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1.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(4): 421-439, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605397

RESUMO

A conceptual evolution is traceable from early modern classifications of libido nefanda (execrable lust) to early nineteenth-century allusions to 'perversion of the sexual instinct', via pluralizing notions of coitus nefandus/sodomiticus in Martin Schurig's work, and of sodomia impropria in seventeenth- through late eighteenth-century legal medicine. Johann Valentin Müller's early breakdown of various unnatural penchants seemingly inspired similar lists in works by Johann Christoph Fahner and Johann Josef Bernt, and ultimately Heinrich Kaan. This allows an ante-dating of the 'specification of the perverted' (Foucault) often located in the late nineteenth century, and appreciation of pygmalionism and necrophilia as instances of 'perverted sexual instinct'. In this light, Kaan's early psychopathia sexualis was less innovative and more ambivalent than previously thought.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade/história , Transtornos Parafílicos/história , Feminino , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino
2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(1): 212-224, jan.-mar. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087309

RESUMO

A pegação masculina em espaços públicos da cidade é um fenômeno plural, rico em experiências instauradoras de práticas e modos de ocupar o mundo dissidentes da heteronorma. Não por acaso, foi submetido a muitos registros de infâmia. Dos antigos crimes jurídico-religiosos de sodomia forjados na Europa, que colonizaram, inclusive, os prazeres nas Américas, até sua inscrição patológico-criminal apoiada pela ciência do século XIX, a pegação tornou-se um atentado ao pudor, uma afronta à moral pública. Contudo, as figuras anônimas homoeróticas que circulam oscilantes pela urbe, instauradoras de territórios de prazer em meio ao espaço público, nos ajudam a entender, através de seus rastros, muitas vezes captados pelos aparelhos de poder, justamente suas histórias de repressão.


The cruising gay men in public spaces of the city is a plural phenomenon, rich in experiences instituting dissident practices and lifestyle of the heteronormativity. It is not by chance that this phenomenon was subjected to many registers of infamy. From the ancient juridical religious sodomy crimes established in Europe that even colonized the pleasures in the Americas to their pathological criminal inscription supported by nineteenth-century science, the cruising gay men became an indecent assault, an affront to the public moral principles. However, the anonymous homoerotic figures that circulate around the city, establishing pleasure territories in the midst of public space, help us to understand through their traces often captured by the power apparatus, precisely their stories of repression.


La práctica del cruising en los espacios públicos de la ciudad es un fenómeno plural, rico en experiencias que establecen prácticas y formas de ocupar el mundo disidentes de la heteronorma. No por casualidad, el fenómeno fue sometido a muchos registros de infamia. Desde los antiguos crimenes jurídico-religiosos de sodomía, establecidos en Europa y que incluso colonizaron los placeres en las Américas, hasta la inscripción criminal patológica apoyada por la ciencia del siglo XIX, la práctica del cruising se convirtió en un atentado contra el pudor, una afrenta a la moral pública. Sin embargo, las figuras anónimas homoeróticas que circulan alrededor de la ciudad, estableciendo territorios de placer en el espacio público, nos ayudan a comprender, a través de sus rastros, a menudo capturadas por los aparatos del poder, precisamente sus historias de represión.


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Homossexualidade/história , Sexualidade , Sexo sem Proteção , Sociedades , Cidades , Prazer
3.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 208(2): 152-154, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977826

RESUMO

Psychiatric nosology has at times mirrored cultural mores and societal values, pathologizing behaviors seen at the time to be either immoral or outside the norm. This has been particularly true when it comes to issues related to sexuality and gender. Such pathologizing has resulted in further stigmatization and discrimination in society. Gender incongruence, the experience of an individual whose internal sense of gender is at odds with the sex they were assigned at birth, has long been pathologized. This article will compare the history of the psychiatric depathologizing of homosexuality to the current process of depathologizing gender incongruence.


Assuntos
Disforia de Gênero/história , Adolescente , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Disforia de Gênero/diagnóstico , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , História do Século XX , Homossexualidade/história , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Hist Sci ; 58(3): 326-349, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631715

RESUMO

The sexological research questionnaire, which became a central research tool in twentieth-century sexology, has a methodological-developmental history stretching back into mid-nineteenth century Germany. It was the product of a prolonged, disruptive encounter between sexual scientists constructing sexual case studies along with newly assertive homosexual men supplying self-penned sexual autobiographies. Homosexual autobiographies were intensely interesting to these men of science but lacked the brevity, structure, and discipline of a formal clinical case study. In the closing decades of the century, efforts to harness and regularize this self-penned material resulted in a series of methodological adaptations. By the turn of the century this process had resulted in the first use of a formal sexual research questionnaire.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade/história , Psiquiatria/história , Sexologia/história , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pesquisa Comportamental/história , Feminino , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Terminologia como Assunto
5.
J Homosex ; 67(5): 697-711, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582735

