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1.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(9): 1065-1073, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693466

RESUMO

Changes in the light energy distribution between the photosystems 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2, respectively) due to the reversible migration of a part of the light-harvesting complex (LHC2) between the photosystems (state transitions, ST) have been studied in leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Arabidopsis thaliana plants upon short-term illumination with light of various intensity that excited predominantly PS2. Changes in the ratio of fluorescence maxima at 745 and 685 nm in the low-temperature (77 K) fluorescence spectrum of chlorophyll a (Chl a) characterizing energy absorption by the PS1 and PS2, respectively, were insufficient for revealing the differences in the STs in barley and Arabidopsis plants at various light intensities, because they were not associated with STs at high-intensity illumination. Light-induced accumulation of the LHC2 phosphorylated proteins Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 involved in the relocation of a part of the LHC2 from PS2 to PS1 in the leaves of both plants decreased with the increase in the light intensity and was more pronounced in barley than in Arabidopsis at the same light intensity. Relaxation of the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of Chl a fluorescence after illumination corresponding to the return of the part of LHC2 from PS1 to PS2 was observed in barley leaves in a wider range of increasing light intensities than in Arabidopsis leaves. The differences in the accumulation of phosphorylated Lhcb1 and Lhcb2, as well as in the parameters of NPQ relaxation after illumination, revealed that STs in barley leaves could occur not only at low-but also at high-intensity light, when it is absent in Arabidopsis leaves.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Hordeum/efeitos da radiação , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Iluminação , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transferência de Energia/efeitos da radiação , Hordeum/metabolismo , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo
2.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(12): 1623-1634, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657673

RESUMO

Pathogenic fungi can have devastating effects on agriculture and health. One potential challenge in dealing with pathogens is the possibility of a host jump (i.e., when a pathogen infects a new host species). This can lead to the emergence of new diseases or complicate the management of existing threats. We studied host specificity by using a hybrid fungus formed by mating two closely related fungi: Ustilago bromivora, which normally infects Brachypodium spp., and U. hordei, which normally infects barley. Although U. hordei was unable to infect Brachypodium spp., the hybrid could. These hybrids also displayed the same mating-type bias that had been observed in U. bromivora and provide evidence of a dominant spore-killer-like system on the sex chromosome of U. bromivora. By analyzing the genomic composition of 109 hybrid strains, backcrossed with U. hordei over four generations, we identified three regions associated with infection on Brachypodium spp. and 75 potential virulence candidates. The most strongly associated region was located on chromosome 8, where seven genes encoding predicted secreted proteins were identified. The fact that we identified several regions relevant for pathogenicity on Brachypodium spp. but that none were essential suggests that host specificity, in the case of U. bromivora, is a multifactorial trait which can be achieved through different subsets of virulence factors.


Assuntos
Brachypodium , Ustilago , Brachypodium/microbiologia , Genômica , Hordeum/microbiologia , Hibridização Genética , Ustilago/genética , Ustilago/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética
3.
Plant Dis ; 103(12): 3259-3264, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600115

