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1.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(9): e25994, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050916

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Men who have sex with men (MSM) and people who inject drugs (PWID) are disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic in Canada. Having the second-highest provincial diagnosis rate, an improved understanding of the epidemic among these populations in Québec could aid ongoing elimination efforts. We estimated HIV incidence and other epidemic indicators among MSM and PWID in Montréal and across Québec using a back-calculation model synthesizing surveillance data. METHODS: We developed a deterministic, compartmental mathematical model stratified by age, HIV status and disease progression, and clinical care stages. Using AIDS and HIV diagnoses data, including self-reported time since the last negative test and laboratory results of CD4 cell count at diagnosis, we estimated HIV incidence in each population over 1975-2020 by modelling a cubic M-spline. The prevalence, undiagnosed fraction, fraction diagnosed that started antiretroviral treatment (ART) and median time to diagnosis were also estimated. Since the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted testing, we excluded 2020 data and explored this in sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: HIV incidence in all populations peaked early in the epidemic. In 2020, an estimated 97 (95% CrI: 33-227) and 266 (95% CrI: 103-508) HIV acquisitions occurred among MSM in Montréal and Québec, respectively. Among PWID, we estimated 2 (95% CrI: 0-14) and 6 (95% CrI: 1-26) HIV acquisitions in those same regions. With 2020 data, unless testing rates were reduced by 50%, these estimates decreased, except among Québec PWID, whose increased. Among all, the median time to diagnosis shortened to <2 years before 2020 and the undiagnosed fraction decreased to <10%. This fraction was higher in younger MSM, with 22% of 15-24 year-olds living with HIV in Montréal (95% CrI: 9-39%) and 31% in Québec (95% CrI: 17-48%) undiagnosed by 2020 year-end. Finally, ART access neared 100% in all diagnosed populations. CONCLUSIONS: HIV incidence has drastically decreased in MSM and PWID across Québec, alongside significant improvements in diagnosis and treatment coverage-and the 2013 introduction of pre-exposure prophylaxis. Despite this, HIV transmission continued. Effective efforts to halt this transmission and rapidly diagnose people who acquired HIV, especially among younger MSM, are needed to achieve elimination. Further, as the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV transmission are understood, increased efforts may be needed to overcome these.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(9): e0010712, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and enteric parasite co-infection not only aggravates the clinical symptoms of parasites but also accelerates acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) progression. However, co-infection research on men who have sex with men (MSM), the predominant high-risk population of HIV/AIDS in China, is still limited. In this study, we investigated the epidemiology of enteric parasites, risk factors, and associations with clinical significance in an MSM HIV/AIDS population in Heilongjiang Province, northeast China. METHODS: We recruited 308 MSMs HIV/AIDS patients and 199 HIV-negative individuals in two designated AIDS hospitals in Heilongjiang between April 2016 and July 2017. Fresh stool samples were collected. DNA extraction, molecular identification, and genotyping of Cryptosporidium species, Entamoeba histolytica, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis hominis were performed. Fourteen diarrhea-related pathogens were examined to exclude the influence of other bacterial pathogens on diarrhea incidence. RESULTS: 31.5% of MSM HIV/AIDS participants were infected with at least one parasite species, a significantly higher proportion than that found in the HIV-negative individuals (2.5%). E. bieneusi presented the highest prevalence, followed by B. hominis, E. histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., and C. cayetanensis. Warm seasons were the risk factor for parasitic infections in this population [odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.47-4.57]. In addition, these individuals showed a higher proportion (35.8%) of present diarrhea (PD) compared with men who have sex with women (MSW) with HIV/AIDS (16.7%). The infection proportions of both Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica were significantly higher in the PD. E. bieneusi infection was more prevalent in the historic diarrhea (HD) group. CD4+ T cell counts in the MSM patients with the above three parasites were significantly lower. New species and genotypes were found, and MSM patients had a wider range of species or genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Enteric parasitic infection was prevalent in the MSM HIV/AIDS population, especially in patients with present diarrhea during warm seasons. E. histolytica and B. hominis should also be considered high-risk parasites for opportunistic infections in AIDS patients in addition to Cryptosporidium spp.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Coinfecção , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Infecções por HIV , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Animais , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 946771, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062118

