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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502597

RESUMO

Image analysis using neural modeling is one of the most dynamically developing methods employing artificial intelligence. The feature that caused such widespread use of this technique is mostly the ability of automatic generalization of scientific knowledge as well as the possibility of parallel analysis of the empirical data. A properly conducted learning process of artificial neural network (ANN) allows the classification of new, unknown data, which helps to increase the efficiency of the generated models in practice. Neural image analysis is a method that allows extracting information carried in the form of digital images. The paper focuses on the determination of imperfections such as contaminations and damages in the malting barley grains on the basis of information encoded in the graphic form represented by the digital photographs of kernels. This choice was dictated by the current state of knowledge regarding the classification of contamination that uses undesirable features of kernels to exclude them from use in the malting industry. Currently, a qualitative assessment of kernels is carried by malthouse-certified employees acting as experts. Contaminants are separated from a sample of malting barley manually, and the percentages of previously defined groups of contaminations are calculated. The analysis of the problem indicates a lack of effective methods of identifying the quality of barley kernels, such as the use of information technology. There are new possibilities of using modern methods of artificial intelligence (such as neural image analysis) for the determination of impurities in malting barley. However, there is the problem of effective compression of graphic data to a form acceptable for ANN simulators. The aim of the work is to develop an effective procedure of graphical data compression supporting the qualitative assessment of malting barley with the use of modern information technologies. Image analysis can be implemented into dedicated software.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Inteligência Artificial , Grão Comestível
2.
Plant Sci ; 311: 111015, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482918

RESUMO

In the current climate change scenario, understanding crops' physiological performance under water shortage is crucial to overcome drought periods. Although the implication of leaf water relations maintaining leaf turgor and stomatal functioning under water deprivation has been suggested, the relationships between photosynthesis and osmotic and elastic adjustments remain misunderstood. Similarly, only few studies in dicotyledonous analysed how changes in cell wall composition affected photosynthesis and leaf water relations under drought. To induce modifications in photosynthesis, leaf water relations and cell wall composition, Hordeum vulgare and Triticum aestivum were subjected to different water regimes: control (CL, full irrigation), moderate and severe water deficit stress (Mod WS and Sev WS, respectively). Water shortage decreased photosynthesis mainly due to stomatal conductance (gs) declines, being accompanied by reduced osmotic potential at full turgor (πo) and increased bulk modulus of elasticity (ε). Whereas both species enhanced pectins when intensifying water deprivation, species-dependent adjustments occurred for cellulose and hemicelluloses. From these results, we showed that πo and ε influenced photosynthesis, particularly, gs. Furthermore, the (Cellulose+Hemicelluloses)/Pectins ratio determined ε and mesophyll conductance (gm) in grasses, presenting the lowest pectins content within angiosperms. Thus, we highlight the relevance of cell wall composition regulating grasses physiology during drought acclimation.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Secas , Hordeum/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 357: 109367, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482184