RESUMO

The root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus neglectus, is one of the most damaging nematodes to affect wheat worldwide. The nematode is widely distributed in Montana, primarily affecting winter wheat within the state. Managing the nematode primarily involves rotation to resistant and moderately resistant crops (peas, lentils, and barley). A nematode survey was conducted across the state nearly 10 years after an initial survey, to reassess the nematode threat and assess the impact of changing trends in crop rotations. To assess the broad applicability of rotation crops to control P. neglectus across Montana, greenhouse trials were conducted to challenge rotational crops using eight populations of P. neglectus collected from geographically diverse locations across the state. In the trials, conducted with four Montana crops, a significant interaction was detected between crop and nematode population (analysis of variance P < 0.001). Populations from Hill, Dawson, and Chouteau counties were found to be pathogenic on barley. Male nematodes were detected in seven of the eight pot culture populations, and these were confirmed to be P. neglectus by morphological and molecular methods. These results suggest a re-evaluation of barley and lentils as a management option for P. neglectus in Montana, as pathotypes for each exist within the state.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Hordeum/parasitologia , Masculino , Montana , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Triticum/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia
4.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(8): 578-591, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore how fermented barley extracts with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) affected the browning in adipocytes and obese rats. METHODS: In vitro, 3T3-L1 cells were induced by LFBE, raw barley extraction (RBE) and polyphenol compounds (PC) from LFBE to evaluate the adipocyte differentiation. In vivo, obese SD rats induced by high fat diet (HFD) were randomly divided into three groups treated with oral gavage: (a) normal control diet with distilled water, (b) HFD with distilled water, (c) HFD with 800 mg LFBE/kg body weight (bw). RESULTS: In vitro, LFBE and the PC in the extraction significantly inhibited adipogenesis and potentiated browning of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, rather than RBE. In vivo, we observed remarkable decreases in the body weight, serum lipid levels, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights and cell sizes of brown adipose tissues (BAT) in the LFBE group after 10 weeks. LFBE group could gain more mass of interscapular BAT (IBAT) and promote the dehydrogenase activity in the mitochondria. And LFBE may potentiate process of the IBAT thermogenesis and epididymis adipose tissue (EAT) browning via activating the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent mechanism to suppress the obesity. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that LFBE decreased obesity partly by increasing the BAT mass and the energy expenditure by activating BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning in a UCP1-dependent mechanism.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Fermentação , Hordeum/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6998-7007, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive or improper use of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) may adversely affect human health through the food chain. In the present study, a simple, rapid and effective analytical method was successfully established and used for the determination of OPPs quinalphos and its analogs in different food samples. RESULTS: Under the optimized experimental conditions, five OPPs (quinalphos, triazophos, parathion, fenthion and chlorpyrifos-methyl) exhibit a good linearity within a range of 0.02 to 2.0 µg mL-1 . The detection limit range was 3.0 to 10.0 µg L-1 (signal-to-noise ratio = 3). The method was successfully used to detect and quantify the residues of quinalphos and its analogs in tomato, cabbage, barley and water samples; all spiked samples gave satisfactory recovery rates for the target analytes of between 82% and 98%, with a relative SD of 3.6% to 7.8%. CONCLUSION: The results obtained show that the proposed method is an accurate, rapid and reliable sample pre-treatment method with respect to giving a good enrichment factor and detection limit for determining quinalphos pesticide residues in different food samples. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Compostos Organofosforados/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Brassica/química , Hordeum/química , Limite de Detecção , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 142: 246-253, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374377

RESUMO

Transcription factors such as MYB have previously been associated with the plant response to drought. In this work, studies on the function of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) transcription factor HvMYB1 show that gene expression is upregulated in wildtype barley roots and leaves under drought and osmotic stress. Transgenic barley plants that overexpress HvMYB1 were found to be more resistant to drought, showing enhanced relative water content and reduced water loss rate and stomatal conductance as compared to control plants. Levels of the osmolyte proline were enhanced as was expression of dehydrin HvDNH6 in the transgenic lines under drought conditions. The levels of the reactive oxygen species H2O2 were enhanced in wildtype roots and leaves by drought, but less so in the HvMYB1 overexpressing lines. Enzyme activity of the low affinity H2O2 degrading enzyme catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) was also lower in droughted HvMYB1 overexpressing lines. Gene expression of the high affinity ROS scavengers ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE and GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE was found to be constitutively high in the overexpressing lines, whereas CATALASE gene expression was similar to the control plants. These results suggest a role for HvMYB1 in protecting plants against drought in the vegetative plant by acting as a mediator of abscisic acid action.


Assuntos
Hordeum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Desidratação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Transpiração Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 341, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Barley is a low phosphorus (P) demand cereal crop. Tibetan wild barley, as a progenitor of cultivated barley, has revealed outstanding ability of tolerance to low-P stress. However, the underlying mechanisms of low-P adaption and the relevant genetic controlling are still unclear. RESULTS: We identified low-P tolerant barley lines in a doubled-haploid (DH) population derived from an elite Tibetan wild barley accession and a high-yield cultivar. The tolerant lines revealed greater root plasticity in the terms of lateral root length, compared to low-P sensitive lines, in response to low-P stress. By integrating the QTLs associated with root length and root transcriptomic profiling, candidate genes encoding isoflavone reductase, nitrate reductase, nitrate transporter and transcriptional factor MYB were identified. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved the growth of lateral root, Pi transport within cells as well as from roots to shoots contributed to the differences between low-P tolerant line L138 and low-P sensitive lines L73 in their ability of P acquisition and utilization. CONCLUSIONS: The plasticity of root system is an important trait for barley to tolerate low-P stress. The low-P tolerance in the elite DH line derived from a cross of Tibetan wild barley and cultivated barley is characterized by enhanced growth of lateral root and Pi recycling within plants under low-P stress.


