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1.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 116(6): 966-988, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902026

RESUMO

While significant research has demonstrated that people's beliefs about a group shape how they judge members of that group, few studies have examined whether people's beliefs and values regarding emotion (their "ideal affect") shape how they socially judge people's emotional facial expressions. We predicted that the more people valued and ideally wanted to feel excitement and other high arousal positive states (HAP), the more affiliative (extraverted, agreeable) they would judge excited (vs. calm) faces. Moreover, because European Americans typically value HAP more than Hong Kong Chinese do, we predicted that European Americans would rate excited (vs. calm) targets as more affiliative than would Hong Kong Chinese. We found consistent support for these hypotheses in four studies. In Studies 1a and 1b, these effects held regardless of target race (White, Asian) and target sex (male, female); emerged for human as well as computer-generated faces; and did not consistently emerge for nonaffiliative social judgments (i.e., dominance, competence). In Studies 2 and 3, we replicated these findings in more realistic contexts. In Study 2, culture and ideal affect predicted participants' extraversion judgments of excited Facebook profiles. In Study 3, culture and ideal affect predicted participants' extraversion and agreeableness judgments of an excited job applicant, which increased their likelihood of hiring that applicant. Together, these findings suggest that people's culture and ideal affect shape how affiliative they judge excited (vs. calm) smiles. We discuss the role these processes may play in perpetuating biases in multicultural settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto , Comparação Transcultural , Julgamento , Sorriso/psicologia , Adulto , Canadá/etnologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Psychiatry Res ; 267: 48-55, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883860

RESUMO

Considering the lack of existing measures on attitudes toward personal recovery and the need to acknowledge the cultural milieu in recovery attitude assessment, the present study developed and validated the Attitudes towards Recovery Questionnaire (ARQ) in a sample of people in recovery of mental illness, family carers, and mental health service providers in Hong Kong. The ARQ was developed based on existing literature and measures of recovery, and focus group discussions with various stakeholders. Findings of the multi-sample confirmatory factor analyses supported a five-factor structure: (1) resilience as a person in recovery, (2) self-appreciation and development, (3) self-direction, (4) family involvement, and (5) social ties and integration. The ARQ was positively correlated with recovery outcomes, empowerment, recovery knowledge, and recovery orientation of mental health services. As a tool for examining recovery attitudes, the ARQ informs us of the mindset across stakeholders and areas that need enhancement to facilitate the recovery process.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Cuidadores , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Child Dev ; 89(6): 2109-2117, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708598

RESUMO

The impact of social group information on the learning and socializing preferences of Hong Kong Chinese children were examined. Specifically, the degree to which variability in racial out-group exposure affects children's use of race to make decisions about unfamiliar individuals (Chinese, White, Southeast Asian) was investigated. Participants (N = 212; Mage  = 60.51 months) chose functions for novel objects after informants demonstrated their use; indicated with which peer group member to socialize; and were measured on racial group recognition, preference, and identification. Overall, children preferred in-group members, though out-group exposure and the relative social status of out-groups mattered as well. At a young age, children's specific experiences with different races influence how they learn and befriend others across racial group lines.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Social , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado
4.
Psychooncology ; 27(7): 1742-1749, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Literature has well noted ethnic/racial disparities in cancer survival and cancer care. However, socioeconomic disparities in psychosocial adjustment to breast cancer have garnered little attention. This study addresses the research gap by investigating the associations between socioeconomic indicators (ie, education, annual personal, and household income) and quality of life (QOL) and the mediating roles of social support and social constraints (objective and subjective conditions that constrain individuals from disclosing cancer concerns) in these associations among Chinese American breast cancer survivors (CABCS). METHODS: Ninety-six CABCS completed questionnaires assessing these variables. RESULTS: After controlling for stage of cancer, annual personal and household income had indirect effects on QOL through social support, and education showed indirect effect on QOL through social support and social constraints. Subscale analyses indicated that controlling for years of immigration, annual personal and household income showed indirect effect on functional well-being through social support. When controlling for stage of cancer and income, education showed indirect effects on physical well-being through social support and social constraints and showed both direct and indirect effects on breast cancer concerns through social constraints. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that socioeconomic indicators, education, and income could be associated with different aspects of QOL through unique interpersonal mechanisms among CABCS. Our findings implied that increasing social support and reducing social constraints when implementing psychosocial interventions for CABCS may help to address the SES-related health disparities.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Classe Social , Apoio Social , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , China/etnologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan/etnologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
5.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 31: 15-20, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29306726