RESUMO

Alternaria is one of the main fungal genera affecting the quality of barley grains. In this study, a polyphasic approach was carried out to characterise the Alternaria population infecting different cultivars of barley grains from the major producing regions of Argentina in the 2014 and 2015 seasons. Its relationship with Fusarium and correlations between predominant species, barley cultivars, and climatic conditions in the growing regions were evaluated. Alternaria incidence exceeded that of Fusarium in all the barley samples and was higher in the drier season (21% in 2014 and 42% in 2015 vs. 6% and 4%, respectively). The main Alternaria species-groups identified were present in both growing seasons in similar frequencies (A. tenuissima sp.-grp., 83.4% in 2014 and 81.7% in 2015; A. infectoria sp.-grp., 11.7% in 2014 and 11.3% in 2015). The dominant Alternaria species-group isolated and identified based on morphological characteristics, DNA sequencing, and metabolite profile was A. tenuissima (72.9%), followed by A. infectoria (14.6%). An association between their frequency and field temperature was observed; A. tenuissima sp.-grp. was more frequent in northern localities, where higher temperatures were registered, while the opposite was observed for A. infectoria sp.-grp. A smaller percentage of A. arborescens sp.-grp. (5%), A. alternata sp.-grp. (3.9%) and A. vaccinii (1.4%) were also identified. Both secondary metabolite profiles and phylogenetic analysis were useful to distinguish isolates from Alternaria section Alternaria and section Infectoriae. Regarding metabolite profiles, alternariol was the most frequent compound produced by isolates of the section Alternaria. Infectopyrones and novae-zelandins were produced by most of the isolates from section Infectoriae. The barley cultivars analysed in this study did not show a particular susceptibility regarding the Alternaria population composition, except for Andreia, which presented the highest frequency of contamination with A. tenuissima sp.-grp. The rest of the cultivars, when grown in different regions, showed different proportion of the Alternaria sp.-grps., suggesting that other factors were determinant in their distribution. The results obtained in the present study will be a valuable tool for health authorities to assess the need for regulations on Alternaria mycotoxins, given the high incidence of Alternaria spp. in barley and the diversity of metabolites that might contaminate the grains.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Hordeum , Micotoxinas , Alternaria , Filogenia
4.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 674, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs), a group of small, basic ubiquitous proteins to participate in lipid transfer, cuticle formation and stress response, are involved in the regulation of plant growth and development. To date, although the nsLTP gene family of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been preliminarily identified, it is still unclear in the recently completed genome database of barley and Qingke, and its transcriptional profiling under abiotic stress has not been elucidated as well. RESULTS: We identified 40 barley nsLTP (HvLTP) genes through a strict screening strategy based on the latest barley genome and 35 Qingke nsLTP (HtLTP) orthologues using blastp, and these LTP genes were divided into four types (1, 2, D and G). At the same time, a comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics, homology alignment, conserved motifs, gene structure and evolution of HvLTPs and HtLTPs further supported their similar nsLTP characteristics and classification. The genomic location of HvLTPs and HtLTPs showed that these genes were unevenly distributed, and obvious HvLTP and HtLTP gene clusters were found on the 7 chromosomes including six pairs of tandem repeats and one pair of segment repeats in the barley genome, indicating that these genes may be co-evolutionary and co-regulated. A spatial expression analysis showed that most HvLTPs and HtLTPs had different tissue-specific expression patterns. Moreover, the upstream cis-element analysis of HvLTPs and HtLTPs showed that there were many different stress-related transcriptional regulatory elements, and the expression pattern of HvLTPs and HtLTPs under abiotic stress also indicated that numerous HvLTP and HtLTP genes were related to the abiotic stress response. Taken together, these results may be due to the differences in promoters rather than by genes themselves resulting in different expression patterns under abiotic stress. CONCLUSION: Due to a stringent screening and comprehensive analysis of the nsLTP gene family in barley and Qingke and its expression profile under abiotic stress, this study can be considered a useful source for the future studies of nsLTP genes in either barley or Qingke or for comparisons of different plant species.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Proteínas de Transporte , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502052

RESUMO

The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ABA-induced increase in hydraulic conductivity was hypothesized to be dependent on an increase in aquaporin water channel (AQP) abundance. Single ABA application or its combination with ROS manipulators (ROS scavenger ascorbic acid and NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) were studied on detached roots of barley plants. We measured the osmotically driven flow rate of xylem sap and calculated root hydraulic conductivity. In parallel, immunolocalization of ABA and HvPIP2;2 AQPs was performed with corresponding specific antibodies. ABA treatment increased the flow rate of xylem, root hydraulic conductivity and immunostaining for ABA and HvPIP2;2, while the addition of antioxidants prevented the effects of this hormone. The obtained results confirmed the involvement of ROS in ABA effect on hydraulic conductivity, in particular, the importance of H2O2 production by ABA-treated plants for the effect of this hormone on AQP abundance.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Osmose , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/antagonistas & inibidores , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Oniocompostos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilema/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilema/metabolismo
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 862-873, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536899