Assuntos
Hordeum/fisiologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Fósforo/deficiência , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
8.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 139, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogens evolve in an arms race, frequently evolving virulence that defeats resistance genes in their hosts. Infection of multiple hosts may accelerate this virulence evolution. Theory predicts that host diversity affects pathogen diversity, with more diverse hosts expected to harbour more diverse pathogens that reproduce sexually. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the microsatellite (SSR) genetic diversity of the barley leaf pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt) from barley (monoculture) and barley grass (outbreeding). We also aim to investigate host specificity and attempt to track virulence on two barley cultivars, Maritime and Keel. RESULTS: Genetic diversity in barley Ptt populations was higher than in populations from barley grass. Barley Ptt populations also had higher linkage disequilibrium levels, indicating less frequent sexual reproduction, consistent with the Red Queen hypothesis theory that genetically diverse hosts should select for higher levels of sexual reproduction of the pathogen. SSR analyses indicate that host-associated Ptt populations do not share genotypes and have independent evolutionary histories. Pathogenicity studies showed host specificity as host-associated Ptt isolates could not cross-infect hosts. Minimum spanning network analyses indicated two major clusters of barley Ptt. One cluster represents Maritime virulent and isolates from Western Australia (WA). Low PhiPt population differentiation between WA populations and those from Maritime and Keel, indicated a WA origin of the Maritime and Keel virulences. The main minimum spanning network cluster is represented by a panmictic population structure, represented by isolates from all over Australia. CONCLUSIONS: Although barley Ptt populations are more diverse than barley grass Ptt populations, this may be a result of the size and number of founder Ptt populations to Australia, with larger and more barley Ptt populations introduced. More frequent sexual reproduction of Ptt on barley grass support the Red Queen Hypothesis and suggest evolutionary potential of pathogens on diverse hosts are high. Extensive gene flow of Ptt between regions in Australia is suggested to maintain a panmictic population structure, with human-mediated dispersal aiding in virulence evolution of Ptt on barley.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Hordeum/microbiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
9.
Food Chem ; 298: 124973, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261005

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to explore the underlying mechanisms involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple, blue, and white barley using quantitative proteomics analysis. We identified the differences in protein expression and related functions involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple, blue, and white barley (named H, M, and L groups, respectively, based on their anthocyanin content) using TMT-liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy-based proteomic methods. Totally, 297, 300, 254, and 1421 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were found in H vs. L, H vs. M, L vs. M, and H vs. L vs. M groups, respectively. Six clusters of proteins from the 1421 DEPs were mainly involved in carbon metabolism, amino acid and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and metabolic pathways. Several proteins were validated using parallel reaction monitoring. The proteins involved in amino acid biosynthesis, carbon metabolism, metabolic pathways, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were responsible for the color differences in the three barley varieties.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Hordeum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Pigmentação , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121704, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276990

RESUMO

Rhodococcus sp. YHY01 was studied to utilize various lignin derived aromatic compounds. It was able to utilize p-coumaric acid, cresol, and 2,6 dimethoxyphenol and resulted in biomass production i.e. 0.38 g dcw/L, 0.25 g dcw/L and 0.1 g dcw/L, and lipid accumulation i.e. 49%, 40%, 30%, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for p-coumaric acid (13.4 mM), cresol (7.9 mM), and 2,6 dimethoxyphenol (3.4 mM) was analyzed. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solubilized barley straw lignin fraction was used as a carbon source for Rhodococcus sp. YHY01 and resulted in 0.130 g dcw/L with 39% w/w lipid accumulation. Major fatty acids were palmitic acid (C16:0) 51.87%, palmitoleic acid (C16:l) 14.90%, and oleic acid (C18:1) 13.76%, respectively. Properties of biodiesel produced from barley straw lignin were as iodine value (IV) 27.25, cetane number (CN) 65.57, cold filter plugging point (CFPP) 14.36, viscosity (υ) 3.81, and density (ρ) 0.86.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Hordeum/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Rhodococcus/metabolismo , Biomassa , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lignina/química
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(25): 25802-25813, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270768

