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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4886, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985500

RESUMO

Somatic mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene are associated with approximately 30% of essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). CALR mutations, including the two most frequent 52 bp deletion (del52) and 5 bp insertion (ins5), induce a frameshift to the same alternative reading frame generating new C-terminal tails. In patients, del52 and ins5 induce two phenotypically distinct myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). They are equally found in ET, but del52 is more frequent in PMF. We generated heterozygous and homozygous conditional inducible knock-in (KI) mice expressing a chimeric murine CALR del52 or ins5 with the human mutated C-terminal tail to investigate their pathogenic effects on hematopoiesis. Del52 induces greater phenotypic changes than ins5 including thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, splenomegaly, bone marrow hypocellularity, megakaryocytic lineage amplification, expansion and competitive advantage of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment. Homozygosity amplifies these features, suggesting a distinct contribution of homozygous clones to human MPNs. Moreover, homozygous del52 KI mice display features of a penetrant myelofibrosis-like disorder with extramedullary hematopoiesis linked to splenomegaly, megakaryocyte hyperplasia and the presence of reticulin fibers. Overall, modeling del52 and ins5 mutations in mice successfully recapitulates the differences in phenotypes observed in patients.


Assuntos
Calreticulina/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Trombocitemia Essencial/genética , Animais , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutagênese Insercional , Fenótipo , Mielofibrose Primária/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Trombocitemia Essencial/metabolismo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21704, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871888

RESUMO

To explore the relationship between C3435T polymorphism of multi-drug resistance gene (MDR1) gene and susceptibility, clinicopathological characteristics, curative effect and hematological toxicity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in XinJiang.The peripheral venous blood samples of 54 patients with DLBCL and 60 healthy controls were collected. The alleles and genotypes of MDR1 gene C3435T were detected by DNA direct extraction with PCR technique, and the frequency of C3435T allele and genotypes were detected by the chi-square test. The relationship between the allele and genotype distribution of C3435T locus and the susceptibility, clinicopathological characteristics, curative effect and hematological toxicity of DLBCL were analyzed.1 the frequency of CT heterozygote and CC homozygote mutation was significantly higher in the case group (46.3% in CT genotype and 42.6% in CC genotype) compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The frequency of CC genotype mutation in the case group was 42.6%, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05, OR 3.209, 95% CI: 1.288-7.997). 2 the genotypes of C3435T locus of MDR1 gene were distributed in age, sex, nationality, pathological characteristics, clinical-stage, IPI index, B symptoms, infection with EB virus, clinicopathological characteristics and clinical efficacy of hepatitis B in patients with DLBCL. There was no significant difference in myelosuppression (P > 0.05).The homozygous mutation genotype of CC is the risk genotype of DLBCL. The alleles and genotypes are not associated with the clinicopathological characteristics, efficacy and myelosuppression toxicity of DLBCL.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4589, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917887

RESUMO

Mandibuloacral dysplasia syndromes are mainly due to recessive LMNA or ZMPSTE24 mutations, with cardinal nuclear morphological abnormalities and dysfunction. We report five homozygous null mutations in MTX2, encoding Metaxin-2 (MTX2), an outer mitochondrial membrane protein, in patients presenting with a severe laminopathy-like mandibuloacral dysplasia characterized by growth retardation, bone resorption, arterial calcification, renal glomerulosclerosis and severe hypertension. Loss of MTX2 in patients' primary fibroblasts leads to loss of Metaxin-1 (MTX1) and mitochondrial dysfunction, including network fragmentation and oxidative phosphorylation impairment. Furthermore, patients' fibroblasts are resistant to induced apoptosis, leading to increased cell senescence and mitophagy and reduced proliferation. Interestingly, secondary nuclear morphological defects are observed in both MTX2-mutant fibroblasts and mtx-2-depleted C. elegans. We thus report the identification of a severe premature aging syndrome revealing an unsuspected link between mitochondrial composition and function and nuclear morphology, establishing a pathophysiological link with premature aging laminopathies and likely explaining common clinical features.


