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1.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 162: 110151, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347159

RESUMO

ß-1,3-1,4-Glucanase is an indispensable biocatalyst in barley brewing industry for its crucial effect in reducing the viscosity of mash. However, the unsatisfactory thermostability greatly limited its application performance. In this study, structure-based surface charge engineering was conducted aiming at thermostability improvement of BisGlu16B, a highly active ß-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Bispora sp. MEY-1. By applying the enzyme thermal stability system (ETSS), residues D47, D213, and D253 were inferred to be critical sites for thermal properties. Single (D47A, D213A, and D253A) and combination (D47A/D213A/D253A) mutants were generated and compared with BisGlu16B. Among all improved mutants, D47A/D213A/D253A outstanded in thermostability. In comparison with BisGlu16B, its T50 and Tm were respectively increased by 7.0 °C and 4.3 °C, while the t1/2 at 70 °C was 8.1 times that of the wild type. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of D47A/D213A/D253A also increased by 42.5%, compared with BisGlu16B (42,900 ± 300 U/mg vs. 30,100 ± 800 U/mg). Comparing with BisGlu16B and commercial enzyme treatment groups, under simulated malting conditions, efficiency improvement was observed in decreasement of viscosity (35.5% and 90.7%) and filtration time (30.9% and 34.6%) for D47A/D213A/D253A treatment group. Molecular dynamics simulation showed that mutation sites A47, A213, and A253 increased the protein rigidity by lowering the overall root mean square deviation (RMSD). This study may bring optimization of technology and improvement of producing efficiency to the present brewing industry.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Hordeum , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Catálise , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Temperatura
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 300: 120276, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372496

RESUMO

Improving the redispersion and recycling of dried cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) without compromising their nanoscopic dimensions and inherent mechanical properties are essential for their large-scale applications. Herein, mixed-linkage (1,3;1,4)-ß-d-glucan (MLG) was studied as a rehydration medium for the redispersion and recycling of dried CNFs, benefiting from the intrinsic affinity of MLG to both cellulose and water molecules as inspired from plant cell wall. MLG from barley with a lower molar ratio of cellotriosyl to cellotetraosyl units was found homogeneously coated on CNFs, facilitating rehydration of the network of individualized CNFs. The addition of barley MLG did not impair the mechanical properties of the CNF/MLG composites as compared to neat CNFs nanopaper. With the addition of 10 wt% barley MLG, dry CNF/MLG composite film was successfully redispersed in water and recycled with well-maintained mechanical properties, while lichenan from Icelandic moss, cationic starch, and xyloglucan could not help the redispersion of dried CNFs.


Assuntos
Celulose , Hordeum , Parede Celular , Água , Hidratação
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130196, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272376

RESUMO

To address the knowledge gap on the effects of the co-existence of nanomaterials on plant growth, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants were irrigated with zinc oxide nanoparticles (0.5 g L-1), nanoplastics (1 g L-1), and the combination of these two nanomaterials for 10 days. The co-existence of nanoplastics and ZnO nanoparticles increased H2O2 concentration by 12.76% and 38.30%, compared with the ZnO nanoparticles and nanoplastics exposure. The concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) in plants under the co-existence of nanoplastics and ZnO nanoparticles was 29.53% and 10.42% higher than that in ZnO nanoparticles treated plants and nanoplastics treated plants. The global analysis of phosphoproteomics identified 132 phosphorylated proteins and 173 phosphorylation sites in barley leaves exposed to the nanomaterial combination, which were related to photosynthesis, carbon fixation, nitrogen metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolisms. Further physiological analysis indicated that the combination of ZnO nanoparticles and nanoplastics caused larger damage to the systems of antioxidant and carbohydrate metabolisms as exemplified by decreased activities of apoplastic peroxidases (25.10%-48.60%), glutathione reductase (91.07%-94.94%), and sucrose synthase (53.59%-61.19%) in roots and increased cell wall invertase activity (12.97%-17.61%) in leaves, compared with the single nanomaterial treatments. These results indicate that the modulations in protein phosphorylation were closely related to the physiological responses to nanomaterial exposure, suggesting that the co-existence of nanomaterials may lead to greater impacts than single ones.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Óxido de Zinco , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Microplásticos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fosforilação
4.
Food Chem ; 399: 133952, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998492