RESUMO

In plants, lipid metabolism and remodelling are key mechanisms for survival under temperature stress. The present study attempted to compare the lipid profile in barley roots both under chilling stress treatment and in the subsequent recovery to stress. Lipids were obtained through a single-extraction method with a polar solvent mixture, followed by mass spectrometry analysis. The results indicate that lipid metabolism was significantly affected by chilling. Most of the glycerolipids analysed returned to control values during short- and long-term recovery, whereas several representative phosphatidic acid (PA) molecular species were edited during long-term recovery. Most of the PA molecular species that increased in the long-term had the same acyl chains as the phosphatidylcholine (PC) species that decreased. C34:2 and C36:4 underwent the most remarkable changes. Given that the mechanisms underlying the acyl-editing of PC in barley roots remain elusive, we also evaluated the contribution of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases (HvLPCAT) and phospholipase A (HvPLA). In line with the aforementioned results, the expression of the HvLPCAT and HvPLA genes was up-regulated during recovery from chilling. The differential acyl-editing of PA during recovery, which involves the remodelling of PC, might therefore be a regulatory mechanism of cold tolerance in barley.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Temperatura Baixa , Hordeum/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Ácidos Fosfatídicos , Raízes de Plantas/genética
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126230, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492984

RESUMO

The co-existence of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in the environment is an emerging issue remaining poorly investigated. The present study aimed at analyzing the fate of binary mixtures of CuO and ZnO ENPs in a soil-plant system. The ENPs were singly or jointly dosed into soil at 300 mg kg-1 and aged for 7 and 30 days. To evaluate nano-specific effects, individual and combined treatments of metal salts were also applied. Interactions between ENPs and soil-grown barley Hordeum vulgare were determined in terms of biomass, plant mineral composition as well as expression of genes regulating metal homeostasis (ZIP1,3,6,8,10,14, RAN1, PAA1,2, MTP1, COPT5) and detoxification (MT1-3). The bioavailability of Zn and Cu in bulk soil and in the rooting zone was determined using the 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 extraction. After combined treatment of ENPs, the extractable concentrations of Cu and Zn were lower than upon individual exposure in bulk soil. The opposite tendency was noted for metal salts. Genes related to metal uptake (ZIP) and cellular compartment (PAA2, RAN1) were mostly up-regulated by single rather than combined application of ENPs. The single and joint exposure to metals salts induced the down-regulation of these genes.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cobre , Homeostase , Hordeum/genética , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Solo
8.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110467, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399465

RESUMO

Gut microbiota dysbiosis and oxidative stress may play important roles in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fermented foods contain probiotics and other bioactive components that may improve gastrointestinal health and provide other health benefits. Here, we investigated the effect of Lactobacillus-fermented black barley on NAFLD rats. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: normal chow diet (NC), high-fat diet (HF), HF + fermented black barley treatment (HB) and HF + Lactobacillus treatment (HL). The rats in the HB and HL groups were continuously administered fermented black barley or Lactobacillus, respectively, for 12 weeks (1 mL/100 g·BW, containing 1 × 108 CFU/mL Lactobacillus). Compared with the HF treatment, HB treatment effectively inhibited the increase in body weight, liver and abdominal fat indexes and hepatic lipids (p < 0.01), increased hepatic SOD activity (p < 0.05), decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) (p < 0.01) and improved liver function. Moreover, Lactobacillus-fermented black barley exhibited regulatory effect on high-fat diet-induced intestinal microbiota dysbiosis by increasing the relative microbiota abundance and diversity, increasing the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, decreasing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, increasing the abundances of some intestinal probiotics (such as Akkermansia and Lactococcus), and influencing some of the fecal metabolites related to hormones and lipid metabolism. The supplementation of fermented cereal food might be a new effective and safe preventive dietary strategy against NAFLD.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hordeum , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Lactobacillus , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360920