RESUMO

In the present study, a comparative analysis was performed on the extraction of nickel ions (Ni2+) from agricultural wastewater using nanosilica (NS) synthesized from barley (NS-B) and wheat (NS-W) grass waste with a yield of 92.4%. The experimental procedure was conducted on barley and wheat waste to obtain an 85% pure NS that served as the adsorbent for nickel extraction in wastewater. The NS was characterized and studied using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), which demonstrated that NS synthesized from barley contained 94.2% SiO2, while NS synthesized from wheat contained 93.0% SiO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to determine the surface morphology of the nanoparticles. The energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis were used to determine the elements and functional groups of the synthesized particles, respectively. Lastly, particle size and surface area analyses were performed using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, which determined that the nanoparticles were 70 and 102 nm for NS-B and NS-W, respectively. The adsorption of nickel ions from agricultural wastewater was studied at various concentrations (10-200 mg/L). The kinetic models indicate that sorption equilibrium time was 65 min and that the reaction followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics model with a regression coefficient (R2) of 0.9289. Corresponding studies indicated that the Freundlich isotherms best describe the sorption reaction with an R2 value of 0.9958, which indicates the multilayer adsorption of nickel on the adsorbent. In their standard and real states, the samples indicated that NS-B and NS-W provided high levels of nickel (Ni2+) removal at 95 and 90%, respectively.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Triticum/química , Águas Residuárias/análise , Adsorção , Agricultura , Cinética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanopartículas , Níquel , Tamanho da Partícula , Dióxido de Silício/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
12.
Plant Dis ; 103(9): 2252-2262, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298990

RESUMO

Spot blotch, caused by the fungal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus, is a limiting factor for barley (Hordeum vulgare) production in northeast China, which causes significant grain yield losses and kernel quality degradation. It is critical to determine the virulence diversity of C. sativus populations for barley resistance breeding and the judicious grouping of available resistance varieties according to the predominant pathotypes in disease epidemic regions. With little information on the barley pathogen in China, this study selected 12 typical barley genotypes to differentiate the pathotypes of C. sativus isolates collected in China. Seventy-one isolates were grouped into 19 Chinese pathotypes based on infection responses. Seventeen isolates were classified as pathotype 3, which has only been identified in China, whereas most (52 of 71) were classified as pathotype 1. All of the tested isolates had low virulence on the North Dakota (ND) durable, resistant line ND B112. Using 22 selected amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) primer combinations, genetic polymorphism was used to analyze 68 isolates, which clustered into three distinct groups using the unweighted pair group method average with the genetic distance coefficient. No relationship was found between the virulence of isolates and their origins. Isolates of the same pathotype or those collected from the same location did not group into clusters based on the AFLP analysis.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Variação Genética , Hordeum , Virulência , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , China , Hordeum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Virulência/genética
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 142: 303-311, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351321

RESUMO

microRNA393 (miR393) and its target module have been implicated as comprising a conserved mechanism to regulate developmental processes and plant growth in response to environmental signals through the auxin signaling pathway. Our previous work identified miR393 and its two targets in barley. In this study, we further investigated the expression pattern of miR393 and its biological functions in seedling growth and drought tolerance. We showed that the miR393 overexpressing line (OE) exhibited increased stomatal density with decreased guard cell length, while the miR393 knockdown line (MIM) displayed the opposite phenotype, which might be due to the effects of miR393 on AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR5 (ARF5) and three stomatal development-related genes, such as EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR1 (EPF1), SPEECHLESS (SPCH), and MUTE. In addition, the MIM line conferred enhanced drought tolerance, with alleviated leaf chlorosis and lipid peroxidation after 22 days drought treatment. In contrast, the OE line was more sensitive to drought stress and accumulated more malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide than the wild type. Furthermore, polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment-induced abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in leaves was suppressed in the OE line, indicating that miR393 might regulate drought stress response and tolerance through its interaction with ABA biosynthesis. Overall, these data suggest that miR393 might be a potential target for manipulation of stomatal density and improvement of drought tolerance in barley.