Assuntos
Acro-Osteólise/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Lipodistrofia/metabolismo , Mandíbula/anormalidades , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Acro-Osteólise/diagnóstico por imagem , Acro-Osteólise/genética , Acro-Osteólise/patologia , Senilidade Prematura/genética , Senilidade Prematura/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lipodistrofia/diagnóstico por imagem , Lipodistrofia/genética , Lipodistrofia/patologia , Masculino , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Metaloendopeptidases , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Pele , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
N Engl J Med ; 383(8): 711-720, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by premature cardiovascular disease caused by markedly elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. This disorder is associated with genetic variants that result in virtually absent (null-null) or impaired (non-null) LDL-receptor activity. Loss-of-function variants in the gene encoding angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) are associated with hypolipidemia and protection against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Evinacumab, a monoclonal antibody against ANGPTL3, has shown potential benefit in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio 65 patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia who were receiving stable lipid-lowering therapy to receive an intravenous infusion of evinacumab (at a dose of 15 mg per kilogram of body weight) every 4 weeks or placebo. The primary outcome was the percent change from baseline in the LDL cholesterol level at week 24. RESULTS: The mean baseline LDL cholesterol level in the two groups was 255.1 mg per deciliter, despite the receipt of maximum doses of background lipid-lowering therapy. At week 24, patients in the evinacumab group had a relative reduction from baseline in the LDL cholesterol level of 47.1%, as compared with an increase of 1.9% in the placebo group, for a between-group least-squares mean difference of -49.0 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -65.0 to -33.1; P<0.001); the between-group least-squares mean absolute difference in the LDL cholesterol level was -132.1 mg per deciliter (95% CI, -175.3 to -88.9; P<0.001). The LDL cholesterol level was lower in the evinacumab group than in the placebo group in patients with null-null variants (-43.4% vs. +16.2%) and in those with non-null variants (-49.1% vs. -3.8%). Adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia receiving maximum doses of lipid-lowering therapy, the reduction from baseline in the LDL cholesterol level in the evinacumab group, as compared with the small increase in the placebo group, resulted in a between-group difference of 49.0 percentage points at 24 weeks. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals; ELIPSE HoFH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03399786.).


Assuntos
Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/sangue , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Anticolesterolemiantes/sangue , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Infusões Intravenosas , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 514-526, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791035

RESUMO

Multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) is a severe form of asthenoteratozoospermia. Although recent studies have revealed several MMAF-associated genes and demonstrated MMAF to be a genetically heterogeneous disease, at least one-third of the cases are still not well understood for their etiology. Here, we identified bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in CFAP58 by using whole-exome sequencing in five (5.6%) unrelated individuals from a cohort of 90 MMAF-affected Chinese men. Each of the men harboring bi-allelic CFAP58 variants presented typical MMAF phenotypes. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated striking flagellar defects with axonemal and mitochondrial sheath malformations. CFAP58 is predominantly expressed in the testis and encodes a cilia- and flagella-associated protein. Immunofluorescence assays showed that CFAP58 localized at the entire flagella of control sperm and predominantly concentrated in the mid-piece. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays showed that the abundances of axoneme ultrastructure markers SPAG6 and SPEF2 and a mitochondrial sheath protein, HSP60, were significantly reduced in the spermatozoa from men harboring bi-allelic CFAP58 variants. We generated Cfap58-knockout mice via CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The male mice were infertile and presented with severe flagellar defects, consistent with the sperm phenotypes in MMAF-affected men. Overall, our findings in humans and mice strongly suggest that CFAP58 plays a vital role in sperm flagellogenesis and demonstrate that bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in CFAP58 can cause axoneme and peri-axoneme malformations leading to male infertility. This study provides crucial insights for understanding and counseling of MMAF-associated asthenoteratozoospermia.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Astenozoospermia/genética , Axonema/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Alelos , Animais , Astenozoospermia/fisiopatologia , Axonema/patologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Perda de Heterozigosidade/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas dos Microtúbulos/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Cauda do Espermatozoide/metabolismo , Cauda do Espermatozoide/patologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237001, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790782

