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1.
Planta ; 253(1): 5, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387045

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Dormancy in white-grained wheat is conditioned by the cumulative effects of several QTL that delay the onset of the capacity to germinate during ripening and after-ripening. Grain dormancy at harvest-ripeness is a major component of resistance to preharvest sprouting in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and an important trait in regions where rain is common during the harvest period. Breeding lines developed in Australia maintained their dormancy phenotype over multiple seasons and during grain ripening, the time between anthesis and the acquisition of the capacity to germinate, dormancy release, increased in line with the strength of dormancy. Genetic dissection of two dormant lines indicated that dormancy was due to the cumulative action of between one and three major genetic loci and several minor loci. This presents a significant challenge for breeders targeting environments with a high risk of sprouting where strong dormancy is desirable. Only around half of the difference in dormancy between the dormant lines and a non-dormant variety could be attributed to the major genetic loci on chromosomes 4A and 3A. A QTL that was mapped on chromosome 5A may be an orthologue of a minor QTL for dormancy in barley. At each locus, the dormancy allele increased the time to dormancy release during ripening. In combination, these alleles had cumulative effects. Embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid was related to the dormancy phenotype of the whole caryopsis, however, changes in concentrations of abscisic acid and gibberellins in embryo sections and de-embryonated grains during ripening and after-ripening could not be linked to the timing of dormancy release.


Assuntos
Dormência de Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Germinação/genética , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430526

RESUMO

The content and composition of starch in cereal grains are closely related to yield. Few studies have been done on the identification of the genes or loci associated with these traits in barley. This study was conducted to identify the genes or loci controlling starch traits in barley grains, including total starch (TS), amylose (AC) and amylopectin (AP) contents. A large genotypic variation was found in all examined starch traits. GWAS analysis detected 13, 2, 10 QTLs for TS, AC and AP, respectively, and 5 of them were commonly shared by AP and TS content. qTS-3.1, qAC-6.2 and qAP-5.1 may explain the largest variation of TS, AC and AP, respectively. Four putative candidate genes, i.e., HORVU6Hr1G087920, HORVU5Hr1G011230, HORVU5Hr1G011270 and HORVU5Hr1G011280, showed the high expression in the developing barley grains when starch accumulates rapidly. The examined 100 barley accessions could be divided into two groups based on the polymorphism of the marker S5H_29297679, with 93 accessions having allele GG and seven accessions having AA. Moreover, significantly positive correlation was found between the number of favorable alleles of the identified QTLs and TS, AC, AP content. In conclusion, the identified loci or genes in this study could be useful for genetic improvement of grains starch in barley.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/genética , Amilose/genética , Hordeum/genética , Amido/genética , Alelos , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5138, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046693

RESUMO

Grasses have varying inflorescence shapes; however, little is known about the genetic mechanisms specifying such shapes among tribes. Here, we identify the grass-specific TCP transcription factor COMPOSITUM 1 (COM1) expressing in inflorescence meristematic boundaries of different grasses. COM1 specifies branch-inhibition in barley (Triticeae) versus branch-formation in non-Triticeae grasses. Analyses of cell size, cell walls and transcripts reveal barley COM1 regulates cell growth, thereby affecting cell wall properties and signaling specifically in meristematic boundaries to establish identity of adjacent meristems. COM1 acts upstream of the boundary gene Liguleless1 and confers meristem identity partially independent of the COM2 pathway. Furthermore, COM1 is subject to purifying natural selection, thereby contributing to specification of the spike inflorescence shape. This meristem identity pathway has conceptual implications for both inflorescence evolution and molecular breeding in Triticeae.


Assuntos
Hordeum/metabolismo , Inflorescência/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inflorescência/genética , Inflorescência/metabolismo , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111193, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890924