RESUMO

In her 1930 publication, Aveux non Avenus, Claude Cahun used the relationship between her inwardly focused poetic writing and symbolic photomontages to construct a unique reality for self-expression. This article focuses on three chapters and respective photographic images from the publication to relate Cahun's, and by association her partner Marcel Moore's, discussion on sexuality and gender expression. The utopian dreamscape created investigates issues of narcissism and otherness, female homosexuality, dandyism and going beyond gender, individual and social critique, mocking the antiquated views of art and writing, accepting and breaking taboos, while allowing for other departures from the accepted norm. Through analysis of the publication and supporting evidence from early influences, it can be seen that Cahun created a world in Aveux non Avenus where she could exist in a space between the established feminine-masculine binary of 20th-century Europe.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Homossexualidade/história , Literatura , Sexualidade , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , História do Século XX , Homossexualidade Feminina , Humanos , Masculino , Fotografação/história , Redação
6.
J Homosex ; 67(13): 1823-1838, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081490

RESUMO

A burgeoning canon of Maghrebian writers in self-imposed exiled in France has in the last decade begun to openly broach the subject of homosexuality in Arab-Muslim communities of the Maghreb. Novels of writers like Abdellah Taïa, Rachid O. and Eyet-Chékib Djaziri reflect a fascinating trans-Mediterranean construction of homosexual identity. Drawing on Svetlana Boym's critical work, particularly her observation that nostalgia "charts an affective geography of the native land that often mirrors the melancholic landscapes" of the exiled, this paper analyzes the construction of homosexuality against the notions of exile, nostalgia, and marginality. The novels of these Maghrebian writers highlight nostalgia as both cathartic and paralyzing for "gay" migrant protagonists who find themselves trapped in the subtle seam between a cherished Maghreb that is framed as homophobic in the sexual clash of civilizations and a more liberal yet inauspicious France. The nostalgic contemplation of the constitution of a homosexual subjectivity is read as a critical performance and mainstreaming of hitherto marginalized voices that now subvert and fight back against normalizing discourses of ethnicity, sexual and gender identity as well as nationality.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade , Literatura , Isolamento Social , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , História do Século XXI , Homossexualidade/história , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Islamismo , Masculino
7.
J Homosex ; 67(1): 35-57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335587

RESUMO

The gay/lesbian social movement has primarily been understood as an identity movement. This article contributes to expanding understandings of the gay/lesbian movement by following the advocacy of the Dutch Association for the Integration of Homosexuality COC (COC) as a case of a gay/lesbian movement organization's expansion of its action repertoire to include public policy goals. On the basis of archival and interview data, this article identifies several factors that enabled the COC to see the Dutch government as a potential public policy partner. Previous legal successes and facilitation by the institutionalized wing of the women's movement, coupled with a constitutional change, resulted in the COC's development of a policy strategy. By tracing the history of the COC's strategic interactions, this article demonstrates that, while an identity strategy was constant throughout the COC's advocacy, the organization could combine an identity strategy with strategies of legal change, cultural change, and public policy.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade , Política Pública , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Feminino , História do Século XX , Homossexualidade/história , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Organizações , Política Pública/história , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/história
8.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 346-366, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372381

RESUMO

Intuitively distinguishing the myriad of critically informed paradigms requires an in-depth analysis of genealogies, histories, and philosophical underpinnings grounding each paradigm. Despite significant parallels between queer theory and intersectionality theory, the distinction of these two paradigms acts in both complicated and complementary manners that necessitate a dialogue on the contributions emanating from both paradigms to LGBTQ studies. This article targets the following goals: (1) explicate genealogy, history, and philosophical tenets of intersectionality and queer theory; (2) dialogue about the complementary yet complex relationships between the two paradigms; and (3) illustrate the promise of the complex relationship and distinction for LGBTQ studies.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade , Teoria Psicológica , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Educação , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Homossexualidade/história , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/história
10.
Indian J Med Ethics ; 4(2): 100-110, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271365