RESUMO

Why people differ in their susceptibility to external events is essential to our understanding of personality, human development, and mental disorders. Genes explain a substantial portion of these differences. Specifically, genes influencing the serotonin system are hypothesized to be differential susceptibility factors, determining a person's reactivity to both positive and negative environments. We tested whether genetic variation in the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) is a differential susceptibility factor for daily events. Participants (N = 326, 77% female, mean age = 25, range = 17-36) completed smartphone questionnaires four times a day over four to five days, measuring stressors, uplifts, positive and negative affect. Affect was predicted from environment valence in the previous hour on a within-person level using three-level autoregressive linear mixed models. The 5-HTTLPR fulfilled all criteria of a differential susceptibility factor: Positive affect in carriers of the short allele (S) was less reactive to both uplifts and stressors, compared to homozygous carriers of the long allele (L/L). This pattern might reflect relative affective inflexibility in S-allele carriers. Our study provides insight into the serotonin system's general role in susceptibility and highlights the need to assess the whole spectrum of naturalistic experiences.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Alelos , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Psicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Lancet HIV ; 7(9): e652-e660, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791046

RESUMO

Haemopoietic cell transplantation is established as a standard treatment approach for people living with HIV who have haematological malignancies with poor prognosis. Studies with autologous and allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation suggest that HIV status does not adversely affect outcomes, provided that there is adequate infection prophylaxis. Attention to possible drug-drug interactions is important. Allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation substantially reduces the long-term HIV reservoir when complete donor chimerism is established. When transplants from CCR5Δ32 homozygous donors are used, HIV cure is possible.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Receptores CCR5 , Transplante Autólogo , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797113

RESUMO

An important economic reason for the loss of local breeds is that they tend to be less productive, and hence having less market value than commercial breeds. Nevertheless, local breeds often have irreplaceable values, genetically and sociologically. In the breeding programs with local breeds, it is crucial to balance the selection for genetic gain and the maintaining of genetic diversity. These two objectives are often conflicting, and finding the optimal point of the trade-off has been a challenge for breeders. Genomic selection (GS) provides a revolutionary tool for the genetic improvement of farm animals. At the same time, it can increase inbreeding and produce a more rapid depletion of genetic variability of the selected traits in future generations. Optimum-contribution selection (OCS) represents an approach to maximize genetic gain while constraining inbreeding within a targeted range. In the present study, 515 Ningxiang pigs were genotyped with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 array or the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler Porcine 50K array. The Ningxiang pigs were found to be highly inbred at the genomic level. Average locus-wise inbreeding coefficients were 0.41 and 0.37 for the two SNP arrays used, whereas genomic inbreeding coefficients based on runs of homozygosity were 0.24 and 0.25, respectively. Simulated phenotypic data were used to assess the utility of genomic OCS (GOCS) in comparison with GS without inbreeding control. GOCS was conducted under two scenarios, selecting sires only (GOCS_S) or selecting sires and dams (GOCS_SD), while kinships were constrained on selected parents. The genetic gain for average daily body weight gain (ADG) per generation was between 18.99 and 20.55 g with GOCS_S, and between 23.20 and 28.92 with GOCS_SD, and it varied from 25.38 to 48.38 g under GS without controlling inbreeding. While the rate of genetic gain per generation obtained using GS was substantially larger than that obtained by the two scenarios of genomic OCS in the beginning generations of selection, the difference in the genetic gain of ADG between GS and GOCS reduced quickly in latter generations. At generation ten, the difference in the realized rates of genetic gain between GS and GOCS_SD diminished and ended up with even a slightly higher genetic gain with GOCS_SD, due to the rapid loss of genetic variance with GS and fixation of causative genes. The rate of inbreeding was mostly maintained below 5% per generation with genomic OCS, whereas it increased to between 10.5% and 15.3% per generation with GS. Therefore, genomic OCS appears to be a sustainable strategy for the genetic improvement of local breeds such as Ningxiang pigs, but keeping mind that a variety of GOCS methods exist and the optimal forms remain to be exploited further.


