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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675085

RESUMO

Photosynthetic capacity is usually affected by light intensity in the field. In this study, photosynthetic characteristics of four different Triticeae crops (wheat, triticale, barley, and highland barley) were investigated based on chlorophyll fluorescence and the level of photosynthetic proteins under high light. Compared with wheat, three cereals (triticale, barley, and highland barley) presented higher photochemical efficiency and heat dissipation under normal light and high light for 3 h, especially highland barley. In contrast, lower photoinhibition was observed in barley and highland barley relative to wheat and triticale. In addition, barley and highland barley showed a lower decline in D1 and higher increase in Lhcb6 than wheat and triticale under high light. Furthermore, compared with the control, the results obtained from PSII protein phosphorylation showed that the phosphorylation level of PSII reaction center proteins (D1 and D2) was higher in barley and highland barley than that of wheat and triticale. Therefore, we speculated that highland barley can effectively alleviate photodamages to photosynthetic apparatus by high photoprotective dissipation, strong phosphorylation of PSII reaction center proteins, and rapid PSII repair cycle under high light.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Hordeum , Clorofila/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Luz , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Hordeum/metabolismo
2.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 23(1): 50, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707470

RESUMO

The primary function of mitochondria is cellular respiration and energy production. Cytochrome C complex is an essential complex that transports electrons in the respiratory chain between complex III and complex IV. One of this complex's main subunits is CcmFN, which is believed to be crucial for holocytochrome assembly. In wild-type plant Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, four ccmfn cDNAs are subjected to high salt stress (500 mM salinity), 0 h (or control) (GenBank accession no. ON764850), after 2 h (GenBank accession no. ON7648515), after 12 h (GenBank accession no. ON764852), and after 24 h (GenBank accession no. ON764853) and mtDNA of ccmfn gene (GenBank accession no. ON764854). Using raw data from RNA-seq, 47 sites with nucleotide and amino acid modifications were detected. There were ten different RNA editing types, with most of them are C to U. Unusual editing types in plants have also been found, such as A to C, C to A, A to G, A to U, T to A, T to C, C to G, G to C, and T to G. High levels of editing were observed in control as well as treatments of salinity stress. Amino acid changes were found in 43 sites; nearly all showed hydrophilic to hydrophilic alterations. Only C749 showed regulation under salinity stress.


Assuntos
Hordeum , RNA , RNA/metabolismo , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Salinidade , Edição de RNA , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo
3.
Food Funct ; 14(2): 886-898, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36537611

RESUMO

Though the hypoglycemic effect of whole grain hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been documented, whether glucose metabolism would be improved by hulless barley with moderate peeling is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in glucose metabolism and gut microbiota between partially (10%) peeled hulless barley (PHB) and whole grain hulless barley (WHB) intervention in obese mice induced by a high-fat diet. The results showed that both PHB and WHB interventions significantly improved the impaired glucose tolerance, fat accumulation in fat and liver tissues, and the impaired intestinal barrier in mice. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota was improved and the relative abundance of some beneficial bacteria such as genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Ileibacterium, and norank_f__Mutibaculaceae was increased by both, PHB and WHB, interventions. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the abundance of Bifidobacterium was negatively correlated with the area under the blood glucose curve. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that hulless barley improved the gut microbiota and impaired glucose tolerance in mice, and also showed that there was little loss of hypoglycemic effect even when hulless barley was moderately peeled.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intolerância à Glucose , Hordeum , Animais , Camundongos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hordeum/metabolismo , Camundongos Obesos , Grãos Integrais , Glucose/metabolismo
4.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 3): 114748, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370809

RESUMO

The functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after 7-days of exposure to bulk (b-ZnO) and nanosized ZnO (n-ZnO) (300, 2000, and 10,000 mg/l) has been investigated. An impact on the amount of chlorophylls, photosynthetic efficiency, as well as the zinc accumulation in chloroplasts was demonstrated. Violation of the chloroplast fine structure was revealed. These changes were generally more pronounced with n-ZnO exposure, especially at high concentrations. For instance, the chlorophyll deficiency under 10,000 mg/l b-ZnO treatment was 31% and with exposure to 10,000 mg/l n-ZnO, the chlorophyll deficiency was already 52%. The expression analysis of the photosynthetic genes revealed their different sensitivity to b-ZnO and n-ZnO exposure. The genes encoding subunits of photosystem II (PSII) and, to a slightly lesser extent, photosystem I (PSI) showed the highest suppression of transcriptional levels. The mRNA levels of the subunits of cytochrome-b6f, NADH dehydrogenase, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and ATP synthase, which, in addition to linear electron flow (LEF), participate in cyclic electron flow (CEF) and autotrophic CO2 fixation, were more stable or increased under b-ZnO and n-ZnO treatments. At the same time, CEF was increased. It was assumed that under the action of b-ZnO and n-ZnO, the processes of LEF are disrupted, and CEF is activated. This allows the plant to prevent photo-oxidation and compensate for the lack of ATP for the CO2 fixation process, thereby ensuring the stability of photosynthetic function in the initial stages of stress factor exposure. The study of photosynthetic structures of crops is important from the point of view of understanding the risks of reducing the production potential and the level of food security due to the growing use of nanoparticles in agriculture.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hordeum/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono , Transporte de Elétrons , Folhas de Planta , Clorofila/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(1): 739-748, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538519