RESUMO

Barley is characterized by a rich genetic diversity, making it an important model for studies of salinity response with great potential for crop improvement. Moreover, salt stress severely affects barley growth and development, leading to substantial yield loss. Leaf and root transcriptomes of a salt-tolerant Tunisian landrace (Boulifa) exposed to 2, 8, and 24 h salt stress were compared with pre-exposure plants to identify candidate genes and pathways underlying barley's response. Expression of 3585 genes was upregulated and 5586 downregulated in leaves, while expression of 13,200 genes was upregulated and 10,575 downregulated in roots. Regulation of gene expression was severely impacted in roots, highlighting the complexity of salt stress response mechanisms in this tissue. Functional analyses in both tissues indicated that response to salt stress is mainly achieved through sensing and signaling pathways, strong transcriptional reprograming, hormone osmolyte and ion homeostasis stabilization, increased reactive oxygen scavenging, and activation of transport and photosynthesis systems. A number of candidate genes involved in hormone and kinase signaling pathways, as well as several transcription factor families and transporters, were identified. This study provides valuable information on early salt-stress-responsive genes in roots and leaves of barley and identifies several important players in salt tolerance.


Assuntos
Hordeum/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
10.
Poult Sci ; 100(10): 101383, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438325

RESUMO

A stimbiotic is defined as a product that stimulates a fiber-degrading microbiome to increase fiber fermentability. The aim of this study was to examine if it is more advantageous to feed a stimbiotic (xylanase + xylo-oligosaccharides [STB]) or a combination of xylanase and beta-glucanase (Xyl + BG) to broilers fed wheat-barley based diets with differing AME levels. Cobb 500 broilers (n = 480, 80 birds per treatment) were fed 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement; 2 AME levels, 'High' or 'Low', which differed by 100 kcal ME/kg, and 3 additive supplementations, with no supplemental additives, STB or Xyl + BG. Diets were fed as 3 phases, starter (d 0-14), grower (d 14-21) and finisher (d 21-35). On bird age d 14, 21 and 35, total pen body weight and feed intake were determined, and feed conversion ratio corrected for mortality (cFCR) was calculated. On d 21 and d 35 ileal viscosity and beta-glucan content and caecal SCFA concentration were determined. Additive suplementation had no impact on cFCR in birds fed the low AME diet, but in birds fed the high AME diet the cFCR value was reduced in the presence of the additives (P = 0.001 and P = 0.015, at d 14-21 and d 21-35, respectively). At d 21, cecal SCFA concentration was consistently higher (P = 0.015), and ileal beta-glucan level lower (P = 0.002), in birds fed the diet supplemented with STB compared to those without additives. At d 35, ileal viscosity was lower in birds fed STB compared to those fed the diet without supplementation of additives, irrespective of diet AME level (P = 0.017). These results suggest that both STB and Xyl + BG ameliorate the antinutritive effects of the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) present in wheat-barley based diets, resulting in improved bird performance. However, supplementation with STB induces a comparatively greater positive effect on NSP hydrolysis and SCFA production.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Hordeum , Anfotericina B/análogos & derivados , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Triticum
11.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 499(1): 228-232, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426917

RESUMO

The effect of melatonin on growth parameters, the photochemical activity of photosystem II (PS II), the content of the main photosynthetic pigments, and lipid peroxidation in barley plant leaves under polymetallic stress were studied. Melatonin reduces the toxic effect of polymetals on biomass accumulation, root growth, and maintenance of the assimilating surface. The protective action of the hormone is based on its ability to reduce the intensity of oxidative stress by maintaining the level of carotenoids and increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase, but not by regulating the photochemical activity of chloroplasts. The effectiveness of melatonin does not depend on the duration of exposure. The data obtained can be the basis for optimizing the use of melatonin as a plant priming inducer.