RESUMO

In 2018, a day before the Supreme Court of India commenced hearing the curative petition on Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code (which criminalised �carnal intercourse against the order of nature�), the Indian Psychiatric Society (IPS) issued an official statement that homosexuality is not a mental pathology. In 2014, a year after the top court recriminalised homosexuality, the then IPS president had termed it as a pathology requiring treatment. By examining articles on LGBTQIA+ rights published in two flagship Indian journals in psychiatry and clinical psychology, position statements by professional bodies, and international and national developments in human rights mechanisms, we argue that psychiatry�s voice for human rights protection of the marginalised has been akin to whispering sweet nothings in tune with the juridico-penal system. In turn, clinical psychology appears to huddle with biomedical psychiatry without raising its voice against coercive and traumatising practices within mainstream technocratic psychiatry. We seek to explore the troubled relationship between mainstream psy disciplines and LGBTQIA+ persons characterised by psychological evasion: failure of mainstream psy disciplines to take up sensitive, socio-political issues like same sex love in a broader human rights framework leading to individualisation- pathologisation complex which further side-lines persons living on the margins of society.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade/psicologia , Direitos Humanos , Psiquiatria/tendências , Psicologia Clínica/tendências , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Homossexualidade/história , Humanos , Índia , Jurisprudência , Transtornos Mentais/classificação , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/história , Sociedades Médicas
12.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 74(1): 34-56, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534965

RESUMO

Psychoanalysis and homosexuality in the United States were both largely in flux between 1910 and 1935. This article sheds light on this unique historical moment by first exploring scholarly discussions of the era's psychoanalysis and homosexuality, both of which emphasized the transitional nature of therapy and sexuality. By putting two bodies of scholarship into conversation, I also suggest how the historiography might move beyond two oft-cited arguments-that the psychoanalysis of the era had the power to form a person's sexual identity negatively, and that sexual minorities formed their identities affirmatively by staying away from medical interventions. I argue that, instead, psychoanalysis was part of modern sexual identity-formation in surprisingly open-ended ways. The second half of the article continues to explore the interplay between therapy and sexuality by closely examining clinical practices at one of the leading mental hospitals of the era: Sheppard and Enoch Pratt Hospital in Towson, Maryland, where an eclectic mode of psychotherapy was actively employed to treat homosexuality. In particular, the work of Harry Stack Sullivan (1892-1949), a gay psychiatrist well-known for his interpersonal theory of mental illness, shows how male patients who experienced same-sex sexual relationships nurtured productive interdependency among men in their articulation of sexual identity. By carefully delineating this process, the article shows how analytic practices could, and sometimes did, offer a crucial space for self-reflection and articulation of male sexuality.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Serviços de Saúde Mental/história , Psiquiatria/história , Psicanálise/história , Psicoterapia/história , Adulto , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
13.
J Homosex ; 66(12): 1693-1714, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235065

RESUMO

This article analyzes the ways in which LGBT community in Serbia is produced as both visible and invisible in activism and culture industry through affective labor performed as identification with the project of Europeanization of Serbian society (social subjection), and immaterial labor performed within culture industry by participating in the clubbing scene (machinic enslavement). LGBT community in Serbia has a potential for becoming other than a homonormativized group of consumers, especially when those who are produced as invisible are taken into account, and spatially and socially marginalized spaces where alternative forms of culture and politics are made and lived.


Assuntos
Cultura , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Marginalização Social , Capitalismo , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Homossexualidade/história , Humanos , Indústrias , Masculino , Política , Sérvia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/história , Meio Social
14.
J Homosex ; 66(8): 1126-1147, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052153

RESUMO

Although sodomy was purportedly an "unmentionable vice" in the early modern period, popular songs from the Low Countries paint a different picture. Bringing musical sources to bear upon the subject adds an extra dimension to the now widely held view that sodomy was a multimedia phenomenon in early modern society. Sodomy was represented in art, literature, poetry, and popular song as well. These songs were pedagogical in that they aimed to encourage performers and audience to live a pious life, and they stimulated the formation of confessional identities. By drawing attention to this neglected chapter in the history of homosexuality-popular song in the early modern Low Countries-this article seeks to contribute to the research on cultural perceptions of sodomy in the period.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade , Música , Comportamento Sexual , Canto , Cristianismo/história , Drama , Feminino , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Homossexualidade/história , Humanos , Masculino , Música/história , Religião e Sexo , Comportamento Sexual/história
15.
J Homosex ; 66(3): 389-406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29199907

RESUMO

Over the past 70 years, the history of acceptance of the lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) community within the United States has seen much change and fluctuation. One of the places that this dialogue has been preserved is through the syndicated advice columns of Dear Abby and Ann Landers, in which individuals in the United States were writing in for advice to deal with their anxiety over a newly emerging and highly visible new community of individuals once considered to be mentally ill and dangerous. Using discourse analysis, this article traces the evolution of public and scientific opinions about the LGBT community during the years leading up to the Stonewall riots all the way to right before the AIDs epidemic. This analysis sheds light on several moral panics that emerged regarding this newly visible population, especially in regard to disturbances within the domestic sphere and a stigmatization of bisexuality.