RESUMO

Introduction: Overseas-born and newly arrived gay and bisexual men and men who have sex with men (GBMSM) are at higher risk of acquiring HIV in comparison to Australian-born GBMSM. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is subsidized by the Australian government under Medicare, Australia's universal health insurance scheme, however many members of this population are Medicare-ineligible, which could prevent them from accessing PrEP. We wanted to explore participants' knowledge of and attitudes toward PrEP and their opinions of new PrEP modalities, namely injectable PrEP and PrEP implants. Methods: We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews between February 2021 to September 2021 with 22 overseas-born, newly arrived (<5 years in Australia) GBMSM of varying PrEP use. We asked their opinions of PrEP and their preferences of new PrEP modalities. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. We conducted a reflexive thematic analysis to interpret the data. Results: Participants' views reflect the intersections between systemic factors, such as Medicare ineligibility and the high cost of PrEP, with socio-cultural factors, such as lack of knowledge about PrEP, internalized stigma stemming from homo- and sex-negativity, and stigmatizing attitudes toward PrEP and PrEP users. For participants who were on PrEP, being community connected, having a positive relationship with doctors and nurses, and being informed of the option to purchase PrEP from overseas pharmacies at a low cost helped them to overcome some of these barriers. Additionally, there was a strong preference for injectable PrEP but not PrEP implants. Participants stressed the importance of providing a comprehensive information about PrEP specific to this population and to make PrEP free for all. Conclusions: We concluded that resources about PrEP specific to this population that address both systemic and socio-cultural factors are needed, and for these resources to be available in languages other than English. This is to coincide with on-going advocacy to increase the capacity of publicly funded sexual health clinics to provide multilingual PrEP services for people without Medicare, and to make PrEP free for all. These combined strategies have the potential to increase PrEP knowledge and uptake among this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Idoso , Austrália , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde
4.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0269780, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103481

RESUMO

Population sizes of adolescent (15- to 19-years) and young (20 to 24-years) key populations at risk for HIV transmission are essential for developing effective national HIV control strategies. We present new population size estimates of adolescent and young men who have sex with men and females who sell sex from 184 countries in nine UNICEF regions using UNAIDS published population size estimations submitted by national governments to derive 15-24-year-old population proportions based on the size of equivalent adult general populations. Imputed sizes based on regional estimates were used for countries or regions where adult proportion estimates were unavailable. Proportions were apportioned to adolescents and young adults based on age at sexual debut, by adjusting for the cumulative percentage of the sexually active population at each age for sex. Among roughly 69.5 million men who have sex with men, 12 million are under the age of 24 years, of whom 3 million are adolescents. There are an estimated 1.4 million adolescent and 3.7 million young females who sell sex. Roughly four and a half million adolescent men who have sex with men and females who sell sex would benefit from early HIV interventions. These population size estimates suggest there are roughly 17 million adolescent and young men who have sex with men and females who sell sex who need HIV prevention services and social support. These data provide evidence for national and international programs to determine how many adolescent and young key populations need essential health services and are living with HIV and other infections. Age disaggregated population sizes inform epidemic models, which increasingly use age-sex structures and are often used to obtain and allocate resources and human capacity and to plan critical prevention, treatment, and infection control programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30057, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107537

