinary research that is informed and implemented through the sustained engagement of researchers with affected communities and other stakeholders in gun violence prevention. Emerging evidence that the coronavirus pandemic has produced a sharp increase both in civilian gun sales and in the social and psychological determinants of injurious behavior adds special urgency to this agenda.


Assuntos
Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , /complicações , /psicologia , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Carência Cultural , Violência com Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Violência com Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Homicídio/prevenção & controle , Homicídio/psicologia , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/prevenção & controle , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 144, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the level and temporal trends of homicide impunity in Brazil. METHODS: This is an ecological study that calculated two impunity indexes by dividing the total number of homicides committed in a 5-year period by the number of individuals arrested for murder (homicide impunity) or any other cause (general impunity) two years after this period. The Prais-Winsten linear regression model with serial autocorrelation correction was used to estimate the temporal trend of the impunity indexes. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2014, 328,714 homicides were recorded in Brazil, but only 84,539 prisoners were serving sentences for this kind of crime in 2016. This shows that the number of homicides in Brazil exceeded in 244,175 the number of individuals in prisons for this crime. The impunity index ranged from 3.9 in 2006 to 3.3 in 2014. All states reached values above 1. Rio de Janeiro stood out negatively, with values above 20. São Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Distrito Federal showed the lowest impunity indexes for homicide, with values below 2. Eight states showed a downward trend in the overall impunity index. CONCLUSIONS: Most Brazilian states presented extremely high impunity indexes values. However, from 2010 to 2012, Brazilian society started to effectively combat impunity for serious violent crimes, including homicide. In São Paulo, this positive trend arose in the mid-1990s and that state currently shows impunity indexes values similar to those of developed countries.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Prisioneiros , Brasil/epidemiologia , Homicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e39729, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1116093

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar as principais causas de óbito entre adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em um município no interior do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório de abordagem quantitativa, a partir do levantamento de dados em registros de óbitos do município de Rio das Ostras. O desfecho foi causa básica do óbito. Os dados foram processados no Programa R. Resultados: foram observados 84 (100%) óbitos, com maior prevalência entre adolescentes de 17 a 19 anos, 49 (58,3%), do sexo masculino, 71 (84,5%) e de cor parda, 38 (45,2%). As principais causas de óbitos foram homicídio/perfuração por arma de fogo, 35 (41,7%), e acidentes, 32 (38,1%). Conclusão: o reconhecimento dessa vulnerabilidade configura importante caminho para o enfrentamento e resolução desse grave problema, sobretudo municípios localizados longe de centros urbanos, parece muitas vezes esquecido, no que tange o cumprimento de estatutos e políticas públicas a favor desse grupo etário.


Objective: to identify the main causes of death among adolescents aged 10 to 19 years in a municipality in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Method: in this exploratory, descriptive, quantitative study, based on data collected from death records in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, the basic cause of death was the outcome. The data were processed in the statistics software, R. Results: of the 84 (100%) deaths observed, prevalence was higher among adolescents aged 17 to 19 years (49; 58.3%), males (71; 84.5%), and pardos (38; 45.2%). The main causes of deaths were firearm Injury / homicide (35; 41.7%) and accidents (32; 38.1%). Conclusion: one important step towards confronting and solving this serious problem is to acknowledge this vulnerability, especially in municipalities distant from urban centers, which often seem neglected as regards compliance with statutes and public policies in favor of this age group.


Objetivo: identificar las principales causas de muerte entre adolescentes de 10 a 19 años en un municipio del estado de Río de Janeiro. Método: en este estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, cuantitativo, basado en los datos recopilados de los registros de defunciones en el municipio de Rio das Ostras, la causa básica de la muerte fue el resultado. Los datos se procesaron en el programa estadístico R. Resultados: de las 84 (100%) muertes observadas, la prevalencia fue mayor entre los adolescentes de 17 a 19 años (49; 58.3%), varones (71; 84.5%) y pardos (38; 45,2%). Las principales causas de muerte fueron lesiones por arma de fuego / homicidio (35; 41.7%) y accidentes (32; 38.1%). Conclusión: un paso importante para enfrentar y resolver este grave problema es reconocer esta vulnerabilidad, especialmente en municipios alejados de los centros urbanos, que a menudo parecen descuidados en cuanto al cumplimiento de los estatutos y las políticas públicas a favor de este grupo de edad.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Fatores Etários , Vulnerabilidade Social , Mortalidade Prematura
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1385-1390, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001877