Assuntos
Hordeum/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Estômatos de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA de Plantas/fisiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Desidratação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Food Chem ; 299: 125095, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279124

RESUMO

Hydrogen gas (H2), a multifunctional signaling molecule, has received increasing attention in recent years. In the present study, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) (2 ppm) was used for the processing of sprouted black barley (Hordeum distichum L.), and the results showed that the HRW treatment could significantly increase the germination rate and growth rate of black barley (P < 0.05). A chemical component analysis showed that in sprouted black barley, the HRW treatment could change the distribution of phytochemicals (e.g., the ionic strength of guanosine), increase the concentrations of free vanillic acid, coumaric acid, sinapic acid, conjugated sinapic acid, Ca and Fe and the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate, and decrease the protein, fat, starch and dietary fibre contents compared with the results obtained after treatment with ultra-pure water (P < 0.05). HRW can be used for the processing of sprouted grains to effectively increase their germination efficiency and concentrations of bioactive phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Radical Hidroxila/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Amido/análise , Água/química , Água/farmacologia
15.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 303, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spatial distribution and colocalization of functionally related metabolites is analysed in order to investigate the spatial (and functional) aspects of molecular networks. We propose to consider community detection for the analysis of m/z-images to group molecules with correlative spatial distribution into communities so they hint at functional networks or pathway activity. To detect communities, we investigate a spectral approach by optimizing the modularity measure. We present an analysis pipeline and an online interactive visualization tool to facilitate explorative analysis of the results. The approach is illustrated with synthetical benchmark data and two real world data sets (barley seed and glioblastoma section). RESULTS: For the barley sample data set, our approach is able to reproduce the findings of a previous work that identified groups of molecules with distributions that correlate with anatomical structures of the barley seed. The analysis of glioblastoma section data revealed that some molecular compositions are locally focused, indicating the existence of a meaningful separation in at least two areas. This result is in line with the prior histological knowledge. In addition to confirming prior findings, the resulting graph structures revealed new subcommunities of m/z-images (i.e. metabolites) with more detailed distribution patterns. Another result of our work is the development of an interactive webtool called GRINE (Analysis of GRaph mapped Image Data NEtworks). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method was successfully applied to identify molecular communities of laterally co-localized molecules. For both application examples, the detected communities showed inherent substructures that could easily be investigated with the proposed visualization tool. This shows the potential of this approach as a complementary addition to pixel clustering methods.


Assuntos
Visualização de Dados , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Glioblastoma/patologia , Hordeum , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/química
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146387

RESUMO

Domestication and breeding have created productive crops that are adapted to the climatic conditions of their growing regions. Initially, this process solely relied on the frequent occurrence of spontaneous mutations and the recombination of resultant gene variants. Later, treatments with ionizing radiation or mutagenic chemicals facilitated dramatically increased mutation rates, which remarkably extended the genetic diversity of crop plants. However, a major drawback of conventionally induced mutagenesis is that genetic alterations occur simultaneously across the whole genome and at very high numbers per individual plant. By contrast, the newly emerging Cas endonuclease technology allows for the induction of mutations at user-defined positions in the plant genome. In fundamental and breeding-oriented research, this opens up unprecedented opportunities for the elucidation of gene functions and the targeted improvement of plant performance. This review covers historical aspects of the development of customizable endonucleases, information on the mechanisms of targeted genome modification, as well as hitherto reported applications of Cas endonuclease technology in barley and wheat that are the agronomically most important members of the temperate cereals. Finally, current trends in the further development of this technology and some ensuing future opportunities for research and biotechnological application are presented.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Hordeum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Triticum/genética
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1-9, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170590

RESUMO

The global climate change is related with greenhouse gas emission from cultivated soils - carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. The emissions of N2O also have negative influence on ozone layer of our planet. The major source of the nitrous oxide is denitrification process in soil, which controlled by specific soil microbe society. The pot experiment with flooding to accelerate the denitrification process and the application of the monosilicic acid as a source of soluble form of Si was carried out with barley. Several forms of nitrous oxide emission (unlimited carbon denitrification and potential denitrification with or without ethylene application) were measured. The obtained data showed that the application of monosilicic acid to brown soil when growing barley under conditions of soil flooding has a significant effect on nitrogen emission and can change the N2O:N2 ratio. The application of the monosilicic acid reduced the uC-D N2O emission, while increased the PD N emission. Generally the application of the water soluble Si decreased the N2O:N2 ratio. We suggested that the presence of monosilicic acid in the system provides a more complete denitrification process with the formation of N2 in the NO3- → NO2- → NO→N2O → N2 reaction sequence, while the deficiency of bioactive Si mainly provides the formation and emission of N2O. Considering that N2 is not a greenhouse gas, we can conclude that application of monosilicic acid to the soil can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce the impact of global climate change on agricultural activity.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Inundações , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Silício , Dióxido de Carbono , Mudança Climática , Desnitrificação , Fertilizantes , Metano , Nitrogênio
18.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 41-61, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183604