RESUMO

Suicide data relating to 1979-2014 were obtained from three East Asian jurisdictions (Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan) and two 'Western' countries (Australia, New Zealand). Rates and age patterns of suicide have changed markedly since 1979. Graphs of these patterns largely remained either upward-sloping, bimodal or flat (uniform) over the 36 years, male commonly differing from female, and East Asian patterns more like each other than those of the Western countries. Japan's male middle-aged suicide rate reached a peak in 1999-2003, which, like increased rates among working age males in Hong Kong and Taiwan, has been attributed largely to consequences of Asian financial crises. Male to female ratios of suicide rates have remained higher in the Western countries, but late life suicide rates have decreased to varying extents in all five jurisdictions. Identifying reasons for differences between jurisdictions in their suicide rates and patterns at particular times, and over time, is likely to point to factors (period, cohort, psychosocial or cultural) that protect against or foster suicidal ideation. This avenue of research may assist in identifying ways of preventing suicide.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Suicídio/etnologia , Suicídio/tendências , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Austrália/etnologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Japão/etnologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/etnologia , Taiwan/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 57(1): 43-60, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28857198

RESUMO

Enemyship occurs across societies, but it has not received as much attention as other types of relationships such as friendship in previous research. This research examined the influence of relational mobility on people's motivation to understand their personal enemies by measuring different dependent variables across three studies. First, a cross-cultural comparison study found that Hong Kong Chinese, from a low-relational-mobility society, reported a stronger desire to seek proximity to enemies relative to European Canadians, from a high-relational-mobility society (Study 1). To test causality, two manipulation studies were conducted. Participants were presented with images of co-workers, including enemies, friends, and acquaintances, in a hypothetical company. The results showed that the participants who perceived lower relational mobility paid more attention to their enemies in an eye-tracking task (Study 2) and had a higher accuracy rate for recognizing the faces of the enemies in an incidental memory test (Study 3). In contrast, the influence of relational mobility on motivation to understand friends and acquaintances was minimal. Implications for research on interpersonal relationships and relational mobility are discussed.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Emprego/psicologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Amigos/etnologia , Relações Interpessoais , Percepção Social , Adulto , Canadá/etnologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; 10(1)2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28371455

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the barriers and facilitators for psychiatrists in managing mental health patients under a Chinese context and a mixed private-public health system. METHODS: Two focus group interviews were conducted to explore the in-depth opinions of psychiatrists in Hong Kong. The themes identified from the focus groups were investigated in a questionnaire survey with data from 83 psychiatrists working in public and private sectors. RESULTS: No insurance coverage of mental health problems, patients' poor compliance of medication, and stigma of seeing psychiatrists were rated as the top barriers in the survey. Some psychiatrists mentioned in focus groups that they might write down the associated physical symptoms of the patients rather than the mental disorder diagnoses on the medical certificate. They observed some patients suspecting that psychiatric drugs were prescribed to control their behavior and make them more muddleheaded. The survey also found that consultation time constraint, long patient waiting list, and difficulty in discharging patients to primary care mostly affected public psychiatrists rather than private ones. However, they perceived similar facilitators, including public campaign to promote positive results of help-seeking, adequate explanation by other health professionals to the patients before referrals, handling severe cases by casework approach, and having a regular primary care physician. DISCUSSION: The top barriers are related to insufficient public awareness and negative attitudes towards mental illness and its treatment. Major solutions include promoting positive results of help seeking, enhancing collaboration with primary care physicians, and follow-up of severe cases by a casework approach.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Assistência à Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Médicos , Psiquiatria , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde/etnologia , China/etnologia , Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
Can J Psychiatry ; 63(1): 44-53, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to examine the prevalence and incidence of postpartum depressive, anxiety, and comorbid symptoms over the first postpartum year; the persistence of these symptoms; and the prevalence stratified by immigration status. METHOD: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in Ontario, Canada. Participants were 571 Chinese recent immigrant, nonrecent immigrant, and Canadian-born women with live births in 2011 to 2014. Participants were assessed at 4, 12, and 52 weeks postpartum for the presence of possible and high depressive symptomatology (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale [EPDS] >9 and >12, respectively), anxiety symptomatology (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI] >40), and comorbid symptomatology (EPDS >9 and STAI >40). Prevalence and incidence with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were highest at 4 weeks and decreased across time, with possible depressive symptomatology most prevalent at most time points. Incidence rates at 12 and 52 weeks were generally similar. Of those with possible symptomatology at 4 weeks, 42.0% or less continued to have symptomatology at 12 weeks and 17.4% or less at 52 weeks. There were no differences in prevalence of any type of symptomatology between immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese women at 4 weeks, but at 12 and 52 weeks, most types of symptomatology were more common among recent and nonrecent immigrants. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that Chinese immigrant women are a high-risk group for postpartum depressive and anxiety symptomatology. Future research should identify cultural and psychosocial factors associated with immigration that could be addressed in the system of care for postpartum immigrant women.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ansiedade/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , China/etnologia , Comorbidade , Depressão Pós-Parto/etnologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Child Dev ; 89(4): 1296-1310, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28160284