RESUMO

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the Philippines has been driven by sexual transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) over the past 2 decades. As the incidence of HIV infection among MSM has not been extensively evaluated, this study aimed to determine the incidence of HIV infections and the associated risk factors among MSM in Metro Manila, Philippines. This prospective cohort study was conducted in 2 community centers in Metro Manila, the Philippines, between March 2014 and December 2018. MSM who had anal or oral sex in the past 12 months, aged ≥18 years, and confirmed HIV-negative status were enrolled. Participants were followed up every 3 months with repeat HIV testing and assessment of HIV-related practices. Of the 708 MSM included in this study, a total of 59 HIV seroconversions occurred during the follow-up, resulting in an incidence of 2.7 (95% confidence interval: 2.1-3.5) per 100 patient-years. Multivariate risk regression analysis indicated that age (P = .002) and anal sex with a consensual male partner in the past 3 months (P = .039) were significantly associated with HIV infection. Our study has shown high rates of incident HIV infection among Filipino MSM. This demonstrates the need for effective HIV prevention, surveillance, treatment, and intervention strategies targeting this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 237, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health research frequently relies on collaborations with community-based organizations, and these partnerships can be essential to the success of a project. However, while public health ethics and oversight policies have historically focused on ensuring that individual subjects are protected from unethical or unfair practices, there are few guidelines to protect the organizations which facilitate relationships with - and are frequently composed of - these same vulnerable populations. As universities, governments, and donors place a renewed emphasis on the need for community engaged research to address systematic drivers of health inequity, it is vital that the ways in which research is conducted does not uphold the same intersecting systems of gender, race, and class oppression which led to the very same health inequities of interest. METHODS: To understand how traditional notions of public health research ethics might be expanded to encompass partnerships with organizations as well as individuals, we conducted qualitative interviews with 39 staff members (executive directors and frontline) at community-based organizations that primarily serve people who use drugs, Black men who have sex with men, and sex workers across the United States from January 2016 - August 2017. We also conducted 11 in-depth interviews with professional academic researchers with experience partnering with CBOs that serve similar populations. Transcripts were analyzed thematically using emergent codes and a priori codes derived from the Belmont Report. RESULTS: The concepts of respect, beneficence, and justice are a starting point for collaboration with CBOs, but participants deepened them beyond traditional regulatory concepts to consider the ethics of relationships, care, and solidarity. These concepts could and should apply to the treatment of organizations that participate in research just as they apply to individual human subjects, although their implementation will differ when applied to CBOs vs individual human subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Academic-CBO partnerships are likely to be more successful for both academics and CBOs if academic researchers work to center individual-level relationship building that is mutually respectful and grounded in cultural humility. More support from academic institutions and ethical oversight entities can enable more ethically grounded relationships between academic researchers, academic institutions, and community based organizations.


Assuntos
Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Ética em Pesquisa , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisadores , Estados Unidos
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1728, 2022 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent men who have sex with men (aMSM) and transgender women (aTGW) are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although new methods of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), such as long-acting injectable (LAI-PrEP), have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration, their acceptability among aMSM/aTGW is not well known. METHODS: Forty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess the knowledge and interest in LAI-PrEP among aMSM/aTGW enrolled in a daily oral PrEP cohort from two capital cities of Brazil since 2019. RESULTS: Previous knowledge of LAI-PrEP remains scarce, but the high interest regarding its use has been reported. Interest in the use of LAI-PrEP is associated with eliminating the burden of daily responsibility or the risk of missing the necessary medications, lowering the costs of this method, increasing confidentiality, and decreasing the frequency of visiting PrEP clinics. The reported barriers to uptake included fear of injection, doubts on its effectiveness, side effects, and greater dependence on a health provider. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to strengthen the preventive strategies against HIV infection among the youth, enhance their knowledge and those of healthcare providers, and offer safe and new options.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Cidades , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 967681, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091522