Assuntos
Hordeum/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Metais/toxicidade , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445790

RESUMO

The normal developmental sequence in a grass grain entails the death of several maternal and filial tissues in a genetically regulated process termed programmed cell death (PCD). The progression and molecular aspects of PCD in developing grains have been reported for domesticated species such as barley, rice, maize and wheat. Here, we report a detailed investigation of PCD in the developing grain of the wild model species Brachypodium distachyon. We detected PCD in developing Brachypodium grains using molecular and histological approaches. We also identified in Brachypodium the orthologs of protease genes known to contribute to grain PCD and surveyed their expression. We found that, similar to cereals, PCD in the Brachypodium nucellus occurs in a centrifugal pattern following anthesis. However, compared to cereals, the rate of post-mortem clearance in the Brachypodium nucellus is slower. However, compared to wheat and barley, mesocarp PCD in Brachypodium proceeds more rapidly in lateral cells. Remarkably, Brachypodium mesocarp PCD is not coordinated with endosperm development. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that barley and wheat possess more vacuolar processing enzymes that drive nucellar PCD compared to Brachypodium and rice. Our expression analysis highlighted putative grain-specific PCD proteases in Brachypodium. Combined with existing knowledge on grain PCD, our study suggests that the rate of nucellar PCD moderates grain size and that the pattern of mesocarp PCD influences grain shape.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Brachypodium/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Endosperma/genética , Hordeum/genética , Oryza/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Triticum/genética
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444720

RESUMO

Beta glucan is a type of soluble dietary fibre found in oats and barley with known cholesterol-lowering benefits. Many countries globally have an approved beta glucan health claim related to lowering blood cholesterol, an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. However, the use of these claims has not been examined. The aim of this study was to explore the range and variety of oat and barley products in the Australian and global market within a defined range of grain food and beverage categories and examine the frequency of beta glucan health claims. Australian data were collected via a recognised nutrition audit process from the four major Australian supermarkets in metropolitan Sydney (January 2018 and September 2020) and Mintel Global New Product Database was used for global markets where a claim is permitted. Categories included breakfast cereals, bread, savoury biscuits, grain-based muesli bars, flour, noodles/pasta and plant-based milk alternatives and information collected included ingredients lists and nutrition and health claims. Products from Australia (n = 2462) and globally (n = 44,894) were examined. In Australia, 37 products (1.5%) made use of the beta glucan claim (84% related to oat beta glucan and 16% related to barley beta glucan, specifically BARLEYmax®). Of products launched globally, 0.9% (n = 403) displayed beta glucan cholesterol-lowering claims. Despite the number of products potentially eligible to make beta glucan claims, their use in Australia and globally is limited. The value of dietary modification in cardiovascular disease treatment and disease progression deserves greater focus, and health claims are an opportunity to assist in communicating the role of food in the management of health and disease. Further assessment of consumer understanding of the available claims would be of value.


Assuntos
Avena , Colesterol/sangue , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos , Hordeum , Grãos Integrais , beta-Glucanas , Austrália , Bebidas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta , Alimentos/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 596-606, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464826

RESUMO

Salt stress is one of the major environmental restricts for crop production and food safety. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most salt-tolerant cereal crop, which could be the pioneer for shifting agricultural crop production to marginal saline lands. However, probably due to high genetic complexity of salinity tolerance trait, the progress in the identification of salt-tolerant locus or genes of barley roots moves slowly. Here, we determined physiological and ionic changes in mini-core barley accessions under salt conditions. Na+ content was lower in whole-plant but higher in roots of the salt tolerant genotypes than sensitive ones under salt stress. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis identified 43 significant SNPs out of 12,564 SNPs and 215 candidate genes (P < 10-3) in the roots of worldwide barley accessions, highly associated with root relative dry weight (RDW) and Na+ content after hydroponic salinity in greenhouse and growth chamber. Meanwhile, transcriptomic analysis (RNA-Seq) identified 3217 differentially expression genes (DEGs) in barley roots induced by salt stress, mainly enriched in metabolism and transport processes. After GWAS and RNA-Seq integrating analysis, 39 DEGs were verified by qRT-PCR as salt-responding genes, including CYPs, LRR-KISS and CML genes, mostly related to the signal regulation. Taken together, current results provide genetic map-based genes or new locus useful for improving salt tolerance in crop and contributing to the utilization of saline soils.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hordeum/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Sódio , Transcriptoma
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9287-9298, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347479