RESUMO

This study of 241 parent-child dyads from the United Kingdom (N = 120, Mage  = 3.92, SD = 0.53) and Hong Kong (N = 121, Mage  = 3.99, SD = 0.50) breaks new ground by adopting a cross-cultural approach to investigate children's theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. Relative to the Hong Kong sample, U.K. children showed superior theory-of-mind performance and U.K. parents showed greater levels of mind-mindedness. Within both cultures parental mind-mindedness was correlated with theory of mind. Mind-mindedness also accounted for cultural differences in preschoolers' theory of mind. We argue that children's family environments might shed light on how culture shapes children's theory of mind.


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido/etnologia
10.
Death Stud ; 42(8): 498-507, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173041

RESUMO

Relatively little is known about the experiences of Chinese widows, especially those living outside China. This qualitative study examines the experiences of eight Chinese or Hong Kong-born widows living in the UK. Using a semistructured approach to interviewing, participants were asked about their lives before, during, and after their spousal bereavement. Five major themes emerged: (1) complexity of marital lives; (2) experiences around the time of the death including fate; (3) loneliness and isolation; (4) the challenges of practical tasks; and finally, (5) current life. The implications of the findings for social policy and practice are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Luto , Viuvez/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/etnologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido/etnologia
11.
J Clin Nurs ; 27(7-8): e1385-e1394, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29266549

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe Chinese women's experiences with "zuo yue zi" in British Columbia, Canada. BACKGROUND: Women born in China and Taiwan are increasingly immigrating to westernised countries. Many women choose to follow traditional Chinese postpartum practices, also called "zuo yue zi." Few studies have examined women's use of traditional practices in western countries. DESIGN: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. METHODS: We recruited 13 mothers who were: aged 19 or older, immigrants from mainland China, Hong Kong or Taiwan in the last 5 years, and caring for infants born in the previous 6 weeks. Semistructured interviews were conducted in Mandarin, translated into English, transcribed and analysed using inductive content analysis. RESULTS: The core theme was Chinese women's novel encounters with "zuo yue zi." The women's expectations of "zuo yue zi" were acquired through birth experiences or interactions with family and friends. The participants struggled with implementing traditional practices because social support and formal institutional structures were lacking. They modified their expectations about "zuo yue zi." Factors affecting their practices were catalysts and deterrents. Catalysts included help from Chinese family members, friends and informed healthcare providers. Deterrents included unregulated paid helpers, uninformed care providers, financial constraints and structural limitations in their new environments. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese immigrant women struggled to modify and implement traditional practices in their adopted country when they encountered financial constraints, unregulated paid helpers and varying support from health care providers. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Some postpartum women following "zuo yue zi" believed that the practice would prevent chronic illness and strengthen their intrafamily relationships. Immigrant mothers require nursing support to follow traditional postpartum practices. Nurses can advocate on patients' behalf to increase care providers' knowledge about "zuo yue zi" and public awareness for necessary regulated institutional structures.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Cuidado Pós-Natal/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/etnologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica/etnologia , China/etnologia , Características Culturais , Feminino , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Taiwan/etnologia
12.
Fam Process ; 57(4): 996-1011, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238961