RESUMO

Although excessive pharmaceutical activities of curcumin have been reported, the poor solubility, low stability and low bioavailability greatly limited its application. In this study, the interaction between protein Z (PZ) and curcumin, and the effects of PZ on the stability and bioavailability of curcumin were investigated. Fluorescence quenching results indicated that curcumin molecule binds PZ with a stoichiometry of 4:1, and the binding affinity is stronger than other reported protein carriers. Molecular dynamics simulation results suggested that curcumin binds in the hydrophobic region of PZ, and the interaction was maintained mainly by hydrogen-bond (Pro-287, Asn-340 and Tyr-234). PZ-curcumin complex possessed better encapsulation efficiency (64.10 %) and loading capacity (5.49 µg/mg) for curcumin. In addition, binding with PZ not only improved the thermal, light and digestive stability of curcumin significantly, but lowered its toxic effect on Caco-2 cells and improved relative bioavailability (305 %) compared with that of curcumin only.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Hordeum , Nanopartículas , Disponibilidade Biológica , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Células CACO-2 , Curcumina/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Solubilidade
5.
Food Chem ; 399: 134011, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36044826

RESUMO

Avocado seeds account for 13% of the waste from industrial production of cold-pressed avocado oil (CPAO). Therefore, the aim of this study was to valorise avocado seeds by converting it into an extruded snack product using a friction cooker and comparing their textural and physical characteristics to extruded brown rice and malted barley ready to eat (RTE) snacks. Concentration of toxins; amygdalin and persin were compared in extruded avocado seed and fresh avocado seeds. Avocado seed extrudates were significantly lower in lateral expansion, apparent density, porosity, hardness, and crispiness compared to brown rice extrudates. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) was highest in freeze-dried avocado seeds. Antioxidant capacity and TPC of avocado seed extrudates were significantly higher than brown rice and malted barley. The concentrations of both amygdalin and persin in the RTE avocado seed snack were present at non-toxic levels (2.6 × 10-6 mg/g and 0.68 mg/g respectively).


Assuntos
Amigdalina , Hordeum , Persea , Antioxidantes , Álcoois Graxos , Fenóis , Sementes , Lanches
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19316, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369273

RESUMO

The scope of the research comprises an analysis and evaluation of samples of rape, barley and wheat seeds. The experiments were carried out using the author's original research object. The air flow velocities to transport seeds, were set at 15, 20 and 25 m s-1. A database consisting of images was created, which allowed to determine 3 classes of kernels on the basis of 6 research variants, including their transportation way via pipe and the speed of sowing. The process of creating neural models was based on multilayer perceptron networks (MLPN) in Statistica (machine learning). It should be added that the use of MLPN also allowed identification of rape seeds, wheat seeds and barley seeds transported via pipe II at 20 m s-1, for which the lowest RMS was 0.05 and the coefficient of classification accuracy was 0.94.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Hordeum , Triticum , Sementes , Redes Neurais de Computação , Alérgenos
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(45): 14488-14498, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345907

RESUMO

Previous studies have found that the protein in barley extract fermented by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum dy-1 has the ability to inhibit lipid accumulation. However, the isolation, purification, and structural identification of the protein with lipid-lowering activity were still needed. In the present study, barley protein fermented by L. plantarum dy-1 with the optimal lipid-lowering ability was isolated and purified in three steps: using ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography, and size-exclusion chromatography. Combined with the model of HepG2 cells induced by oleic acid, the results showed that the pure protein LFBEP-C1 had the best lipid-lowering potential. Furthermore, our research found that LFBEP-C1 enriched the content of hydrophobic amino acids in LFBEP-C1. Ultraviolet spectroscopy analysis indicated that the glycosidic bond in LFBEP-C1 was an O-type glycosidic bond. The FTIR and circular dichroism spectra indicated that α-helix and random coil were the main secondary structures of LFBEP-C1. Mass spectrometry determined the theoretical molecular weight of LFBEP-C1 as 48 kDa, and its amino acid coverage was 63%. These findings suggest that the protein LFBEP-C1 with the best lipid-lowering activity was isolated and purified, and its structural characteristics were identified.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Lactobacillus plantarum , Fermentação , Hordeum/química , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Lipídeos
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19151, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351972