Assuntos
Endogamia , Seleção Genética , Suínos/genética , Animais , Feminino , Genômica , Homozigoto , Masculino , Fenótipo
10.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(3): 297-307, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748081

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We have developed multiplex genome editing toolkits for citrus that significantly improve citrus genome editing efficacy. CRISPR/Cas systems have been engineered for genome editing in many organisms, including plants. However, the gene editing efficiency in citrus via CRISPR technology remains too low to be implemented for genetic improvement in practice. Moreover, it is very difficult to obtain homozygous or biallelic knockout mutants in citrus. Here, we have developed multiplex genome editing toolkits for citrus including PEG-mediated protoplast transformation, a GFP reporter system that allows the rapid assessment of CRISPR constructs, citrus U6 promoters with improved efficacy, and tRNA-mediated or Csy4-mediated multiplex genome editing. Using the toolkits, we successfully conducted genome modification of embryogenic protoplast cells and epicotyl tissues. We have achieved a biallelic mutation rate of 44.4% and a homozygous mutation rate of 11.1%, representing a significant improvement in citrus genome editing efficacy. In addition, our study lays the foundation for nontransgenic genome editing of citrus.


Assuntos
Citrus/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma de Planta/genética , Homozigoto , Mutação , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Protoplastos , RNA Guia/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética
11.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669404

RESUMO

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) can be clinically diagnosed, but children often lack characteristic features. We report a family with homozygous growth differentiation factor 2 (GDF2)-related HHT diagnosed by genetic testing. A boy aged 5 years and 2 months presented with isolated hypoxemia. He was the product of a consanguineous marriage; his parents were second cousins. Physical examination revealed cyanosis of nail beds and clubbed fingers. Pulse oxygen saturation was 84% to 89%. Lung function, contrast-enhanced lung computed tomography, and noncontrast echocardiography were normal. A pulmonary perfusion scan revealed radioactivity in the brain and bilateral kidney, suggesting the existence of a intrapulmonary shunt. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a homozygous variant [c.1060_1062delinsAG (p.Tyr354ArgfsTer15)] in GDF2, which was found to be inherited from his heterozygous parents. At the age of 8 years, he developed epistaxis, and an angiogram revealed diffuse pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. At the age of 9 years, he was treated with sirolimus, and his condition improved significantly. However, his now 7-year-old sister with the same homozygous variant currently has no symptoms. Physical examinations revealed 1 pinpoint-sized telangiectasia on the chest of his mother and a vascular lesion on the forehead of his sister. Additionally, the patient's father and great-uncle had a history of mild to moderate epistaxis. Mutation in GDF2 is a rare cause of HHT. Ours is the first report of homozygous GDF2-related HHT; in addition, this variant has not been reported previously. In our report, we also confirm variable expressivity, even with the same pathogenic variant in GDF2-related HHT.


Assuntos
Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Hipóxia/etiologia , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Endoglina/metabolismo , Epistaxe/etiologia , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Linhagem , Transdução de Sinais , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/sangue , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/complicações , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/diagnóstico por imagem , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NOD2 variants are the strongest genetic predictors for susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD). However, the clinical value of NOD2 on an individual patient level remains controversial. We aimed to define the predictive power of the major NOD2 mutations regarding complicated CD in a large single center cohort. METHODS: 1076 CD patients were prospectively genotyped for the three common CD-associated NOD2 mutations rs2066844, rs2066845, and rs2066847, followed by detailed genotype-phenotype analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 434 CD patients (40.3%) carried at least one of the three main NOD2 mutations. A significantly higher minor allele frequency (15.6%) of the NOD2 frameshift mutation p.Leu1007fsX1008 (rs2066847) was seen in patients with aggressive disease compared to 8.2% in patients with mild disease (p = 2.6 x 10-5). Moreover, a total of 54 CD patients (5.0%) were homozygous for this NOD2 frameshift mutation. 100% of these patients had ileal disease compared to 82% of NOD2 wild-type carriers (p<0.0001). In homozygous carriers of the NOD2 frameshift mutation, 87% presented with ileal stenosis, 68.5% had fistulas, and 72.2% required CD-related surgery despite immunosuppressive therapy in 87% of these patients. All homozygous carriers of the 1007fs mutation who were active smokers had ileal stenosis and required CD-related surgery. CONCLUSION: Homozygosity for Leu1007fsX1008 is an excellent biomarker for predicting complicated CD on an individual patient level. Active smoking and homozygosity for this mutation is associated with a 100% risk for developing ileal stenosis requiring CD-related surgery. In these patients, smoking cessation and early initiation of immunosuppressive strategies may be beneficial.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/genética , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Doenças do Íleo/cirurgia , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Mutação/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Frequência do Gene/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Doenças do Íleo/etiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(2): 330-341, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619401