RESUMO

Rates of international migration are increasing, which raises the question of how migration might influence couple relationship standards and impact on the standards of migrants forming intercultural relationships. We compared relationship standards in n = 286 Chinese living in Hong Kong, China, with standards in n = 401 Chinese migrants to a Western country (Australia) by administering the Chinese-Western Intercultural Couple Standards Scale (CWICSS). We also compared these two groups to n = 312 Westerners living in Australia. We first tested the structural invariance of the CWICSS across the three samples with a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. There was marginal but acceptable fit of a model of two positively correlated latent factors: Couple Bond (with four indicators, such as demonstration of love and caring) and Family Responsibility (also with four indicators, such as extended family relations and preserving face). Within the limitations of the study, results suggest migration is associated predominantly with differences in women's, but not men's, relationship standards. Migrant Chinese women show alignment of Couple Bond standards with Western standards, and divergence of Family Responsibility standards from Western standards. Discussion focused on how migration and intercultural relationship experiences might differentially influence various domains of relationship standards, gender differences in migration effects on standards, and the implications for working with culturally diverse couples.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Características da Família/etnologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Aculturação , Adulto , Austrália , Comparação Transcultural , Emigração e Imigração , Análise Fatorial , Relações Familiares/etnologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 390, 2017 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to examine knowledge and attitude as facilitators and barriers to the acceptance of HPV vaccination for adolescent girls by mothers and adolescent girls. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey conducted in Hong Kong in January 2010. Adolescent girls aged 12-18, together with their mothers, were recruited to complete two separate questionnaires with similar questions. RESULTS: A total of 170 mother-adolescent girl dyads were recruited. When the daughters and mothers were compared, the mothers were found to be more aware of "the risk of becoming infected with HPV through early sexual intercourse," while more daughters than mothers knew that "the HPV virus cannot be cured with antibiotics." Significantly more daughters perceived that they had a "chance of being infected with HPV and getting cervical cancer without the vaccine," while more mothers were concerned that "vaccinating for HPV will cause a girl to be stigmatized as promiscuous" and thought that their "adolescent daughters are too young to receive the HPV vaccine." The major predictive factor for the acceptance of the HPV vaccine among mothers was "The HPV vaccine is safe" (OR = 10.126, 95% CI 2.47-41.54). Among daughters who accepted the vaccine, the predictive factor was "The HPV vaccine can prevent most HPV infections" (OR = 6.274, 95% CI 1.93-20.42). CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide healthcare professionals with a better understanding of the differences between mothers and adolescent girls in knowledge, attitude, and potential factors associated with acceptance of the HPV vaccine. Health professionals should promote the early prevention of HPV infection and eliminate the stigma surrounding HPV vaccination to increase its acceptance. The government should provide financial support for adolescent girls to receive the vaccination in school.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Mães , Núcleo Familiar
14.
BMJ Open ; 7(7): e015386, 2017 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Women from the Philippines form one of the largest immigrant groups to North America. Their newborns experience higher rates of preterm birth (PTB), and separately, small-for-gestational age (SGA) birth weight, compared with other East Asians. It is not known if Filipino women are at elevated risk of concomitant PTB and severe SGA (PTB-SGA), a pathological state likely reflective of placental dysfunction and neonatal morbidity. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study of all singleton or twin live births in Ontario, from 2002 to 2011, among immigrant mothers from the Philippines (n=27 946), Vietnam (n=15 297), Hong Kong (n=5618), South Korea (n=5148) and China (n=42 517). We used modified Poisson regression to generate relative risks (RR) of PTB-SGA, defined as a birth <37 weeks' gestation and a birth weight <5th percentile. RRs were adjusted for maternal age, parity, marital status, income quintile, infant sex and twin births. RESULTS: Relative to mothers from China (2.3 per 1000), the rate of PTB-SGA was significantly higher among infants of mothers from the Philippines (6.5 per 1000; RR 2.91, 95% CI 2.27 to 3.73), and those from Vietnam (3.7 per 1000; RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.34). The RR of PTB-SGA was not higher for infants of mothers from Hong Kong or South Korea. INTERPRETATION: Among infants born to immigrant women from five East Asian birthplaces, the risk of PTB-SGA was highest among those from the Philippines. These women and their fetuses may require additional monitoring and interventions.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Nascimento Prematuro/etnologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , China/etnologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Filipinas/etnologia , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , República da Coreia/etnologia , Vietnã/etnologia
15.
J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs ; 24(8): 589-599, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28564494