RESUMO

High fructan content in the grain of cereals is an important trait in agriculture such as environmental resilience and dietary fiber food production. To understand the mechanism in determining final grain fructan content and achieve high fructan cereal, a cross breeding strategy based on fructan synthesis and hydrolysis activities was set up and have achieved barley lines with 11.8% storage fructan in the harvested grain. Our study discovered that high activity of fructan hydrolysis at later grain developmental stage leads to the low fructan content in mature seeds, simultaneously increasing fructan synthesis at early stage and decreasing fructan hydrolysis at later stage through crossing breeding is an efficient way to elevate grain diet-fiber content. A good correlation between fructan and beta glucans was also discovered with obvious interest. Field trials showed that the achieved high fructan barley produced over seven folds higher fructan content than control barley and pull carbon-flux to fructan through decreasing fructan hydrolysis without disruption starch synthesis will probably not bring yield deficiency.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Frutanos , Hidrólise , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fibras na Dieta , Grão Comestível , Dieta
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360601

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of different doses of fertilization with biomass combustion ash (Salix viminalis L. willow) on changes in the biological, chemical, and physical properties of soil. The experiment was carried out on podzolic and chernozem soils in a one-way field experiment (fertilization dose: control (without fertilization), NPK (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K)), 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 kg K2O ha-1). The biomass ash was characterized by a pH value of 12.83 ± 0.68 and a high content of macronutrients. The samples were collected from 0-5, 10-15, and 20-25 cm soil layers under the cultivation of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) cv. Planet in April and August 2021. Mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used for microbiological analyses, which revealed the presence of 53 culturable species from 11 genera: Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Pseudarthrobacter, Arthrobacter, Staphylococcus, Paenarthrobacter, Micrococcus, Rhodococcus, and Flavobacterium. The podzolic and chernozem soils exhibited the presence of 28 and 44 culturable species, respectively. The study showed an increase in the number of microorganisms in the top layer of the soil profile. However, the number of bacteria decreased at the depths of 10-15 cm and 20-25 cm. With depth, the bulk density (BD) and moisture increased.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Solo , Solo/química , Biomassa , Microbiologia do Solo , Fósforo/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Bactérias , Fertilização , Fertilizantes/análise
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361814

RESUMO

Cuticular waxes comprise the hydrophobic layer that protects crops against nonstomatal water loss and biotic and abiotic stresses. Expanding on our current knowledge of the genes that are involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis and regulation plays an important role in dissecting the processes of cuticular wax metabolism. In this study, we identified the Cer-GN1 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutant that is generated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis with a glossy spike phenotype that is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. A physiological analysis showed that the total cuticular wax loads of Cer-GN1 were one-third that of the progenitor wild-type (WT), and its water loss rate was significantly accelerated (p < 0.05). In addition, Cer-GN1 was defective in the glume's cuticle according to the toluidine blue dye test, and it was deficient in the tubule-shaped crystals which were observed on the glume surfaces by scanning electron microscopy. Using metabolomics and transcriptomics, we investigated the impacts of cuticular wax composition and waxy regulatory genes on the loss of the glaucous wax in the spikes of Cer-GN1. Among the differential metabolites, we found that 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid, which is one of the predominant C16 and C18 fatty acid-derived cutin monomers, was significantly downregulated in Cer-GN1 when it was compared to that of WT. We identified two novel genes that are located on chromosome 4H and are downregulated in Cer-GN1 (HvMSTRG.29184 and HvMSTRG.29185) that encode long-chain fatty acid omega-monooxygenase CYP704B1, which regulates the conversion of C16 palmitic acid to 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid. A quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the expression levels of HvMSTRG.29184 and HvMSTRG.29185 were downregulated at 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 days after the heading stage in Cer-GN1 when it was compared to those of WT. These results suggested that HvMSTRG.29184 and HvMSTRG.29185 have CYP704B1 activity, which could regulate the conversion of C16 palmitic acid to 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid in barley. Their downregulation in Cer-GN1 reduced the synthesis of the cuticular wax components and ultimately caused the loss of the glaucous wax in the spikes. It is necessary to verify whether HvMSTRG.29184 and HvMSTRG.29185 truly encode a CYP704B1 that regulates the conversion of C16 palmitic acid to 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid in barley.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ceras/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361820