RESUMO

Rare earth elements (REEs) have received enormous attention in recent years. However, there are many gaps in the understanding of their behavior in the soil-plant system. The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior of three most common REEs (La, Ce, Nd) in the soil-plant system directly on soil samples using barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in a vegetation experiment. We attribute the absence of significant changes in plant biomass and photosynthetic pigment content to the reduced availability of REEs in soil samples. The concentration of water-soluble forms of La, Ce and Nd didn't exceed 1 mg/kg, while the concentration of exchangeable forms varied and decreased in a row La > Ce > Nd. The transfer factor (TF) from soil to above-ground biomass was low for all three elements (<1). The stem-to-leaf TF increased with the increase in REEs concentration in soil. The concentration in plant material increased in the row Ce < Nd < La. REEs concentrations in barley leaves didn't exceed 1-3% of the corresponding element concentration in soil samples. REEs concentration in plant tissues is in close direct correlation with the REEs total concentration in soil, water-soluble and exchange forms. REEs concentration in barley leaves is 3-4 times higher than in the stems and for the group with extraneous concentration of 200 mg/kg for La, Ce and Nd was 6.20 ± 1.48, 2.10 ± 0.51, 6.90 ± 3.00 mg/kg, respectively. We show that there were no major changes in barley plants, but further study is needed of the relationship between the absorption of lanthanides by plants and the content of various forms of lanthanides in the soil.


Assuntos
Cério/análise , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lantânio/análise , Neodímio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Transporte Biológico , Biomassa , Cério/metabolismo , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Lantânio/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Neodímio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236037, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701981

RESUMO

Soil salinity imposes an agricultural and economic burden that may be alleviated by identifying the components of salinity tolerance in barley, a major crop and the most salt tolerant cereal. To improve our understanding of these components, we evaluated a diversity panel of 377 two-row spring barley cultivars during both the vegetative, in a controlled environment, and the reproductive stages, in the field. In the controlled environment, a high-throughput phenotyping platform was used to assess the growth-related traits under both control and saline conditions. In the field, the agronomic traits were measured from plots irrigated with either fresh or saline water. Association mapping for the different components of salinity tolerance enabled us to detect previously known associations, such as HvHKT1;5. Using an "interaction model", which took into account the interaction between treatment (control and salt) and genetic markers, we identified several loci associated with yield components related to salinity tolerance. We also observed that the two developmental stages did not share genetic regions associated with the components of salinity tolerance, suggesting that different mechanisms play distinct roles throughout the barley life cycle. Our association analysis revealed that genetically defined regions containing known flowering genes (Vrn-H3, Vrn-H1, and HvNAM-1) were responsive to salt stress. We identified a salt-responsive locus (7H, 128.35 cM) that was associated with grain number per ear, and suggest a gene encoding a vacuolar H+-translocating pyrophosphatase, HVP1, as a candidate. We also found a new QTL on chromosome 3H (139.22 cM), which was significant for ear number per plant, and a locus on chromosome 2H (141.87 cM), previously identified using a nested association mapping population, which associated with a yield component and interacted with salinity stress. Our study is the first to evaluate a barley diversity panel for salinity stress under both controlled and field conditions, allowing us to identify contributions from new components of salinity tolerance which could be used for marker-assisted selection when breeding for marginal and saline regions.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Genótipo , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Pirofosfatase Inorgânica/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Solo/química
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0229372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433686

RESUMO

We report the earliest and the most abundant archaeobotanical assemblage of southwest Asian grain crops from Early Bronze Age Central Asia, recovered from the Chap II site in Kyrgyzstan. The archaeobotanical remains consist of thousands of cultivated grains dating to the mid-late third millennium BCE. The recovery of cereal chaff and weeds suggest local cultivation at 2000 m.a.s.l., as crops first spread to the mountains of Central Asia. The site's inhabitants possibly cultivated two types of free-threshing wheats, glume wheats, and hulled and naked barleys. Highly compact caryopses of wheat and barley grains represent distinct morphotypes of cereals adapted to highland environments. While additional macrobotanical evidence is needed to confirm the presence of glume wheats at Chap II, the possible identification of glume wheats at Chap II may represent their most eastern distribution in Central Asia. Based on the presence of weed species, we argue that the past environment of Chap II was characterized by an open mountain landscape, where animal grazing likely took place, which may have been further modified by people irrigating agricultural fields. This research suggests that early farmers in the mountains of Central Asia cultivated compact morphotypes of southwest Asian crops during the initial eastward dispersal of agricultural technologies, which likely played a critical role in shaping montane adaptations and dynamic interaction networks between farming societies across highland and lowland cultivation zones.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Produtos Agrícolas/história , Grão Comestível/história , Ásia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , História Antiga , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Milhetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407405