RESUMO

RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY: Many Chinese people do not contact mental health services when they first develop mental health problems. It is therefore important to find out reasons for low uptake of services so that strategies can be identified to promote early intervention. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: Most Chinese people only come into contact with mental health services during crisis situations. Language difference, lack of knowledge of mainstream services and stigma attached to mental health problems are barriers to access and utilize mental health services. WHAT THE STUDY ADDS TO THE INTERNATIONAL EVIDENCE?: Chinese people apply both Western medication and traditional healing to manage distress caused by mental health problems. Because of the extreme stigma associated with mental health problems, Chinese people are reluctant to accept support from their own cultural groups outside their family. Family plays a major role in caring for relatives with mental health problems. Families are prepared to travel across the world in search of folk healing if not available in Western societies. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: It is important to recognize the different approaches to understanding and managing mental health problems among Chinese people, otherwise they will be dissuaded from engaging with mental health services if their beliefs are disregarded and invalidated. Services that involve Chinese speaking mental health workers can address the issue of language differences and sensitive mental health issues within the Chinese community. ABSTRACT: Introduction Late presentation and low utilization of mental health services are common among Chinese populations. An understanding of their journey towards mental health care helps to identify timely and appropriate intervention. Aim We aimed to examine how Chinese populations make sense of the experiences of mental distress, and how this understanding influences their pathways to mental health care. Method We undertook in-depth interviews with fourteen people with mental health problems (MHPs) and sixteen family members. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data. Results/Discussions Different conceptualization of mental distress and the stigma attached to MHPs explained why most participants accessed services at crisis points. Because of mental illness stigma, they were reluctant to seek help outside of the family. Participants used a pragmatic pluralistic approach to incorporate ritual healing and Western interventions to manage mental distress as they travelled further on the pathway journey. Families play a key role in the journey and are prepared to visit different parts of the world to seek traditional healers. Implications for practice Mental health nurses need to adopt a transcultural working approach to address mental health issues so that family will get the support needed to continue their caring role.


Assuntos
Família/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , China/etnologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Reino Unido/etnologia , Vietnã/etnologia
16.
Stroke ; 48(6): 1470-1477, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28495831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perivascular spaces (PVSs) are considered markers of small vessel disease. However, their long-term prognostic implications in transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke patients are unknown. Ethnic differences in PVS prevalence are also unknown. METHODS: Two independent prospective studies were conducted, 1 comprising predominantly whites with transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke (OXVASC [Oxford Vascular] study) and 1 comprising predominantly Chinese with ischemic stroke (University of Hong Kong). Clinical and imaging correlates, prognostic implications for stroke and death, and ethnic differences in basal ganglia (BG) and centrum semiovale (CS) PVSs were studied with adjustment for age, sex, vascular risk factors, and scanner strength. RESULTS: Whites with transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke (n=1028) had a higher prevalence of both BG and CS-PVSs compared with Chinese (n=974; >20 BG-PVSs: 22.4% versus 7.1%; >20 CS-PVSs: 45.8% versus 10.4%; P<0.0001). More than 20 BG or CS-PVSs were both associated with increasing age and white matter hyperintensity, although associations with BG-PVSs were stronger (all P<0.0001). During 6924 patient-years of follow-up, BG-PVSs were also independently associated with an increased risk of recurrent ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio compared with <11 PVSs, 11-20 PVSs: HR, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.68; >20 PVSs: HR, 1.82; 1.18-2.80; P=0.011) but not intracerebral hemorrhage (P=0.10) or all-cause mortality (P=0.16). CS-PVSs were not associated with recurrent stroke (P=0.57) or mortality (P=0.072). Prognostic associations were similar in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Over and above ethnic differences in frequency of PVSs in transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke patients, BG and CS-PVSs had similar risk factors, but although >20 BG-PVSs were associated with an increased risk of recurrent ischemic stroke, CS-PVSs were not.