RESUMO

Homicide is the 13th leading cause of death among infants (i.e., children aged <1 year) in the United States (1). Infant homicides occurring within the first 24 hours of life (i.e., neonaticide) are primarily perpetrated by the mother, who might be of young age, unmarried, have lower educational attainment, and is most likely associated with concealment of an unintended pregnancy and nonhospital birthing (2). After the first day of life, infant homicides might be associated with other factors (e.g., child abuse and neglect or caregiver frustration) (2). A 2002 study of the age variation in homicide risk in U.S. infants during 1989-1998 found that the overall infant homicide rate was 8.3 per 100,000 person-years, and on the first day of life was 222.2 per 100,000 person-years, a homicide rate at least 10 times greater than that for any other time of life (3). Because of this period of heightened risk, by 2008 all 50 states* and Puerto Rico had enacted Safe Haven Laws. These laws allow a parent† to legally surrender an infant who might otherwise be abandoned or endangered (4). CDC analyzed infant homicides in the United States during 2008-2017 to determine whether rates changed after nationwide implementation of Safe Haven Laws, and to examine the association between infant homicide rates and state-specific Safe Haven age limits. During 2008-2017, the overall infant homicide rate was 7.2 per 100,000 person-years, and on the first day of life was 74.0 per 100,000 person-years, representing a 66.7% decrease from 1989-1998. However, the homicide rate on first day of life was still 5.4 times higher than that for any other time in life. No obvious association was found between infant homicide rates and Safe Haven age limits. States are encouraged to evaluate the effectiveness of their Safe Haven Laws and other prevention strategies to ensure they are achieving the intended benefits of preventing infant homicides. Programs and policies that strengthen economic supports, provide affordable childcare, and enhance and improve skills for young parents might contribute to the prevention of infant homicides.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança Abandonada/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Homicídio/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Pastoral Care Counsel ; 74(3): 196-202, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967549

RESUMO

Profanity, derived from the Latin for "not sacred," has long been seen as antithetical to spirituality. Social norms around organized religion, respectability, race, gender, etc. compound this perception. In this article, I examine how the use of profanity in Clinical Pastoral Education can help students experience personal, social, and physical freedom. Association of Clinical Pastoral Education outcomes, demographic data, and a student experience provide support for this assertion.


Assuntos
Idioma , Assistência Religiosa/educação , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8): 802-806, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of research on homicidal strangulation by gender. OBJECTIVES: A sex-disaggregated and comparative research approach was used to investigate individual-level risk factors for female and male homicidal strangulation in Johannesburg, South Africa (2001 - 2010). METHODS: Data were drawn from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations between each of the independent variables and homicidal strangulation in females and males relative to all other female and male homicides, respectively. RESULTS: The risk of fatal strangulation was high for both females and males aged ≥60 years, but markedly high only for male children and adolescents. Temporal risk for females was undifferentiated for day of the week, and the risk for males was high during weekdays. Females were more likely to be strangled in public places, and males in private locations. CONCLUSIONS: The study underlines the importance of disaggregating homicide by external cause and gender.


Assuntos
Asfixia/mortalidade , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesões do Pescoço/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Distribuição por Sexo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101783, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919339

RESUMO

A study was undertaken of all drowning deaths that occurred over a 30-year period from 1988 to 2017 in the urban section of the River Torrens, Adelaide, South Australia, an augmented waterway that runs through the central business district. Autopsy records from Forensic Science South Australia (FSSA) were reviewed. There were 34 drownings (0-5 cases/yr) with 28 males and 6 females (M;F = 4.6:1), with an age range for males of 18-76yrs (mean 42.0; SD 18.0) and for females of 20-84yrs (mean 69.3; SD 24.5). There were 15 (44%) accidents, 11 (32%) suicides, 1 (3%) homicide and 7 (21%) undetermined. Of the 22 cases during or after 1994 with complete toxicology reports, 10 (45%) had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of greater than 0.05% (g/100 mL) with an illicit substance detected in 4 (18%) cases: (MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), methylamphetamine and THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) acid). The presence of various therapeutic drugs was also detected in 10 cases (45%) including temazepam, fluoxetine, diazepam, olanzapine, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, codeine, citalopram and valproate. Although the numbers of cases were not high, the urban portion of the River Torrens had a much higher number of drowning events per kilometre compared to other inland waterways in South Australia such as the Murray River. This is most likely due to the vulnerability that exists for intoxicated individuals in the city from falls into the water and to the availability of the river as a means of suicide to members of the adjacent urban population.