RESUMO

Sperm malformation is a direct factor for male infertility. Multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF), a severe form of asthenoteratozoospermia, are characterized by immotile spermatozoa with malformed and/or absent flagella in the ejaculate. Previous studies indicated genetic heterogeneity in MMAF. To further define genetic factors underlying MMAF, we performed whole-exome sequencing in a cohort of 90 Chinese MMAF-affected men. Two cases (2.2%) were identified as carrying bi-allelic missense DNAH8 variants, variants which were either absent or rare in the control human population and were predicted to be deleterious by multiple bioinformatic tools. Re-analysis of exome data from a second cohort of 167 MMAF-affected men from France, Iran, and North Africa permitted the identification of an additional male carrying a DNAH8 homozygous frameshift variant. DNAH8 encodes a dynein axonemal heavy-chain component that is expressed preferentially in the testis. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and electron microscopy analyses of the spermatozoa from men harboring bi-allelic DNAH8 variants showed a highly aberrant morphology and ultrastructure of the sperm flagella. Immunofluorescence assays performed on the spermatozoa from men harboring bi-allelic DNAH8 variants revealed the absent or markedly reduced staining of DNAH8 and its associated protein DNAH17. Dnah8-knockout male mice also presented typical MMAF phenotypes and sterility. Interestingly, intracytoplasmic sperm injections using the spermatozoa from Dnah8-knockout male mice resulted in good pregnancy outcomes. Collectively, our experimental observations from humans and mice demonstrate that DNAH8 is essential for sperm flagellar formation and that bi-allelic deleterious DNAH8 variants lead to male infertility with MMAF.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Dineínas do Axonema/genética , Flagelos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Cauda do Espermatozoide/patologia , Alelos , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Espermatozoides/anormalidades , Testículo/anormalidades , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(2): 234-250, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668217

RESUMO

Phenylketonuria (PKU), caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, is the most common autosomal-recessive Mendelian phenotype of amino acid metabolism. We estimated that globally 0.45 million individuals have PKU, with global prevalence 1:23,930 live births (range 1:4,500 [Italy]-1:125,000 [Japan]). Comparing genotypes and metabolic phenotypes from 16,092 affected subjects revealed differences in disease severity in 51 countries from 17 world regions, with the global phenotype distribution of 62% classic PKU, 22% mild PKU, and 16% mild hyperphenylalaninemia. A gradient in genotype and phenotype distribution exists across Europe, from classic PKU in the east to mild PKU in the southwest and mild hyperphenylalaninemia in the south. The c.1241A>G (p.Tyr414Cys)-associated genotype can be traced from Northern to Western Europe, from Sweden via Norway, to Denmark, to the Netherlands. The frequency of classic PKU increases from Europe (56%) via Middle East (71%) to Australia (80%). Of 758 PAH variants, c.1222C>T (p.Arg408Trp) (22.2%), c.1066-11G>A (IVS10-11G>A) (6.4%), and c.782G>A (p.Arg261Gln) (5.5%) were most common and responsible for two prevalent genotypes: p.[Arg408Trp];[Arg408Trp] (11.4%) and c.[1066-11G>A];[1066-11G>A] (2.6%). Most genotypes (73%) were compound heterozygous, 27% were homozygous, and 55% of 3,659 different genotypes occurred in only a single individual. PAH variants were scored using an allelic phenotype value and correlated with pre-treatment blood phenylalanine concentrations (n = 6,115) and tetrahydrobiopterin loading test results (n = 4,381), enabling prediction of both a genotype-based phenotype (88%) and tetrahydrobiopterin responsiveness (83%). This study shows that large genotype databases enable accurate phenotype prediction, allowing appropriate targeting of therapies to optimize clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Fenilcetonúrias/epidemiologia , Fenilcetonúrias/genética , Alelos , Biopterina/análogos & derivados , Biopterina/genética , Europa (Continente) , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Fenilalanina/sangue , Fenilalanina Hidroxilase/genética , Fenilcetonúrias/sangue
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(2): 342-351, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673564