RESUMO

Background: Continuously growing of HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM), as well as the low rate of HIV testing of MSM in China, demonstrates a need for innovative strategies to improve the implementation of HIV prevention. The use of machine learning algorithms is an increasing tendency in disease diagnosis prediction. We aimed to develop and validate machine learning models in predicting HIV infection among MSM that can identify individuals at increased risk of HIV acquisition for transmission-reduction interventions. Methods: We extracted data from MSM sentinel surveillance in Zhejiang province from 2018 to 2020. Univariate logistic regression was used to select significant variables in 2018-2019 data (P < 0.05). After data processing and feature selection, we divided the model development data into two groups by stratified random sampling: training data (70%) and testing data (30%). The Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE) was applied to solve the problem of unbalanced data. The evaluation metrics of model performance were comprised of accuracy, precision, recall, F-measure, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Then, we explored three commonly-used machine learning algorithms to compare with logistic regression (LR), including decision tree (DT), support vector machines (SVM), and random forest (RF). Finally, the four models were validated prospectively with 2020 data from Zhejiang province. Results: A total of 6,346 MSM were included in model development data, 372 of whom were diagnosed with HIV. In feature selection, 12 variables were selected as model predicting indicators. Compared with LR, the algorithms of DT, SVM, and RF improved the classification prediction performance in SMOTE-processed data, with the AUC of 0.778, 0.856, 0.887, and 0.942, respectively. RF was the best-performing algorithm (accuracy = 0.871, precision = 0.960, recall = 0.775, F-measure = 0.858, and AUC = 0.942). And the RF model still performed well on prospective validation (AUC = 0.846). Conclusion: Machine learning models are substantially better than conventional LR model and RF should be considered in prediction tools of HIV infection in Chinese MSM. Further studies are needed to optimize and promote these algorithms and evaluate their impact on HIV prevention of MSM.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Algoritmos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 930208, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091531

RESUMO

Aims: Since 2017, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care has been provided through an intersectoral collaboration at WIR (Walk-in-Ruhr, Center for Sexual Health and Medicine, Bochum, Germany). The aim of this study was to establish possible impact of COVID-restrictions on the sexual behavior of PrEP users in North Rhine-Westphalia. Methods: The current PrEP study collected data of individuals using PrEP, their sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) before (each quarter of year 2018) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (each quarter of year 2020). Results: During the first lockdown in Germany from mid-March until May 2020, PrEP-care appointments at WIR were postponed or canceled. Almost a third of PrEP users had discontinued their PrEP intake in the 2nd quarter of 2020 due to alteration of their sexual behavior. The number of sexual partners decreased from a median of 14 partners in the previous 6 months in 1st quarter of 2020, to 7 partners in 4th quarter of 2020. Despite such a significant reduction in partner number during the pandemic in comparison to the pre-pandemic period, a steady rate of STIs was observed among PrEP users in 2020. Conclusion: The SARS-CoV-2-pandemic has impacted PrEP-using MSM in North Rhine-Westphalia with respect to their PrEP intake regimen and sexual behavior in 2020. Our study revealed a steady rate of STI among PrEP users even during the pandemic, thus highlighting the importance of ensuring appropriate HIV/STI prevention services in times of crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(37): 1190-1195, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107794

RESUMO

Currently, no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments for human monkeypox are available. Tecovirimat (Tpoxx), however, is an antiviral drug that has demonstrated efficacy in animal studies and is FDA-approved for treating smallpox. Use of tecovirimat for treatment of monkeypox in the United States is permitted only through an FDA-regulated Expanded Access Investigational New Drug (EA-IND) mechanism. CDC holds a nonresearch EA-IND protocol that facilitates access to and use of tecovirimat for treatment of monkeypox.§ The protocol includes patient treatment and adverse event reporting forms to monitor safety and ensure intended clinical use in accordance with FDA EA-IND requirements. The current multinational monkeypox outbreak, first detected in a country where Monkeypox virus infection is not endemic in May 2022, has predominantly affected gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) (1,2). To describe characteristics of persons treated with tecovirimat for Monkeypox virus infection, demographic and clinical data abstracted from available tecovirimat EA-IND treatment forms were analyzed. As of August 20, 2022, intake and outcome forms were available for 549 and 369 patients, respectively; 97.7% of patients were men, with a median age of 36.5 years. Among patients with available data, 38.8% were reported to be non-Hispanic White (White) persons, 99.8% were prescribed oral tecovirimat, and 93.1% were not hospitalized. Approximately one half of patients with Monkeypox virus infection who received tecovirimat were living with HIV infection. The median interval from initiation of tecovirimat to subjective improvement was 3 days and did not differ by HIV infection status. Adverse events were reported in 3.5% of patients; all but one adverse event were nonserious. These data support the continued access to and treatment with tecovirimat for patients with or at risk for severe disease in the ongoing monkeypox outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Varíola dos Macacos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Drogas em Investigação/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Varíola dos Macacos/tratamento farmacológico , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Estados Unidos
11.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274251, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107947