Assuntos
Afogamento/epidemiologia , Ciências Forenses , Rios , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Afogamento/etiologia , Feminino , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicotrópicos/sangue , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Public Health ; 110(10): 1546-1552, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816544

RESUMO

Objectives. To estimate and compare the effects of state background check policies on firearm-related mortality in 4 US states.Methods. Annual data from 1985 to 2017 were used to examine Maryland and Pennsylvania, which implemented point-of-sale comprehensive background check (CBC) laws for handgun purchasers; Connecticut, which adopted a handgun purchaser licensing law; and Missouri, which repealed a similar law. Using synthetic control methods, we estimated the effects of these laws on homicide and suicide rates stratified by firearm involvement.Results. There was no consistent relationship between CBC laws and mortality rates. There were estimated decreases in firearm homicide (27.8%) and firearm suicide (23.2%-40.5%) rates associated with Connecticut's law. There were estimated increases in firearm homicide (47.3%), nonfirearm homicide (18.1%), and firearm suicide (23.5%) rates associated with Missouri's repeal.Conclusions. Purchaser licensing laws coupled with CBC requirements were consistently associated with lower firearm homicide and suicide rates, but CBC laws alone were not.Public Health Implications. Our results contribute to a body of research showing that CBC laws are not associated with reductions in firearm-related deaths unless they are coupled with handgun purchaser licensing laws.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Estados Unidos
13.
Am J Public Health ; 110(10): e1-e9, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816550

RESUMO

Background. There is debate whether policies that reduce firearm suicides or homicides are offset by increases in non-firearm-related deaths.Objectives. To assess the extent to which changes in firearm homicides and suicides following implementation of various gun laws affect nonfirearm homicides and suicides.Search Methods. We performed a literature search on 13 databases for studies published between 1995 and October 31, 2018 (PROSPERO CRD42019120105).Selection Criteria. We included studies if they (1) estimated an effect of 1 of 18 included classes of gun policy on firearm homicides or suicides, (2) included a control group or comparison group and evaluated time series data to establish that policies preceded their purported effects, and (3) provided estimated effects of the policy and inferential statistics for either total or nonfirearm homicides or suicides.Data Collection and Analysis. We extracted data from each study, including study timeframe, population, and statistical methods, as well as point estimates and inferential statistics for the effects of firearm policies on firearm deaths as well as either nonfirearm or overall deaths. We assessed quality at the estimate (study-policy-outcome) level by using prespecified criteria to evaluate the validity of inference and causal identification. For each estimate, we derived the mortality multiplier (i.e., the ratio of the policy's effect on total homicides or suicides; expressed as a change in the number of deaths) as a proportion of its effect on firearm homicides or suicides. Finally, we performed a meta-analysis to estimate overall mortality multipliers for suicide and homicide that account for both within- and between-study heterogeneity.Main Results. We identified 16 eligible studies (study timeframes spanning 1977-2015). All examined state-level policies in the United States, with most estimating effects of multiple policies, yielding 60 separate estimates of the mortality multiplier. From these, we estimated that a firearm law's effect on homicide, expressed as a change in the number of total homicide deaths, is 0.99 (95% confidence interval = 0.76, 1.22) times its effect on the number of firearm homicides. Thus, on average, changes in the number of firearm homicides caused by gun policies are neither offset nor compounded by second-order effects on nonfirearm homicides. There is insufficient evidence in the existing literature on suicide to indicate the extent to which the effects of gun policy changes on firearm suicides are offset or compounded by their effects on nonfirearm suicides.Authors' Conclusions. State gun policies that reduce firearm homicides are likely to reduce overall homicides in the state by approximately the same number. It is currently unknown whether the same holds for state gun policies that significantly reduce firearm suicides. The small number of studies meeting our inclusion criteria, issues of methodological quality within those studies, and the possibility of reporting bias are potential limitations of this review.Public Health Implications. Policies that reduce firearm homicides likely have large benefits for public health as there is little evidence to support a strong substitution effect between firearm and nonfirearm homicides at the population level. Further research is needed to determine whether policies that produce population-level reductions in firearm suicides will translate to overall declines in suicide rates.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
14.
J Psychol ; 154(7): 467-486, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730724