Assuntos
Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Inglaterra/etnologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico por imagem , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etnologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
17.
Psychol Sci ; 28(5): 555-566, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28384072

RESUMO

Although Asian preschoolers acquire executive functions (EFs) earlier than their Western counterparts, little is known about whether this advantage persists into later childhood and adulthood. To address this gap, in the current study we gave four computerized EF tasks (providing measures of inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and planning) to a large sample ( n = 1,427) of 9- to 16-year-olds and their parents. All participants lived in either the United Kingdom or Hong Kong. Our findings highlight the importance of combining developmental and cultural perspectives and show both similarities and contrasts across sites. Specifically, adults' EF performance did not differ between the two sites; age-related changes in executive function for both the children and the parents appeared to be culturally invariant, as did a modest intergenerational correlation. In contrast, school-age children and young adolescents in Hong Kong outperformed their United Kingdom counterparts on all four EF tasks, a difference consistent with previous findings from preschool children.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pais/psicologia , Reino Unido/etnologia
18.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 56(4): 723-749, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28436083

RESUMO

Personality research has been focused on different aspects of the self, including traits, attitudes, beliefs, goals, and motivation. These aspects of the self are used to explain and predict social behaviour. The present research assessed generalized beliefs about the world, termed 'social axioms' (Leung et al., ), and examined their additive power over beliefs about the self in explaining a communal behaviour, that is, modesty. Three studies predicted reported modest behaviour among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, East Asian Canadians, and European Canadians. In addition to self-reports in Studies 1 and 2, informant reports from participants' parents and close friends were collected in Study 3 to construct a behavioural composite after examining the resulting multitrait-multimethod matrix and intraclass correlations. World views (operationalized as social axioms) explained additional variance in modest behaviour over and above self-views (operationalized as self-efficacy, self-construals, and trait modesty) in both Eastern and Western cultures. Variation in reports on three factors of modest behaviour was found across self-, parent, and friend perspectives, with significant differences across perspectives in self-effacement and other-enhancement, but not in avoidance of attention-seeking.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Autoimagem , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Canadá/etnologia , China/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Feminino , Amigos , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Respirology ; 22(5): 1015-1021, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28303676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Ethnic differences in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) phenotype may not be limited to obesity and craniofacial factors. The aims of the study were to (i) compare the proportion of Caucasians and Chinese patients with a low respiratory arousal threshold (ArTH) and (ii) explore the influence of anatomical compromise on ArTH. METHODS: Interethnic comparison was conducted between cohorts of Caucasian and Chinese patients from specialist sleep disorder clinics. Polysomnography and craniofacial photography were performed. A low respiratory ArTH was determined by an ArTH score of 2 or above (one point for each: apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) < 30/h, nadir oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) > 82.5%, fractions of hypopnoeas > 58.3%). Anatomical compromise was stratified according to the photographic face width measurement. RESULTS: A total of 348 subjects (163 Caucasians and 185 Chinese) were analysed. There was a significantly lower proportion of Chinese patients with moderate-severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15) who had a low ArTH (28.4% vs 48.8%, P = 0.004). This difference remained significant among those with severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30) (2.6% vs 17.1%, P = 0.02). The proportion of moderate-severe OSA Caucasians with a low ArTH was significantly less in those with severe anatomical compromise (36.6% vs 61.0%, P = 0.03), whereas there was no difference in Chinese patients (25.5% vs 31.5%, P = 0.49). CONCLUSION: Compared to Caucasians with severe OSA, a low respiratory ArTh appears to be a less common pathophysiological mechanism in Chinese patients. Caucasians with less severe anatomical compromise exhibit evidence of a lower ArTh, an association which is absent in Chinese patients. Our data suggest that OSA mechanisms may vary across racial groups.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etnologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia
20.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 42(3): 153-159, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177955

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to explore how foreign-born Chinese women living in California engage in various traditional and American birth practices. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted using a grounded theory approach. Chinese women from Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan who had childbirth experiences in the United States were purposively sampled. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women, with follow-up interviews with 5 women. Interview data were analyzed using grounded theory according to the method of Strauss and Corbin. RESULTS: There are many traditional practices for pregnancy and childbirth. Women investigated the traditions through various means, and built their own perspective on each tradition by integrating an evaluation of the Chinese perspective and an evaluation of the American perspective. Women considered several factors in the process of evaluating the Chinese and American perspectives to reach their own integrated perspective on each tradition. These factors included whether or not the tradition made sense to them, how the traditional practice affected their comfort, nature of available options, attitudes of female elders, previous experiences of their peers and themselves, and outcomes of temporary trials of traditional or nontraditional practices. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Healthcare providers should respect women's diverse perspectives on traditional practices and encourage flexible arrangements. Including the elder generation in health education may be useful in helping women manage conflicts and to support their decisions.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/psicologia , Percepção , Adulto , California , China/etnologia , Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Hong Kong/etnologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/etnologia
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