RESUMO

The hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channel gene family (OSCA) is one kind of conserved osmosensors, playing a crucial role in maintaining ion and water homeostasis and protecting cellular stability from the damage of hypertonic stress. Although it has been systematically characterized in diverse plants, it is necessary to explore the role of the OSCA family in barley, especially its importance in regulating abiotic stress response. In this study, a total of 13 OSCA genes (HvOSCAs) were identified in barley through an in silico genome search method, which were clustered into 4 clades based on phylogenetic relationships with members in the same clade showing similar protein structures and conserved motif compositions. These HvOSCAs had many cis-regulatory elements related to various abiotic stress, such as MBS and ARE, indicating their potential roles in abiotic stress regulation. Furthermore, their expression patterns were systematically detected under diverse stresses using RNA-seq data and qRT-PCR methods. All of these 13 HvOSCAs were significantly induced by drought, cold, salt and ABA treatment, demonstrating their functions in osmotic regulation. Finally, the genetic variations of the HvOSCAs were investigated using the re-sequencing data, and their nucleotide diversity in wild barley and landrace populations were 0.4966 × 10-3 and 0.391 × 10-3, respectively, indicating that a genetic bottleneck has occurred in the OSCA family during the barley evolution process. This study evaluated the genomic organization, evolutionary relationship and genetic expression of the OSCA family in barley, which not only provides potential candidates for further functional genomic study, but also contributes to genetically improving stress tolerance in barley and other crops.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Secas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364021

RESUMO

Young barley plants are a good source of bioactive compounds. This paper presents the effects of gaseous O3 (trioxygen or ozone) on the biosynthesis of compounds, determining the antioxidant potential of young barley plants. The total content of polyphenols was determined along with their profile, as well as total antioxidant potential and vitamin C content. The highest contents of these compounds were identified in young barley plants exposed to gaseous O3. The main bioactive compound, representing polyphenols, determined in the examined raw materials was saponarin (isovitexin 7-O-glucoside). The induction of increased biosynthesis of these molecules was directly linked to the modification of the activity of selected enzymes. The increased polyphenol content resulted from the modified activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). On the other hand, the oxidative effect of ozone on barley plants was reduced, owing to the modified activities of catalases (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX). Analysis of the results showed that by applying gaseous O3 at a dose of 50 ppm for 10 min, the contents of bioactive compounds can be maximised in a residue-free way by activating oxidative stress defence mechanisms.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Ozônio , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase , Ozônio/farmacologia
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(46): 14571-14587, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350344

RESUMO

Global climate change and the urgency to transform food crops require substantial breeding efforts to meet the food security challenges. Barley, an important cereal, has remained a preferential host of phytotoxic diseases caused by the Fusarium graminearum that not only severely reduces the crop yield but also compromises its food quality due to the accumulation of mycotoxins. To develop resistance against Fusarium infections, a better understanding of the host-pathogen interaction is inevitable and could be tracked through molecular insights. Here, we focused precisely on the potential gene targets that are exclusive to this devastating pathosystem and could be harnessed for fast breeding of barley. We also discuss the eco-friendly applications of nanobio hybrid and the CRISPR technology for barley protection. This review covers the critical information gaps within the subject and may be useful for the sustainable improvement of barley from the perspective of food and environmental safety concerns.


Assuntos
Fusariose , Fusarium , Hordeum , Micotoxinas , Hordeum/genética , Transcriptoma , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fusarium/genética , Inocuidade dos Alimentos
14.
Sci Adv ; 8(45): eadd1596, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367939

RESUMO

Mixed-linkage (1,3;1,4)-ß-glucans, which are widely distributed in cell walls of the grasses, are linear glucose polymers containing predominantly (1,4)-ß-linked glucosyl units interspersed with single (1,3)-ß-linked glucosyl units. Their distribution in cereal grains and unique structures are important determinants of dietary fibers that are beneficial to human health. We demonstrate that the barley cellulose synthase-like CslF6 enzyme is sufficient to synthesize a high-molecular weight (1,3;1,4)-ß-glucan in vitro. Biochemical and cryo-electron microscopy analyses suggest that CslF6 functions as a monomer. A conserved "switch motif" at the entrance of the enzyme's transmembrane channel is critical to generate (1,3)-linkages. There, a single-point mutation markedly reduces (1,3)-linkage formation, resulting in the synthesis of cellulosic polysaccharides. Our results suggest that CslF6 monitors the orientation of the nascent polysaccharide's second or third glucosyl unit. Register-dependent interactions with these glucosyl residues reposition the polymer's terminal glucosyl unit to form either a (1,3)- or (1,4)-ß-linkage.