RESUMO

Male infertility affects ∼7% of men, but its causes remain poorly understood. The most severe form is non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), which is, in part, caused by an arrest at meiosis. So far, only a few validated disease-associated genes have been reported. To address this gap, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 58 men with unexplained meiotic arrest and identified the same homozygous frameshift variant c.676dup (p.Trp226LeufsTer4) in M1AP, encoding meiosis 1 associated protein, in three unrelated men. This variant most likely results in a truncated protein as shown in vitro by heterologous expression of mutant M1AP. Next, we screened four large cohorts of infertile men and identified three additional individuals carrying homozygous c.676dup and three carrying combinations of this and other likely causal variants in M1AP. Moreover, a homozygous missense variant, c.1166C>T (p.Pro389Leu), segregated with infertility in five men from a consanguineous Turkish family. The common phenotype between all affected men was NOA, but occasionally spermatids and rarely a few spermatozoa in the semen were observed. A similar phenotype has been described for mice with disruption of M1ap. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that mutations in M1AP are a relatively frequent cause of autosomal recessive severe spermatogenic failure and male infertility with strong clinical validity.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Meiose/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas/genética , Espermatogênese/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Animais , Azoospermia/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Espermatozoides/anormalidades , Testículo/anormalidades , Turquia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
16.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(8): 543-548, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641631

RESUMO

We describe an additional patient with spastic paraplegia 48 (SPG48). A 52-year-old woman with gradually increasing gait disturbance was admitted to our hospital. When she was 47 years old, acquaintances noted a shuffling gait. Gait worsening was evident at 48 years. Spastic gait was apparent at 50, and she required a walking stick at 54. Her elder brother had similar gait disturbance. No consanguinity was known. Neurologic examination at 52 disclosed spasticity and moderate weakness in the lower limbs. Spasticity and brisk reflexes in all limbs. Laboratory studies including HTLV-1 titer detected no abnormalities. MRI demonstrated mild corpus callosum narrowing and prominent anterior periventricular hyperintensities in fluid attenuation inversion recovery images. In limb muscles, electromyography (EMG) showed a chronic neurogenic pattern including reduced interference. Gene analysis identified compound homozygosity in exon 7 of adaptor-related protein complex 5 subunit zeta 1 (AP5Z1), including a novel frameshift mutation, c.1662_1672del;p.Glu554Hfs*15 in the patient, and a heterozygous missense mutation in asymptomatic family members, including her mother, two siblings, and a daughter. The frameshift mutation is considered a pathogenic variant according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines. Based on clinical features, imaging findings and genetic abnormalities, we diagnosed this patient with SPG48. Mutations in AP5Z1, which encodes the ζ subunit of AP-5, underlie SPG48. The AP-5 adaptor protein complex, which is mutated in SPG48, binds to both spastizin and spatacsin. While hereditary spastic paraplegias generally are clinically and genetically heterogenous, SPG48, SPG11, and SPG15 are clinically similar.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Paraparesia Espástica/genética , Ventrículos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos Cerebrais/patologia , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Genes Recessivos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraparesia Espástica/complicações
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658922

RESUMO

PRESENILIN 2 (PSEN2) is one of the genes mutated in early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOfAD). PSEN2 shares significant amino acid sequence identity with another EOfAD-related gene PRESENILIN 1 (PSEN1), and partial functional redundancy is seen between these two genes. However, the complete range of functions of PSEN1 and PSEN2 is not yet understood. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis of the zebrafish psen2 gene to generate a premature termination codon close downstream of the translation start with the intention of creating a null mutation. Homozygotes for this mutation, psen2S4Ter, are viable and fertile, and adults do not show any gross psen2-dependent pigmentation defects, arguing against significant loss of γ-secretase activity. Also, assessment of the numbers of Dorsal Longitudinal Ascending (DoLA) interneurons that are responsive to psen2 but not psen1 activity during embryogenesis did not reveal decreased psen2 function. Transcripts containing the S4Ter mutation show no evidence of destabilization by nonsense-mediated decay. Forced expression in zebrafish embryos of fusions of psen2S4Ter 5' mRNA sequences with sequence encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) indicated that the psen2S4Ter mutation permits utilization of cryptic, novel downstream translation start codons. These likely initiate translation of N-terminally truncated Psen2 proteins lacking late endosomal/lysosomal localization sequences and that obey the "reading frame preservation rule" of PRESENILIN EOfAD mutations. Transcriptome analysis of entire brains from a 6-month-old family of wild type, heterozygous and homozygous psen2S4Ter female siblings revealed profoundly dominant effects on gene expression likely indicating changes in ribosomal, mitochondrial, and anion transport functions.