RESUMO

Intercropping legumes with cereals has been a common cropping system in short-season rainfed environments due to its increased productivity and sustainability. Intercropping barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) could increase the grain yield of barley and improve resource use efficiency of the intercropping system. However, non-optimum planting geometry has been a hurdle in the adaptation of barley-based cropping systems. This study was aimed at optimizing the planting geometry, and assess the productivity and profitability of barley-Egyptian clover intercropping system. Ten different planting geometries, differing in number of rows of barley, width and number of irrigation furrows and planting method were tested. Intercropping barley with Egyptian clover improved 56-68% grain yield of barley compared with mono-cropped barley. Barley remained dominant crop in terms of aggressiveness, relative crowding coefficient and competitive ratio. The amount of water used was linearly increased with increasing size of barley strip from 3 to 8 rows. The highest water use efficiency (4.83 kg/cf3) was recorded for 8-row barley strip system with 120 cm irrigation furrows compared to rest of the planting geometries. In conclusion, 8-rows of barley planted on beds with Egyptian clover in 120 cm irrigation furrows had the highest net income and cost benefit ratio. Therefore, it is recommended that this planting geometry can be used for better economic returns of barley-Egyptian clover intercropping system. However, barley strips with >8 rows were not included in this study, which is limitation of the current study. Therefore, future studies with >8 barley rows in strip should be conducted to infer the economic feasibility and profitability of wider barley strips.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Clima Desértico , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trifolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima Tropical , Agricultura/economia , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Solo , Água
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232665, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401769

RESUMO

Genomic selection has been extensively implemented in plant breeding schemes. Genomic selection incorporates dense genome-wide markers to predict the breeding values for important traits based on information from genotype and phenotype records on traits of interest in a reference population. To date, most relevant investigations have been performed using single trait genomic prediction models (STGP). However, records for several traits at once are usually documented for breeding lines in commercial breeding programs. By incorporating benefits from genetic characterizations of correlated phenotypes, multiple trait genomic prediction (MTGP) may be a useful tool for improving prediction accuracy in genetic evaluations. The objective of this study was to test whether the use of MTGP and including proper modeling of spatial effects can improve the prediction accuracy of breeding values in commercial barley and wheat breeding lines. We genotyped 1,317 spring barley and 1,325 winter wheat lines from a commercial breeding program with the Illumina 9K barley and 15K wheat SNP-chip (respectively) and phenotyped them across multiple years and locations. Results showed that the MTGP approach increased correlations between future performance and estimated breeding value of yields by 7% in barley and by 57% in wheat relative to using the STGP approach for each trait individually. Analyses combining genomic data, pedigree information, and proper modeling of spatial effects further increased the prediction accuracy by 4% in barley and 3% in wheat relative to the model using genomic relationships only. The prediction accuracy for yield in wheat and barley yield trait breeding, were improved by combining MTGP and spatial effects in the model.


Assuntos
Hordeum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Triticum/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genoma de Planta , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232896, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401785

RESUMO

Optimizing barley (hordeum vulgare L.) production in Idaho and other parts of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) should focus on farm resource management. The effect of post-harvest residue management on barley residue decomposition has not been adequately studied. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of residue placement (surface vs. incorporated), residue size (chopped vs. ground-sieved) and soil type (sand and sandy loam) on barley residue decomposition. A 50-day(d) laboratory incubation experiment was conducted at a temperature of 25°C at the Aberdeen Research and Extension Center, Aberdeen, Idaho, USA. Following the study, a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) modeling approach was applied to investigate the first-order decay kinetics of barley residue. An accelerated initial flush of residue carbon(C)-mineralization was measured for the sieved (Day 1) compared to chopped (Day 3 to 5) residues for both surface incorporated applications. The highest evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2)-C of 8.3 g kg-1 dry residue was observed on Day 1 from the incorporated-sieved application for both soils. The highest and lowest amount of cumulative CO2-C released and percentage residue decomposed over 50-d was observed for surface-chopped (107 g kg-1 dry residue and 27%, respectively) and incorporated-sieved (69 g kg-1 dry residue and 18%, respectively) residues, respectively. There were no significant differences in C-mineralization from barley residue based on soil type or its interactions with residue placement and size (p >0.05). The largest decay constant k of 0.0083 d-1 was calculated for surface-chopped residue where the predicted half-life was 80 d, which did not differ from surface sieved or incorporated chopped. In contrast, incorporated-sieved treatments only resulted in a k of 0.0054 d-1 and would need an additional 48 d to decompose 50% of the residue. Future residue decomposition studies under field conditions are warranted to verify the residue C-mineralization and its impact on residue management.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Hordeum/química , Idaho , Cadeias de Markov , Nitrogênio/análise , Temperatura
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232056, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324773