Assuntos
Hordeum , beta-Glucanas , Humanos , Hordeum/genética , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Glucanos
15.
J Plant Physiol ; 279: 153839, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370615

RESUMO

Pyrenophora teres f. maculata (Ptm) is a fungal pathogen that causes the spot form of net blotch on barley and leads to economic losses in many of the world's barley-growing regions. Isolates of Ptm exhibit varying levels of aggressiveness that result in quantifiable changes in the severity of the disease. Previous research on plant-pathogen interactions has shown that such divergence is reflected in the proteome and secretome of the pathogen, with certain classes of proteins more prominent in aggressive isolates. Here we have made a detailed comparative analysis of the secretomes of two Ptm isolates, GPS79 and E35 (highly and mildly aggressive, respectively) using a proteomics-based approach. The secretomes were obtained in vitro using media amended with barley leaf sections. Secreted proteins therein were harvested, digested with trypsin, and fractionated offline by HPLC prior to LC-MS in a high-resolution instrument to obtain deep coverage of the proteome. The subsequent analysis used a label-free quantitative proteomics approach with relative quantification of proteins based on precursor ion intensities. A total of 1175 proteins were identified, 931 from Ptm and 244 from barley. Further analysis revealed 160 differentially abundant proteins with at least a two-fold abundance difference between the isolates, with the most enriched in the aggressive GPS79 secretome. These proteins were mainly cell-wall (carbohydrate) degrading enzymes and peptidases, with some oxidoreductases and other pathogenesis-related proteins also identified, suggesting that aggressiveness is associated with an improved ability of GPS79 to overcome cell wall barriers and neutralize host defense responses.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Hordeum , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Proteoma , Parede Celular
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20095, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418861

RESUMO

A beneficial root system is crucial for efficient nutrient uptake and stress tolerance. Therefore, evaluating the root system variation for breeding crop plants towards stress adaptation is critically important. Here, we phenotyped root architectural traits of naturally adapted populations from organic and conventional cropping systems under hydroponic and field trails. Long-term natural selection under these two cropping systems resulted in a microevolution of root morphological and anatomical traits. Barley lines developed under an organic system possessed longer roots with narrow root angle, larger surface area, increased root mass density, and a thinner root diameter with an increased number of metaxylem vessels. In contrast, lines adapted to the conventional system tend to have a shorter and wider root system with a larger root volume with a thicker diameter but fewer metaxylem vessels. Allometry analysis established a relationship between root traits and plant size among barley genotypes, which specifies that root angle could be a good candidate among studied root traits to determine root-borne shoot architecture. Further, multivariate analyses showed a strong tendency towards increased variability of the organically adapted population's root morphological and anatomical traits. The genotyping of ancestor populations validated the observations made in these experiments. Collectively, this results indicate significant differences in root phenotypes between conventional and organic populations, which could be useful in comparative genomics and breeding.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hordeum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Estações do Ano , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360277

RESUMO

Among cereals, barley is tolerant to high levels of salinity stress; however, its performance and global production are still dramatically affected by salinity. In this study, we evaluated the behavior of a set of advanced genotypes of barley with aim of assessing the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in salinity tolerance. The experiment was conducted using a hydroponic system at optimal growing temperature and photoperiod conditions. The results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant effects for salinity treatments and genotypes in terms of all measured traits. Salinity stress significantly increased the root and shoot Na+ contents and root-to-shoot Na+ and K+ translocations. In contrast, other physiological features, gas exchange-related traits, as well as root and shoot biomasses were significantly decreased due to salinity stress. Based on the results of the multi-trait genotype ideotype distance index (MGIDI) as a multiple-traits method, G12 and G14 were identified as the superior salt-tolerant advanced genotypes. In the molecular analysis, salinity stress significantly increased the mean relative expression of HvSOS1, HvSOS3, HvHKT2, HvHKT3, HvNHX1, and HvNHX3 genes by 12.87-, 3.16-, 3.65-, 2.54-, 2.19-, and 3.18-fold more than the control conditions, respectively. The results of heatmap-based correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a clear association pattern among measured traits and expression data. Indeed, these associations confirmed relationships between tolerance pathways and physiological functions. In conclusion, the genotype G14 (D10*2/4/Productive/3/Roho//Alger/Ceres362-1-1) responded well to salinity stress and showed a better expression pattern of studied genes than other genotypes. Hence, this promising genotype can be a candidate for further assessments before commercial introduction.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Salinidade , Genótipo , Sódio/metabolismo
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360327