RESUMO

Violence against children is a major public health concern and involves significant consequences. However, compared to research on the impact of violence on children, far less is known about the perpetrators of violence against children. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychosocial characteristics and motives of perpetrators of filicide in order to identify their psychosocial profile. Our study analyzed 50 perpetrators of filicides committed in the province of Quebec between 1997 and 2012. Data was obtained from the Office of the Chief Coroner of Quebec, and additional information were retrieved from newspapers. Descriptive analyzes identified the sociodemographic, criminological, psychological-psychiatric characteristics and the motivations of these men. The results indicate that male perpetrators of filicide are, on average, 34.8 years old (SD = 11.9), 46% between the ages of 18 and 35, 48% between the ages of 36 and 55, and 4% are 56 years of age and over. Most filicides were committed following a marital separation (34%), the victims were between 0 and 5 years old (78%) and they were killed with bare hands (78%). Half of the perpetrators of filicide had a criminal record (42%) or history of domestic violence (50%). Some of these men had traits or borderline personality disorder (32%) and depressive symptoms (24%). The addition of clinical cases expands our understanding of the different profiles of perpetrators of filicide. Our study provides avenues for intervention and to promote a better prevention of this type of homicide.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/psicologia , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Motivação , Adolescente , Adulto , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Homicídio/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
N C Med J ; 81(4): 228-235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Research on intimate partner homicide (IPH), when someone is killed by a current or former intimate partner, in North Carolina is limited, making it difficult to understand the magnitude of IPHs and identify strategies for prevention.METHOD We used North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System (NC-VDRS) data to assess IPHs among North Carolina residents between 2011 and 2015. Homicides were considered IPHs if intimate partner violence was identified and the victim was the suspect's current or former intimate partner. Proportions and rates of demographic characteristics and circumstances were assessed.RESULTS Of the 2,299 homicides that occurred between 2011 and 2015, 350 were IPHs (0.9 per 100,000 person-years). Most (72.3%) IPH victims were female (n = 253). Among all female homicides almost half (48.2%) were IPHs, while only 5.4% of all male homicides were IPHs. The highest rate of IPH occurred among women aged 20-44 (2.1 per 100,000 person-years). Most victims were non-Hispanic (NH) white (54.0%, n = 189), although rates for NH American Indians and NH blacks were 1.8 and 2.0 times those among NH whites respectively. Most victims, 86.6% male and 82.6% female, were the suspect's current partner. Firearms were the most common weapon used (62.6%, n = 219).LIMITATIONS NC-VDRS data are not representative of all IPHs in the United States. Circumstance data were sometimes incomplete and categories of circumstance variables restrictive, limiting available information on IPHs.CONCLUSION Future interventions focused on women aged 20-44, NH American Indian and NH Black communities, and firearm access could be effective in preventing IPHs in North Carolina.


Assuntos
Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234457, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555647

RESUMO

Canada implemented a series of laws regulating firearms including background and psychological screening, licensing, and training in the years 1991, 1994, and 2001. The effects of this legislation on suicide and homicide rates were examined over the years 1981 to 2016. Models were constructed using difference-in-difference analysis of firearms and non firearms death rates from 1981 to 2016. In addition, negative binomial regression was used to test for an association between rates of suicide by Canadian Province and firearms prevalence, using licensing rates as a proxy for prevalence. No associated benefit from firearms legislation on aggregate rates of male suicide was found. In men aged 45 to 59 an associated shift from firearms suicide after 1991 and 1994 to an increase in hanging resulted in overall rate ratios of 0.994 (95%CI, 0.978,1.010) and 0.993 (95%CI, 0.980,1.005) respectively. In men 60 and older a similar effect was seen after 1991, 1994, and 2001, that resulted in rate ratios of 0.989 (95%CI, 0.971,1.008), 0.994 (95%CI, 0.979,1.010), and 1.010 (95%CI, 0.998,1.022) respectively. In females a similar effect was only seen after 1991, rate ratio 0.983 (95%CI, 0.956,1.010). No beneficial association was found between legislation and female or male homicide rates. There was no association found with firearm prevalence rates per province and provincial suicide rates, but an increased association with suicide rates was found with rates of low income, increased unemployment, and the percentage of aboriginals in the population. In conclusion, firearms legislation had no associated beneficial effect on overall suicide and homicide rates. Prevalence of firearms ownership was not associated with suicide rates. Multifaceted strategies to reduce mortality associated with firearms may be required such as steps to reduce youth gang membership and violence, community-based suicide prevention programs, and outreach to groups for which access to care may be a particular issue, such as Aboriginals.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência com Arma de Fogo/tendências , Homicídio/tendências , Suicídio/tendências , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência com Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Violência com Arma de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/prevenção & controle , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233034, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422646