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In Malaysia, the trend of HIV transmission has shifted from intravenous drug use to sexual intercourse, and men who have sex with men (MSM) have become the main driver due to high-risk sexual behaviour. Thus, treatment and care, which also involves counselling, for men who have sex with men and who are living with HIV (MSM living with HIV) are crucial. This study aims to explore the experiences of MSM living with HIV and participating in counselling session during treatment and care at two public hospitals. METHOD: This qualitative study with a grounded-theory approach was conducted at two public hospitals in Malaysia. Five participants who were MSM living with HIV were selected through purposive sampling. They participated in semi-structured interviews, non-participant observations, and diary entries, each of which was conducted three times. The data were analysed using grounded theory with N-Vivo 8 to determine themes. RESULT: The participants were found to experience feelings of emptiness and hopelessness because of their unreadiness to accept their HIV status. These feelings made their participation in counselling sessions challenging. Consequently, the participants found counselling sessions unhelpful due to their unwillingness to participate in the counselling relationship. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study highlight the need for counselling sessions to focus more on feelings related to unreadiness to improve the self-esteem and ability to create positive relationships with others of MSM living with HIV. It is also important to strengthen the training and skills among HIV counsellors to enhance counselling services for these men.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Coito , Aconselhamento , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 956217, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117593

RESUMO

Background: Most men who have sex with men (MSM), especially those with HIV infection, do not disclose their same-sex behaviors in China due to Chinese family values and fear of stigmatization, rejection, or prejudice. However, disclosure of same-sex behaviors to healthcare providers (HCPs) can be beneficial for reducing viral transmission and promoting their physical and mental health. In this study, by combining phylogenetic analysis with traditional epidemiological approaches, we tried to identify the MSM who do not disclose to HCPs in transmission networks and explored the factors related to the non-disclosed behaviors. Method: Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using HIV pol sequences obtained from the drug-resistant surveillance program, which was collected as part of routine clinical care since 2012. Sequences were linked to the demographic data collected in the Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System (CRIMS). First, male patients in whom genetic sequences were within the molecular transmission clusters involving self-reported MSM were identified as potential MSM (pMSM). Then, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to supplement behavioral information and attitudes toward MSM. Results: Our sample consisted of 190 pMSM patients. In total, 43.16% of the patients were likely to conceal same-sex behaviors during the first-self-report, and 14.73% of patients might continue to conceal a history of same-sex behaviors even after receiving medical care. The pMSM who concealed their same-sex behaviors were reluctant to accept medical services such as Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) and had a lower likelihood of condom use. In addition, the related factors for non-disclosed behavior were associated with current address, income before diagnosis, and attitudes toward MSM. Conclusion: Non-disclosure of same-sex behaviors to HCPs may be a major obstacle for certain medical services for MSM who exhibit risky sexual behaviors. The pMSM from developing areas, with high monthly income, and with neutral or un-supportive attitudes toward MSM may represent non-disclosure of their same-sex behaviors. Thus, policies facilitating MSM to disclose their same-sex behaviors are recommended, such as legislations protecting homosexual rights on employment, education, marriage, and so on.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia
15.
Am J Mens Health ; 16(5): 15579883221120985, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082415