RESUMO

Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is the efficiency with which plants acquire and use nitrogen. Plants have high-affinity nitrate transport systems, which involve certain nitrate transporter (NRT) genes. However, limited data are available on the contribution of the NRT2/3 gene family in barley nitrate transport. In the present study, ten putative NRT2 and three putative NRT3 genes were identified using bioinformatics methods. All the HvNRT2/3 genes were located on chromosomes 3H, 5H, 6H or 7H. Remarkably, the presence of tandem repeats indicated that duplication events contributed to the expansion of the NRT2 gene family in barley. In addition, the HvNRT2/3 genes displayed various expression patterns at selected developmental stages and were induced in the roots by both low and high nitrogen levels. Furthermore, the overexpression of HvNRT2.1 improved the yield related traits in Arabidopsis. Taken together, the data generated in the present study will be useful for genome-wide analyses to determine the precise role of the HvNRT2/3 genes during barley development, with the ultimate goal of improving NUE and crop production.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Nitratos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231976, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324789

RESUMO

The two alkaloids gramine and hordenine have been known for playing a role in the allelopathic ability in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). These allelochemicals can be both found in leaves and roots in some barley cultivars whereas in others one seems to exclude the other. In this study eighteen accessions of barley from the Middle-East area, one accession from Tibet and the modern spring cultivar Barke, already used as parental donor in a nested associated mapping (NAM) population, were screened for their gramine, hordenine and N-methyltyramine (the direct precursor of hordenine) content in leaves, roots and exudates. Moreover, the toxicity of the three allelochemicals on root growth inhibition on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was evaluated. Results of this study showed the preferential production of gramine and hordenine in leaves and roots, respectively, in the nineteen barley accessions. On the other hand, in the modern barley cultivar Barke, the highest content of hordenine in roots and the general lack of gramine suggests a favored biosynthesis of the former. Gramine was not detected in the root exudates. In additions, different metabolomic profiles were observed in wild relatives compared to modern barley genotypes. The results also showed the phytotoxic effects of the three compounds on root growth of lettuce seedlings, with a reduction in root length and an increase of root surface area and diameter. In conclusion, this study highlighted the impact of the domestication effects on the production and distribution of the two allelopathic alkaloids gramine and hordenine in barley.


Assuntos
Alelopatia , Genótipo , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Filogenia , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alcaloides Indólicos/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Especificidade da Espécie , Tiramina/análogos & derivados , Tiramina/metabolismo
12.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(5): 714-720, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270217

RESUMO

The study explored the Sb toxicity by investigating the impacts of 10% and 20% effective concentrations (EC10 and EC20, respectively) of Sb on the inhibition of barley root elongation in 21 Chinese soils with a wide range of physicochemical properties after aging for 3 months. The results demonstrated that various soil properties profoundly influenced the Sb toxicity which was ranged from 201-2506 mg Sb kg-1 to 323-2973 mg Sb kg-1 under EC10 and EC20, respectively. Soil sand fraction was a significant soil factor responsible for elevating Sb bioavailability. The bioavailable Sb concentration accounted for 2.08%-11.94% of total Sb content in all 21 soil samples and the decreased Sb bioavailability in this study was attributed to soil properties including soil clay fraction, amorphous and crystalloid iron, and oxides of manganese and aluminum. The findings would contribute in developing Sb toxicity threshold for establishing standard for Sb regulation in crop production.


Assuntos
Antimônio/toxicidade , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Antimônio/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óxidos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3347, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099054

RESUMO

Genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic prediction (GP) are extensively employed to accelerate genetic gain and identify QTL in plant breeding. In this study, 1,317 spring barley and 1,325 winter wheat breeding lines from a commercial breeding program were genotyped with the Illumina 9 K barley or 15 K wheat SNP-chip, and phenotyped in multiple years and locations. For GWAS, in spring barley, a QTL on chr. 4H associated with powdery mildew and ramularia resistance were found. There were several SNPs on chr. 4H showing genome-wide significance with yield traits. In winter wheat, GWAS identified two SNPs on chr. 6A, and one SNP on chr. 1B, significantly associated with quality trait moisture, as well as one SNP located on chr. 5B associated with starch content in the seeds. The significant SNPs identified by multiple trait GWAS were generally the same as those found in single trait GWAS. GWAS including genotype-location information in the model identified significant SNPs in each tested location, which were not found previously when including all locations in the GWAS. For GP, in spring barley, GP using the Bayesian Power Lasso model had higher accuracy than ridge regression BLUP in powdery mildew and yield traits, whereas the prediction accuracies were similar using Bayesian Power Lasso model and rrBLUP for yield traits in winter wheat.