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Several classes of transcription factors are involved in the activation of defensins. A new type of the transcription factor responsible for the regulation of wheat grain specific defensins was characterised in this work. HD-Zip class IV transcription factors constitute a family of multidomain proteins. A full-length cDNA of HD-Zip IV, designated TaGL7 was isolated from the developing grain of bread wheat, using a specific DNA sequence as bait in the Y1H screen. 3D models of TaGL7 HD complexed with DNA cis-elements rationalised differences that underlined accommodations of binding and non-binding DNA, while the START-like domain model predicted binding of lipidic molecules inside a concave hydrophobic cavity. The 3'-untranslated region of TaGL7 was used as a probe to isolate the genomic clone of TdGL7 from a BAC library prepared from durum wheat. The spatial and temporal activity of the TdGL7 promoter was tested in transgenic wheat, barley and rice. TdGL7 was expressed mostly in ovary at fertilisation and its promoter was active in a liquid endosperm during cellularisation and later in the endosperm transfer cells, aleurone, and starchy endosperm. The pattern of TdGL7 expression resembled that of genes that encode grain-specific lipid transfer proteins, particularly defensins. In addition, GL7 expression was upregulated by mechanical wounding, similarly to defensin genes. Co-bombardment of cultured wheat cells with TdGL7 driven by constitutive promoter and seven grain or root specific defensin promoters fused to GUS gene, revealed activation of four promoters. The data confirmed the previously proposed role of HD-Zip IV transcription factors in the regulation of genes that encode lipid transfer proteins involved in lipid transport and defence. The TdGL7 promoter could be used to engineer cereal grains with enhanced resistance to insects and fungal infections.


Assuntos
Defensinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 756-761, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154200

RESUMO

Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Nitro-PAHs) as important organic pollutants are ubiquitous in the atmospheric environment, agricultural soils and aquatic environments to pose a severe polluting risk. However, little is known about the mechanism of Nitro-PAHs genotoxicity in plants. We analyzed seeds germination, seedlings growth, and toxicity mechanism following 1-Nitropyrene treatment in Hordeum vulgare. Our results reveal that 1-NP treatment could be an inhibited agent on seeds germination and growth of roots and shoots. Additionally, the reduction of mitotic index and the increasing frequency of micronucleus suggest that 1-NP may pose a potential risk of genotoxicity in the plant. We further clarify that O2- and H2O2 radicals contribute to 1-NP stimulation induced oxidative damage. Our study provides insights into the role of Nitro-PAHs exposure on growth processing toxicity and genotoxicity in plant and provided a useful reference for the surveillance and risk management of Nitro-PAHs in environments.


Assuntos
Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pirenos/toxicidade
20.
Food Chem ; 293: 32-40, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151618

RESUMO

Low alcohol hulless barley wine (HW) is a popular beverage among the highland areas in China. It is known to have several health benefits due to the presence of ß-glucan and antioxidant compounds. Therefore, the total ß-glucan content, total phenols and flavonoids of HW samples from the highland areas of Sichuan province and Tibet were determined in this study. The results indicated that HW is abundant in both ß-glucan (54-76 mg/L) and phenolic compounds (131-178 mg/L). Moreover, this study also investigated the flavor and aroma characteristics of HW samples. A total of forty six volatile aroma substances were identified by GC-MS. The HWs could be classified into three distinct groups in terms of the region of origin according to the results of PCA based on the GC-MS data. These findings provide a useful foundation for further study of the health benefits and the flavor characteristics of HW in highland areas.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/análise , Hordeum/química , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , beta-Glucanas/análise , China , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hordeum/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Paladar
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