RESUMO

Older adults' mental health and suicidal tendencies have garnered much attention because of their vulnerability. Few studies have examined the impact of psychological well-being and suicide attempts among older men who have sex with men (OMSM). This study examines the levels of depression and suicidal tendencies among OMSM, factors impacting their mental health, and their likelihood of committing suicide. Descriptive statistics are used to analyze the correlation between depression and suicidal tendencies among OMSM in the United States. We constructed a regression model using relevant data, and scales were selected based on a literature review. The validity and relevance of the control variables were considered. Depression and suicidal tendencies were dependent variables. Data were obtained from the U.S. General Social Survey and analyzed with an ordinary least squares model. There were significant differences between MSM and general groups in depression and suicidal tendency scores (t = 67.084, 58.193, p < .01). Compared with general groups, MSM scored significantly higher on depression and suicidal tendencies. The regression analysis revealed that sex with men was associated with depression and suicidal tendencies (p < .01) among older men. This indicates that OMSM generally have higher levels of depression and suicidal tendencies than the general population. Finally, in the intermediary test, the level of depression had a significant mediating effect on the relationship between homosexuality and suicidal tendencies (p < .01). This suggests that depression intervention can help reduce suicidal tendencies among OMSM.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Tentativa de Suicídio , Idoso , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Estados Unidos
16.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 91(2): 138-143, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094479

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Black and Hispanic/Latino sexual minority men and gender diverse (SMMGD) individuals report lower uptake and adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) compared with White SMMGD. For some, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in reduced access to PrEP prescriptions and related changes to PrEP use, yet little is known how pandemic-related changes to PrEP access and sexual activity might influence sexually transmitted infection (STI) status and HIV seroconversion among SMMGD of color. We used data from 4 waves of a national study of Black and Hispanic/Latino SMMGD's HIV, PrEP, and health experiences to assess whether self-reported changes to sexual activity were associated with STI status, and whether self-reported changes to PrEP access were associated with HIV seroconversion. Those who reported greater impact to their sexual activity during the pandemic [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10 to 1.40] and a greater number of sexual partners (aOR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.21 to 1.38) were more likely to report a positive STI test. In addition, we found that compared with those who did not report pandemic-related changes to PrEP access, those who did report changes to PrEP access had significantly higher odds of HIV seroconversion during the study period (aOR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.02 to 7.68). These findings have implications for HIV and STI prevention and highlight the importance of novel interventions to improve PrEP access among Black and Hispanic/Latino SMMGD. Importantly, these findings also demonstrate the need to stay focused on key populations at risk of HIV infection during emerging public health crises to avoid an increase in rates of new diagnoses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 91(S1): S42-S50, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from both clinical trials and real-world observational studies suggest that lamivudine plus dolutegravir (3TC + DTG) dual therapy has excellent virological efficacy and safety in HIV-1-infected patients. However, there is still no relevant study related to this dual therapy reported in China. METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective, observational study that included HIV-1-infected patients in China, baseline and follow-up data were collected to analyze the virological suppression rate, immune restoration, and adverse events during follow-up in HIV-1-infected patients who switched to the 3TC + DTG dual therapy. RESULTS: This study recruited 112 HIV-1-infected patients, including 101 men (90.2%), with a median age of 44.0 years (IQR: 33.00-57.75) and median CD4+ T-cell count of 432.13 cells/µL (IQR: 237.75-578.50). The overall virological suppression rate was 94.5% at the 24-week follow-up. However, the virological suppression rates of men who have sex with men patients and patients with CD4+ T-cell count of <350 cells/µL were higher than the baseline value (P < 0.05) at week 24. The results of Cox regression analysis showed that the baseline CD4+ T-cell count was an independent determinant of immune restoration in patients, and patients with baseline CD4+ T-cell count of 350-500 cells/µL outperformed patients with baseline CD4+ T-cell count of <350 cells/µL in immune restoration (hazard ratio: 4.469, 95% confidence interval: 1.801 to 11.091, P = 0.001). Adverse events were reported in 5 patients (incidence rate of 4.5%); among them, 3 patients developed neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results from the laboratory data analysis showed that patients with grade 1 and 2 adverse events had elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total bilirubin. Furthermore, grade 3 and 4 adverse events were associated with the elevation of blood glucose level in 4 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the 3TC + DTG dual therapy displayed an excellent virological efficacy against HIV-1 infections and had an acceptable safety profile, with predominantly mild adverse events in HIV-1-infected patients in China.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Lamivudina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxazinas , Piperazinas , Piridonas , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 91(2): 151-156, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to put strain on health systems in the United States, leading to significant shifts in the delivery of routine clinical services, including those offering HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We aimed to assess whether individuals discontinued PrEP use at higher rates during the COVID-19 pandemic and the extent to which disruptions to usual clinical care were mitigated through telehealth. METHODS: Using data from an ongoing prospective cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) newly initiating PrEP in 3 mid-sized cities (n = 195), we calculated the rate of first-time discontinuation of PrEP use in the period before the COVID-19 pandemic and during the COVID-19 pandemic and compared these rates using incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Furthermore, we compared the characteristics of patients who discontinued PrEP use during these periods with those who continued to use PrEP during both periods. RESULTS: Rates of PrEP discontinuation before the COVID pandemic and during the COVID-19 pandemic were comparable [4.29 vs. 5.20 discontinuations per 100 person-months; IRR: 1.95; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83 to 1.77]. Although no significant differences in the PrEP discontinuation rate were observed in the overall population, the rate of PrEP discontinuation increased by almost 3-fold among participants aged 18-24 year old (IRR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.48 to 5.23) and by 29% among participants covered by public insurance plans at enrollment (IRR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03 to 5.09). Those who continued to use PrEP were more likely to have had a follow-up clinical visit by telehealth in the early months of the pandemic (45% vs. 17%). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, rates of PrEP discontinuation were largely unchanged with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of telehealth likely helped retain patients in PrEP care and should continue to be offered in the future.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078248