RESUMO

Income inequality is blamed for being the main driver of violent crime by the majority of the literature. However, earlier work on the topic largely neglects the role of poverty and income levels as opposed to income inequality. The current paper uses all court verdicts for homicide cases in China between 2014 and 2016, as well as various inequality measures calculated from 2005 mini census data together with a host of control variables to shed light on the relationship at the detailed Chinese prefecture-level. The results suggest that it is the poverty and low income level, rather than income inequality, that is positively related to homicide rates. We show that the internal rural-urban migration from more violent localities contributes to the destination cities' homicide rates. The poverty-homicide association implies that instead of "relative deprivation", "absolute deprivation" is mainly responsible for violent crime. Poverty is the mother of crime. -Marcus Aurelius (121-180AD), Emperor of the Roman Empire.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Censos , China , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , População Rural , População Urbana
19.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(6): 825-831, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Federal law requires background checks for firearms purchased from licensed dealers, but states can extend requirements to private sales of handguns and purchases at gun shows (universal background checks for handguns [UBC-HG]). Although firearm homicide disproportionately affects African Americans, little is known about how UBG-HG impacts African Americans. We hypothesized that implementation of UBC-HG would reduce rates of firearm homicide of African Americans. METHODS: We collected Centers for Disease Control firearm homicide counts for African American and white populations in the 50 states, 1999 to 2017. Laws were drawn from the State Firearm Laws Database. The exposure and outcome of interest were UBC-HG adoption and firearm homicide. We included non-Hispanic African American and non-Hispanic white populations. We used Poisson regression to perform a differences-in-differences analysis. A categorical variable for state accounted for time-stable state characteristics. We controlled for year to account for trends over time unrelated to policy. We controlled for state-specific, time-variable factors, including median household income, population younger than 25 years or 65 years or older, alcohol consumption, and count of firearm laws (UBC-HG excluded). Standard errors were adjusted for clustering at the state level. RESULTS: The firearm homicide rate among whites was 1.8 per 100,000 (interquartile range, 1.2-2.7) ranging from 1.4 in 2011 to 1.8 in 2016. The firearm homicide rate was 15.6 per 100,000 (interquartile range, 11.6-21.0) among African Americans, ranging from 14.0 in 2009 to 19.6 in 2017. While no significant difference in firearm homicides among whites (incidence rate ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.20) was appreciated, the passage of UBC-HG was associated with an 19% decrease in African Americans firearm homicides (incidence rate ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.94; p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Implementing UBC-HG was associated with decreased firearm homicides among African Americans-the population most at risk. Expanding UBC-HG may be an effective approach to reducing racial disparities in firearm homicides. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Homicídio/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(3): 170-176, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132751

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the effect of a permanent gun-carrying restriction on gun-related mortality in Colombia between 2008 and 2014, and determine differences in the effect of the restriction by place of death and sex. Methods: In 2012, Bogotá and Medellín introduced a permanent gun-carrying restriction. We compared gun-related mortality rates in these cities (intervention cities) with the rates in all other Colombian cities with more than 500 000 inhabitants (control cities). We used data from the Colombian National Department of Statistics to calculate monthly gun-related mortality rates between 2008 and 2014 for intervention and control cities. We used a differences-in-differences method with fixed effects to assess differences in gun-related mortality in intervention and control cities before and after the introduction of the gun-carrying restriction. We stratified effects by place of death (public area or residence) and sex. We made robustness checks to test the assumptions of the models. Findings: Gun-related deaths in the control and intervention cities decreased between 2008 and 2014; however, the decrease was greater in the intervention cities (from 20.29 to 14.93 per 100 000 population; 26.4%) than in the control cities (from 37.88 to 34.56 per 100 000 population; 8.8%). The restriction led to a 22.3% reduction in the monthly gun-related mortality rate in Bogotá and Medellín. The reduction was greater in public areas and for males. Robustness checks supported the assumptions of the models. Conclusion: The permanent restriction on carrying guns reduced gun-related deaths. This policy could be used to reduce gun-related injuries in urban centres of other countries with large numbers of gun-related deaths.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade
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