Assuntos
Hordeum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/genética , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Teorema de Bayes , Cruzamento , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Genótipo , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estações do Ano , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/microbiologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075298

RESUMO

Improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is very important for crops throughout the world. Rice mainly utilizes ammonium as an N source, but it also has four NRT2 genes involved in nitrate transport. The OsNRT2.3b transporter is important for maintaining cellular pH under mixed N supplies. Overexpression of this transporter driven by a ubiquitin promoter in rice greatly improved yield and NUE. This strategy for improving the NUE of crops may also be important for other cereals such as wheat and barley, which also face the challenges of nutrient uptake balance. To test this idea, we constructed transgenic barley lines overexpressing OsNRT2.3b. These transgenic barley lines overexpressing the rice transporter exhibited improved growth, yield, and NUE. We demonstrated that NRT2 family members and the partner protein HvNAR2.3 were also up-regulated by nitrate treatment (0.2 mM) in the transgenic lines. This suggests that the expression of OsNRT2.3b and other HvNRT2 family members were all up-regulated in the transgenic barley to increase the efficiency of N uptake and usage. We also compared the ubiquitin (Ubi) and a phloem-specific (RSs1) promoter-driven expression of OsNRT2.3b. The Ubi promoter failed to improve nutrient uptake balance, whereas the RSs1 promoter succeed in increasing the N, P, and Fe uptake balance. The nutrient uptake enhancement did not include Mn and Mg. Surprisingly, we found that the choice of promoter influenced the barley phenotype, not only increasing NUE and grain yield, but also improving nutrient uptake balance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/genética , Transporte Biológico/genética , Hordeum/genética , Oryza/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes/genética , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 179, 2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932698

RESUMO

Melanins are a class of darkly pigmented biopolymers which are widely distributed among living organisms. The molecular and cellular mechanisms adopted by bacteria, fungi and animals to synthesize melanin, have been well described, but less is known regarding their production in plants. Here, a pair of barley near isogenic lines, bred to differ with respect to the pigmentation of the spike, was compared in order to understand the tissue and cellular location of melanin deposition. The melanic nature of the pigments purified from black spikes was confirmed by a series of solubility tests and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. An analysis of grains harvested at various stages of their development revealed that intracellular pigmented structures first appeared in the pericarp and the husk of black spike plants at early dough stage. The co-localization of these structures with red autofluorescence suggested that they form in chloroplast-derived plastids, here designated "melanoplasts". Differences in dynamics of plastid internal structure during grain ripening were detected between the lines by transmission electron microscopy. Both lines accumulated plastoglobuli inside plastids, which persisted in black grain pericarp tissue up to the hard dough stage, while neither plastoglobuli nor any plastids were observed in grain of the control line at this stage. The role of plastoglobuli in melanin synthesis is discussed.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Pigmentação
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935789

RESUMO

Hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum) is one of the most important crops in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Soil salinity seriously affects its cultivation. To investigate the mechanism of salt stress response during seed germination, two contrasting hulless barley genotypes were selected to first investigate the molecular mechanism of seed salinity response during the germination stage using RNA-sequencing and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation technologies. Compared to the salt-sensitive landrace lk621, the salt-tolerant one lk573 germinated normally under salt stress. The changes in hormone contents also differed between lk621 and lk573. In lk573, 1597 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 171 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were specifically detected at 4 h after salt stress, and correspondingly, 2748 and 328 specifically detected at 16 h. Most specific DEGs in lk573 were involved in response to oxidative stress, biosynthetic process, protein localization, and vesicle-mediated transport, and most specific DEPs were assigned to an oxidation-reduction process, carbohydrate metabolic process, and protein phosphorylation. There were 96 genes specifically differentially expressed at both transcriptomic and proteomic levels in lk573. These results revealed the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance and provided candidate genes for further study and salt-tolerant improvement in hulless barley.