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by marked imbalances in lipid storage and metabolism. Because the beneficial health effects of cereal ß-glucan (BG) include lowering cholesterol and regulating lipid metabolism, BG may alleviate the imbalances in lipid metabolism observed during NAFLD. The aim of our study was to investigate whether BG from highland barley has an effect on western diet-induced NAFLD in mice. Using lipidomics, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of BG intervention, and identified potential lipid biomarkers. The results reveal that BG (300 mg/kg body weight) significantly alleviated liver steatosis. Lipidomics analysis demonstrated that BG also altered lipid metabolic patterns. We were able to identify 13 differentially regulated lipid species that may be useful as lipid biomarkers. Several genes in the hepatic lipid and cholesterol metabolism pathways were also modulated. These findings provide evidence that BG ameliorates NAFLD by altering liver lipid metabolites and regulating lipid metabolism-related genes.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , beta-Glucanas , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hordeum/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipidômica , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9443-9450, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351749

RESUMO

Styrene is a food-borne toxicant in wheat beer and due to its classification as possibly carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 2002, mitigation strategies had to be developed. Aiming at understanding the impact of the barley to wheat malt ratio (grain bill) during mashing on the contents of soluble and free (i) cinnamic, (ii) p-coumaric, and (iii) ferulic acid, precursors of (i) styrene and the desired vinyl aromatics (ii) 4-vinylphenol and (iii) 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol in wheat beer, wort was prepared at four different barley to wheat malt ratios of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50, and 0:100 (w/w). Additionally, the malts were produced at different germination temperatures and aeration rates (12/32, 18/35, 18/25, 24/18, and 26/25 (°C; L/min)) to consider these two further parameters as well. Thereby, soluble and free phenolic acid contents in wort showed linear correlations to the percentage of wheat in the grain bill, highlighting the absence of synergistic effects when mixing barley and wheat malts. In contrast, the results described the phenolic acid contents as a function of the concentrations in the respective barley and wheat wort, multiplied by their percentage in the grain bill. However, a clear recommendation for favorable barley to wheat malt ratios leading to a decrease of soluble and free cinnamic acid in wort could not be made, as the contents in the present study proved to be highly dependent on the barley and wheat varieties used during mashing and the parameters applied during malting. This was not the case for p-coumaric acid for which a clear decrease of the soluble and free forms was found with increasing wheat malt contents. Differently, the soluble form of ferulic acid increased with an increasing percentage of wheat malt, while the free form decreased. The malting parameters clearly recommended high germination temperatures and low aeration rates when aiming at a reduction of undesired cinnamic acid in wort. Fortunately, soluble and free p-coumaric and ferulic acid contents were only slightly affected, indicating that the formation of the characteristic wheat beer aroma might not suffer when applying these favorable conditions for styrene reduction.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Cerveja/análise , Cinamatos , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Estireno/análise , Triticum
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9419-9433, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374283

RESUMO

Usage of sprouted grains is an increasing trend in thermally processed foods. Sprouting alters the composition of sugars and amino acids, which are Maillard reaction precursors. Free asparagine, total free amino acids, and sugars were monitored during sprouting and yeast and sourdough fermentations. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were analyzed in heated samples. The asparagine concentration decreased up to 40% after 24-36 h of sprouting, except for buckwheat, and then increased to the initial concentration after 48 h and several folds after 72 h. The increased amount of reducing sugars after sprouting caused higher acrylamide and HMF formation even if the asparagine concentration was lower. Acrylamide and HMF formation decreased after fermentation of sprouted wholemeal because sugars and asparagine were consumed by yeast. A pH drop of 3 units by sourdough fermentation decreased acrylamide formation but increased HMF formation. Results indicated that sprouted cereal products should be produced under controlled conditions to be used in heated foods.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum , Hordeum , Acrilamida , Asparagina , Avena , Fermentação , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Calefação , Temperatura Alta , Reação de Maillard , Secale , Açúcares , Triticum
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(31): 8591-8609, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319719