Assuntos
Casamento/história , Opinião Pública/história , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/história , Bissexualidade/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , Homossexualidade/história , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Princípios Morais , Jornais como Assunto/história , Estados Unidos
16.
Med Hist ; 62(2): 199-216, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553011

RESUMO

'Medicalisation' of same sex relations is a phenomenon that reached its peak in the 1950s and 1960s. The rise of gay liberation produced a divisive political contest with the psychiatric profession and adherents of the orthodox 'medical model' in the United States and - to a lesser extent - in the United Kingdom. This socio-historical process occurred throughout the English-speaking world, but much less is known about its dynamics in smaller countries such as New Zealand where the historiography on this issue is very sparse. The methodology situates New Zealand within a transnational framework to explore the circulation of medical theories and the critical responses they were met with. The article is anchored around three key local moments in the 1970s to consider the changing terrain on which ideas about homosexuality and psychiatry were constantly rearranged during this decade. This power struggle took a number of twists and turns, and the drive toward medicalisation alternated with a new impetus to de-medicalise same-sex sexuality.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade/história , Medicalização/história , Psiquiatria/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
17.
J Homosex ; 65(1): 100-116, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332928

RESUMO

This study was conducted to examine recent Korean perspectives on homosexuality by comparing attitudes toward mental illness, crime, friendship, and civil rights related to homosexual people in 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009, and 2014. The respondents were 3,299 Korean men and women between 18 and 59 years of age, and the data were collected across 5 years. The major findings were that there has been greater acceptance of homosexuality and civil rights for homosexuals during the past two decades, but the changes have been slow; Korean homosexuals remain subjects of social stigma and discrimination primarily due to increased Christian activism.


Assuntos
Atitude , Homossexualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Direitos Civis , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Homossexualidade/história , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Homosex ; 65(12): 1656-1682, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28929946

RESUMO

The presidency of gender in the Anglo-American taxonomy of sexualities historically has been haunted by the irruption of "other" parameters of medicalization, censure, and caesura, not in the least absolute and relative measures of age. Where today's clinical psychologists feel the need to age-specify adult homosexuality in such Hirschfeldian terms as androphilia, however, the felt need is indeed still essentially clinical. That cosmopolitan expressions such as homosexual, LGB, or queer rarely require such specifications relies on a protracted and today, arguably, complete disarticulation of sex/gender and age/maturity as parameters of sexual orientation, accreditation, and mobilization. Notably disconnected discursive frames gave voice to this Anglophone crystallization of "the normal homosexual" (circa 1950-1980): criminological, psychiatric, psychophysiological, and psychodynamic typologies of "sexual deviation" (variably tending to correlate, align, or subsume same-sex and age-disparate intimacies); territorializing apologias of gay, but also of "Greek," "pederast," and "man-boy," socialities; anthropological-historical exotification of "age-stratified homosexualities"; and mostly European, proto-queer critiques of all "bourgeois" sexual classification.


Assuntos
Homofobia , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Pedofilia/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Homossexualidade/história , Humanos , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , II Guerra Mundial
20.
Hist Psychol ; 20(3): 263-289, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28581306

RESUMO

The Hungarian-born physician and psychoanalyst Sandor Rado (1890-1972), who practiced for most of his career in the United States, played a central role in shaping American psychoanalysts' views toward homosexuality. Historians have pointed to Rado's rejection of Freud's notion of constitutional bisexuality as the key theoretical maneuver that both pathologized homosexuality and inspired an optimistic approach to its treatment. Yet scholarly analysis of the arguments that Rado made for his rejection of bisexuality is lacking. This article seeks to provide that analysis, by carefully reviewing and evaluating Rado's arguments by the standards of his own day. Because one of Rado's main arguments is that bisexuality is an outdated concept according to modern biology, I consider what contemporary biologists had to say on the topic. The work of behavioral endocrinologist Frank Beach (1911-1988) is important in this context and receives significant attention here. Rado ultimately distanced himself from Beach's behavioral endocrinology, appealing instead to evolutionary discourse to buttress his claim that homosexuality is pathological. This tactic allowed him to refashion psychoanalysis into a moralistic discipline, one with closer ties to a medical school. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/história , Psicanálise/história , Biologia/história , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Feminino , História do Século XX , Homossexualidade/história , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Sexualidade/história , Sexualidade/psicologia , Estados Unidos
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