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses cause a significant decrease in productivity and growth in agricultural products, especially barley. Breeding has been considered to create resistance against abiotic stresses. Pyramiding genes for tolerance to abiotic stresses through selection based on molecular markers connected to Mega MQTLs of abiotic tolerance can be one of the ways to reach Golden Barley. In this study, 1162 original QTLs controlling 116 traits tolerant to abiotic stresses were gathered from previous research and mapped from various populations. A consensus genetic map was made, including AFLP, SSR, RFLP, RAPD, SAP, DArT, EST, CAPS, STS, RGA, IFLP, and SNP markers based on two genetic linkage maps and 26 individual linkage maps. Individual genetic maps were created by integrating individual QTL studies into the pre-consensus map. The consensus map covered a total length of 2124.43 cM with an average distance of 0.25 cM between markers. In this study, 585 QTLs and 191 effective genes related to tolerance to abiotic stresses were identified in MQTLs. The most overlapping QTLs related to tolerance to abiotic stresses were observed in MQTL6.3. Furthermore, three MegaMQTL were identified, which explained more than 30% of the phenotypic variation. MQTLs, candidate genes, and linked molecular markers identified are essential in barley breeding and breeding programs to develop produce cultivars resistant to abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hordeum/genética , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Melhoramento Vegetal , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
19.
Food Funct ; 13(22): 11664-11675, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36278802

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a public health burden. Controlling bile acids (BAs) metabolism and energy expenditure are  potential therapies for NAFLD. Because one of the main health effects of cereal ß-glucan (BG) is its ability to lower cholesterol by interacting with BAs, BG may regulate imbalances of the metabolism of BAs during NAFLD. Therefore, by using metabolic tests coupled with the profiling of hepatic BAs, we have assessed the effect of BG from highland barley on western diet (WD) induced NAFLD mice. BG treatment prevented fat accumulation and increased adipose lipolysis. These moderating effects were associated with an increased energy expenditure. Moreover, BG-treated mice enhanced the production of hepatic BAs, which may be connected with the activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling in the liver and inhibition of FXR signaling in the ileum. Our results suggest that BG prevents fat accumulation by increasing energy expenditure, a mechanism associated with major changes in the composition of hepatic BAs.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , beta-Glucanas , Camundongos , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17583, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36266371

RESUMO

The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) enabled a shift from array-based genotyping to directly sequencing genomic libraries for high-throughput genotyping. Even though whole-genome sequencing was initially too costly for routine analysis in large populations such as breeding or genetic studies, continued advancements in genome sequencing and bioinformatics have provided the opportunity to capitalize on whole-genome information. As new sequencing platforms can routinely provide high-quality sequencing data for sufficient genome coverage to genotype various breeding populations, a limitation comes in the time and cost of library construction when multiplexing a large number of samples. Here we describe a high-throughput whole-genome skim-sequencing (skim-seq) approach that can be utilized for a broad range of genotyping and genomic characterization. Using optimized low-volume Illumina Nextera chemistry, we developed a skim-seq method and combined up to 960 samples in one multiplex library using dual index barcoding. With the dual-index barcoding, the number of samples for multiplexing can be adjusted depending on the amount of data required, and could be extended to 3,072 samples or more. Panels of doubled haploid wheat lines (Triticum aestivum, CDC Stanley x CDC Landmark), wheat-barley (T. aestivum x Hordeum vulgare) and wheat-wheatgrass (Triticum durum x Thinopyrum intermedium) introgression lines as well as known monosomic wheat stocks were genotyped using the skim-seq approach. Bioinformatics pipelines were developed for various applications where sequencing coverage ranged from 1 × down to 0.01 × per sample. Using reference genomes, we detected chromosome dosage, identified aneuploidy, and karyotyped introgression lines from the skim-seq data. Leveraging the recent advancements in genome sequencing, skim-seq provides an effective and low-cost tool for routine genotyping and genetic analysis, which can track and identify introgressions and genomic regions of interest in genetics research and applied breeding programs.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Hordeum , Genótipo , Genoma de Planta/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triticum/genética , Hordeum/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem
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