RESUMO

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is the fourth most cultivated crop in the world in terms of production volume, and it is also the most important raw material of the malting and brewing industries. Barley belongs to the grass (Poaceae) family and plays an important role in food security and food safety for both humans and livestock. With the global population set to reach 9.7 billion by 2050, but with less available and/or suitable land for agriculture, the use of biotechnology tools in breeding programs are of considerable importance in the quest to meet the growing food gap. Proteomics as a member of the "omics" technologies has become popular for the investigation of proteins in cereal crops and particularly barley and its related products such as malt and beer. This technology has been applied to study how proteins in barley respond to adverse environmental conditions including abiotic and/or biotic stresses, how they are impacted during food processing including malting and brewing, and the presence of proteins implicated in celiac disease. Moreover, proteomics can be used in the future to inform breeding programs that aim to enhance the nutritional value and broaden the application of this crop in new food and beverage products. Mass spectrometry analysis is a valuable tool that, along with genomics and transcriptomics, can inform plant breeding strategies that aim to produce superior barley varieties. In this review, recent studies employing both qualitative and quantitative mass spectrometry approaches are explored with a focus on their application in cultivation, manufacturing, processing, quality, and the safety of barley and its related products.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Cerveja/análise , Hordeum/genética , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteômica
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 789-798, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218207

RESUMO

Soil salinity stress causes osmotic/ionic imbalances and induces oxidative stress that causes cellular structure damage, perturbs metabolism, antioxidant system (comprising enzymatic and non-enzymatic components) and hence inhibits plant growth performance. In this study, we used genome-wide association scan (GWAS) in 174 diverse spring barley accessions which were exposed to salt stress under field conditions at the vegetative stage to uncover the genetic basis of antioxidant components and agronomic traits. High activities of enzymatic and content of non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed under salt stress compared to control conditions. Under salt stress, all the agronomic and yield-related traits were significantly reduced. Six genomic regions were associated with antioxidants and agronomic traits under salt stress conditions which were found to be linked with candidate genes. Several significant associations were physically located inside or near genes which are potentially involved in antioxidants. Two candidate genes at 2H (40,659,364 bp) and 7H (416,743,127 bp) were found to be involved in Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase/flavanone protein and Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, respectively. The allelic variation at SNP of BK_07 at 7H inside the GAPDH gene demonstrates a negative selection of accessions carrying A allele. This allele appears in cultivars with lower activity of enzymatic antioxidants e.g. superoxide dismutase and catalases under salt stress conditions. These accessions are predominantly two-rowed, cultivars, originated from Europe, and carrying photoperiod sensitive alleles. The detected associated molecular markers in this work are considered as an important source for selection of increased amount of antioxidant compounds in barley under stress conditions.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Alelos , Antioxidantes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hordeum/genética , Estresse Salino
20.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 950-957, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247109

RESUMO

Durable disease resistance genes such as the wheat gene Lr34 are valuable sources of resistance for agricultural breeding programs. Lr34 encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein involved in the transport of the phytohormone abscisic acid. Lr34 from wheat is functionally transferable to barley, maize, rice and sorghum. A pleiotropic effect of Lr34 induces the development of a senescence-like phenotype, referred to as leaf tip necrosis. We used Lr34-expressing wheat and transgenic barley plants to elucidate the role of abscisic acid in the development of leaf tip necrosis. Leaf tips in Lr34-expressing wheat and barley showed an accumulation of abscisic acid. No increase of Lr34 expression was detected in the leaf tip. Instead, the development of ectopic, Lr34-induced leaf tip necrosis after removing the leaf tip suggests an increased flux of abscisic acid towards the tip, where it accumulates and mediates the development of leaf tip necrosis. This redistribution of abscisic acid was also observed in adult transgenic barley plants with a high Lr34 expression level growing in the field and coincided with leaf tip necrosis as well as complete field resistance against Puccinia hordei and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. In a barley transgenic line with a lower Lr34 expression level, a quantitative resistance against Puccinia hordei was still observed, but without a significant redistribution of abscisic acid or apparent leaf tip necrosis. Thus, our results imply that fine-tuning the Lr34 expression level is essential to balance disease resistance versus leaf tip necrosis to deploy transgenic Lr34 in breeding programs.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Hordeum , Ácido Abscísico , Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Hordeum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Triticum/genética
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