Assuntos
Germinação , Hordeum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteoma/genética , Estresse Salino , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936315

RESUMO

The influence of stress factors on the plant can, on the one hand, lead to worse functioning of the plant and loss of its crop, but on the other, it can have a positive effect on the metabolism of compounds with documented biological activity. In this study, the effect of light and drought intensity on photosynthetic activity and physiological status of two barley varieties, as well as the antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and profile of polyphenolic compounds of green barley were analysed. It was shown that under the conditions of water shortage, the KWS Olof variety showed a smaller decrease in CO2 assimilation and transpiration and higher values of these parameters at both light intensities. Only in the KWS Olof variety increased stress as a result of increased light intensity. It has also been shown that both the intensity of radiation and drought-related stress have a significant impact on the profile of polyphenolic compounds from green barley, without a simple relationship between the impact of stress factors on the content of polyphenols. Changes in the profile of polyphenolic compounds augmented the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the material. This, in turn, proposes the possibility of reducing the applied doses of herbal material thanks to a greater content of active substances in extracts obtained from the plants used to produce medicinal preparations.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Hordeum/química , Polifenóis/química , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dióxido de Carbono , Secas , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese/genética , Polifenóis/classificação , Água/química
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 1064-1070, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917563

RESUMO

The present study aims to evaluate the effect of the growth conditions and the cultivar on the total and water-extractable (W-E) arabinoxylan (AX) in barley. For this purpose, nine barley varieties from two different years were analyzed. The total AX content ranged from 5.97 to 8.98 wt % d.m., while the W-E AX ranged from 0.06 to 0.35 wt % d.m. The W-E AX molecular properties were characterized by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC)-triple detector array (TDA). The molecular weight was between 2.3 × 105 and 12.6 × 105 Da, the polydispersity was between moderate and broad (1.1 < Mw/Mn < 4.3), and the conformation was a stiff semiflexible coil (0.5 < α < 1.3). The results indicate that the year influences the content of total AX and W-E AX and some molecular characteristics of W-E AX, such as its polydispersity and its conformation. Finally, the results demonstrated that the W-E AX can be used as an index of the malting attitude of barley because it positively correlates with germinative energy and kernel dimension.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Xilanos/química , Cromatografia em Gel , Hordeum/classificação , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Molecular , Sementes/química , Sementes/classificação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Biotechnol Lett ; 42(2): 305-311, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate an improvement of barley germination by application of biochar leacheate in the steeping solution for upgrading malt quality. RESULTS: Barley germination was improved when biochar leacheate was used in the steeping water during the first steeping cycle. A clear decrease in the time to reach 50% of final germination percentage was detected due to an addition of biochar leacheate, but no significant difference was observed in the percent germination at the end of germination. Hydrolase activities including α-amylase, proteinase and ß-glucanase in barley grains were maximally increased during the malting process when 10% biochar leacheate was added to the first steeping water. The wort yielding indexes including both glucose and maltose content and the free amino nitrogen content were significantly increased but the ß-glucan content was significantly decreased at a level of p < 0.05 when 10% biochar leacheate was added to the steeping water. CONCLUSIONS: Biochar leacheate could be used as a stimulator in the steeping solution during the first steeping cycle to improve barley germination and so upgrade malt quality.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
20.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125163, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677518

RESUMO

The use of fungicides bears the risk of many undesirable outcomes that are manifested in, among other things, changes in the structure and activity of microorganisms. This study aimed at determining the effect of a Helicur 250 EW preparation, used to protect crops against fungal diseases, on the microbiological and biochemical activity of soil and on the development of Horderum vulgare L. The fungicide was sprayed on leaves of spring barley in the following doses (per active substance, i.e. tebuconazole, TEB): 0.046, 0.093, 0.139, 1.395, and 2.790 mg TEB plant-1. The following indices were analyzed in the study: index of microorganisms resistance (RS) to the effects of fungicide, microorganisms colony development index (CD), microorganisms ecophysiological diversity index (EP), genetic diversity of bacteria, enzymatic activity, and effect of the fungicide on spring barley development (IFH). The most susceptible to the effects of the fungicide turned out to be fungi. The metagenomic analysis demonstrated that the bacterial community differed in terms of structure and percentage contribution in the soil exposed to the fungicide from the control soil even at the Phylum level. However, Proteobacteria appeared to be the prevailing taxon in both soils. Bacillus arabhattai, B. soli, and B. simplex occurred exclusively in the control soil, whereas Ramlibacter tataounensis, Azospirillum palatum, and Kaistobacter terrae - exclusively in the soil contaminated with the fungicide. Helicur 250 EW suppressed activities of all soil enzymes except for arylsulfatase. In addition, it proved to be a strong inhibitor of spring barley growth and development.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo/normas , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triazóis/toxicidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/enzimologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/enzimologia , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Metagenoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triazóis/análise
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