Assuntos
Códon de Terminação/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mutação , Presenilina-2/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Alelos , Animais , Contagem de Células , Homozigoto , Hipóxia/genética , Neurônios/citologia , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2876, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513994

RESUMO

Precise gene editing aims at generating single-nucleotide modifications to correct or model human disease. However, precision editing with nucleases such as CRIPSR-Cas9 has seen limited success due to poor efficiency and limited practicality. Here, we establish a fluorescent DNA repair assay in human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to visualize and quantify the frequency of DNA repair outcomes during monoallelic and biallelic targeting. We found that modulating both DNA repair and cell cycle phase via defined culture conditions and small molecules synergistically enhanced the frequency of homology-directed repair (HDR). Notably, targeting in homozygous reporter cells results in high levels of editing with a vast majority of biallelic HDR outcomes. We then leverage efficient biallelic HDR with mixed ssODN repair templates to generate heterozygous mutations. Synergistic gene editing represents an effective strategy to generate precise genetic modifications in human iPS cells.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular , Reparo do DNA , Edição de Genes , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Fluorescência , Loci Gênicos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação/genética
19.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(6): 309-315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599602

RESUMO

Warburg micro syndrome (WARBM) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by microcephaly, cortical dysplasia, intellectual disability, ocular abnormalities, spastic diplegia, and microgenitalia. WARBM has 4 subtypes arising from pathogenic variants in 4 genes (RAB18, RAB3GAP1, RAB3GAP2, and TBC1D20). Here, we report on a patient with a homozygous pathogenic c.665delC (p.Pro222HisfsTer30) variant in the RAB3GAP1 gene identified by whole-exome sequencing (WES) analyses. Only his father was a heterozygous carrier, and homozygosity mapping analysis of the WES data revealed large loss-of-heterozygosity regions in both arms of chromosome 2, interpreted as uniparental isodisomy. This uniparental disomy pattern could be due to paternal meiosis I nondisjunction because of the preserved heterozygosity in the pericentromeric region. This report provides novel insights, including a rare form of UPD, usage of homozygosity mapping analysis for the evaluation of isodisomy, and the first reported case of WARBM1 as a result of uniparental isodisomy.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Catarata/congênito , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Córnea/anormalidades , Homozigoto , Hipogonadismo/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Catarata/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Perda de Heterozigosidade/genética , Masculino , Pais , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas rab3 de Ligação ao GTP/genética
20.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 689: 108444, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502470

RESUMO

Selenoprotein I (SELENOI) is an ethanolamine phosphotransferase that catalyzes the third reaction of the Kennedy pathway for the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine. Since the role of SELENOI in murine embryogenesis has not been investigated, SELENOI-/+ mating pairs were used to generate global KO offspring. Of 323 weanling pups, no homozygous KO genotypes were found. E6.5-E18.5 embryos (165 total) were genotyped, and only two E18.5 KO embryos were detected with no discernable anatomical defects. To screen embryos prior to uterine implantation that occurs ~ E6, blastocyst embryos (E3.5-E4.4) were flushed from uteruses of pregnant females and analyzed for morphology and genotype. KO embryos were detected in 5 of 6 pregnant females, and 7 of the 32 genotyped embryos were found to be SELENOI KO that exhibited no overt pathological features. Overall, these results demonstrate that, except for rare cases (2/490 = 0.4%), global SELENOI deletion leads to early embryonic lethality.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Camundongos/embriologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Blastocisto/ultraestrutura , Implantação do Embrião , Perda do Embrião/genética , Perda do Embrião/patologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Etanolaminofosfotransferase , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Homozigoto , Masculino , Camundongos/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Gravidez
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