RESUMO

One of the most significant innovations in HIV prevention is the use of HIV treatment to prevent HIV transmission. This information has been disseminated as the "Undetectable = Untransmittable" (U = U) message. Despite evidence of effectiveness, U = U awareness, belief, and understanding remains limited in some communities. In this study, we examine whether having an LGBTQ affirming healthcare provider increases U = U awareness, belief, and understanding among midlife and older gay and bisexual men in the US south, an understudied and underserved population and region where new HIV infections are increasing. We used data from the Vanderbilt University Social Networks Aging and Policy Study (VUSNAPS) on sexual minority men aged 50 to 76 from four southern US states collected in 2020-2021. We found that only one in four men reported prior awareness of U = U, but awareness was higher among men who have an LGBTQ affirming provider. Among HIV negative men, those with an affirming provider were more likely to believe and understand U = U, have more accurate risk perception, and have ever tested for HIV. Improving access to LGBTQ affirming healthcare may improve U = U awareness, belief, and understanding, which could help to curb HIV transmission in the US south.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Bissexualidade , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(36): 1141-1147, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074735

RESUMO

High prevalences of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been reported in the current global monkeypox outbreak, which has affected primarily gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) (1-5). In previous monkeypox outbreaks in Nigeria, concurrent HIV infection was associated with poor monkeypox clinical outcomes (6,7). Monkeypox, HIV, and STI surveillance data from eight U.S. jurisdictions* were matched and analyzed to examine HIV and STI diagnoses among persons with monkeypox and assess differences in monkeypox clinical features according to HIV infection status. Among 1,969 persons with monkeypox during May 17-July 22, 2022, HIV prevalence was 38%, and 41% had received a diagnosis of one or more other reportable STIs in the preceding year. Among persons with monkeypox and diagnosed HIV infection, 94% had received HIV care in the preceding year, and 82% had an HIV viral load of <200 copies/mL, indicating HIV viral suppression. Compared with persons without HIV infection, a higher proportion of persons with HIV infection were hospitalized (8% versus 3%). Persons with HIV infection or STIs are disproportionately represented among persons with monkeypox. It is important that public health officials leverage systems for delivering HIV and STI care and prevention to reduce monkeypox incidence in this population. Consideration should be given to prioritizing persons with HIV infection and STIs for vaccination against monkeypox. HIV and STI screening and other recommended preventive care should be routinely offered to persons evaluated for monkeypox, with linkage to HIV care or HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as appropriate.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Varíola dos Macacos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Animais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
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