RESUMO

The tea of roasted Highland barley is a cereal-based drink rich in polyphenols. A model of skeletal muscle senescence and fibrosis was constructed using d-galactose-induced C2C12 myotubes, and Highland barley tea Polyphenols (HBP) were extracted for the intervention. We found that HBP effectively alleviated oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis induced by d-galactose-induced skeletal muscle senescence. Also, HBP treatment significantly down-regulated pro-fibrotic genes, inflammation, and oxidative stress levels in a contusion model of senescent mice. Reduced levels of SIRT3 protein was found to be an essential factor in skeletal muscle senescence and fibrosis in both cellular and animal models, while HBP treatment significantly increased SIRT3 protein levels and viability in skeletal muscle. The ability of HBP to mitigate skeletal muscle fibrosis and oxidative stress was significantly reduced after SIRT3 silencing. Together, these results suggest that HBP intervention can significantly alleviate aging-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and skeletal muscle fibrosis, with the activation of SIRT3 as the underlying mechanism of action.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Sirtuína 3 , Camundongos , Animais , Hordeum/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Sirtuína 3/farmacologia , Galactose/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Senescência Celular , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fibrose , Chá/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114391, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508843

RESUMO

Barley is a diagnostic plant that often used in the research of soil pollution by heavy metals, our research explored the detoxification and tolerance mechanism of cadmium(Cd) in barley through pot experiment. We investigated subcellular distribution, chemical forms and oxidative damage of Cd in barley leaves, combing with the transmission electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) to further understand the translocation, transformation characteristics and toxic effect of Cd in cells. The results showed that, the bioaccumulation factors in roots and shoots of barley were ranged of 4.03-7.48 and 0.51-1.30, respectively. Barley reduces the toxic effects by storing Cd in the roots and reducing its transport to the shoots. Compared to the control treatment (0 mg/kg), the percentage of Cd in the cell wall fractions of leaves in 300 mg/kg Cd treatment increased from 34.74 % to 38.41 %; the percentage of the organelle fractions increased from 24.47 % to 56.02 %; and the percentage of soluble fraction decreased from 40.80 % to 5.57 %. We found that 69.13 % of the highly toxic inorganic Cd and water-soluble Cd were converted to less toxic pectates and protein-integrated Cd (50.20 %) and undissolved Cd phosphates (18.93 %). This conversion of Cd was mainly due to its combination with -OH, -NH, -CN, -C-O-C, and -C-O-P groups. Excessive Cd induced a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the levels of peroxidase, malondialdehyde, and cell membrane permeability, which damaged the cell membrane and allowed Cd to enter the organelles. The chloroplasts and mitochondria were destroyed, and eventually the metabolism of intracellular substances was affected, resulting in symptoms of toxicity. Our research provides cellular-scale insight into the mechanisms of Cd tolerance in barley.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Poluentes do Solo , Hordeum/metabolismo , Cádmio/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499563

RESUMO

In response to environmental stress, plants activate complex signalling, including being dependent on reactive oxygen-nitrogen-sulphur species. One of the key abiotic stresses is drought. As a result of drought, changes in the level of hydration of the plant occur, which obviously entails various metabolic alternations. The primary aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the response of barley to drought and the intensity of stress, therefore investigations were performed under various levels of water saturation deficit (WSD) in leaves at 15%, 30%, and 50%. In barley subjected to drought, most significant changes occurred under a slight dehydration level at 15%. It was observed that the gene expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases, enzymes involved in ABA biosynthesis, increased significantly, and led to a higher concentration of ABA. This was most likely the result of an increase in the gene expression and enzyme activity of L-cysteine desulfhydrase, which is responsible for H2S synthesis. Our results suggest that the differential water deficit in leaves underlies the activation of an appropriate defence, with ABA metabolism at the centre of these processes. Furthermore, at 15% WSD, a dominant contribution of H2O2-dependent signalling was noted, but at 30% and 50% WSD, significant NO-dependent signalling occurred.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hordeum/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Secas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499082

RESUMO

Plant miRNAs are powerful regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, which was repeatedly proved in several model plant species. miRNAs are considered to be key regulators of many developmental, homeostatic, and immune processes in plants. However, our understanding of plant miRNAs is still limited, despite the fact that an increasing number of studies have appeared. This systematic review aims to summarize our current knowledge about miRNAs in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare), which is an important agronomical crop worldwide and serves as a common monocot model for studying abiotic stress responses as well. This can help us to understand the connection between plant miRNAs and (not only) abiotic stresses in general. In the end, some future perspectives and open questions are summarized.


Assuntos
Hordeum , MicroRNAs , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360277

RESUMO

Among cereals, barley is tolerant to high levels of salinity stress; however, its performance and global production are still dramatically affected by salinity. In this study, we evaluated the behavior of a set of advanced genotypes of barley with aim of assessing the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in salinity tolerance. The experiment was conducted using a hydroponic system at optimal growing temperature and photoperiod conditions. The results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant effects for salinity treatments and genotypes in terms of all measured traits. Salinity stress significantly increased the root and shoot Na+ contents and root-to-shoot Na+ and K+ translocations. In contrast, other physiological features, gas exchange-related traits, as well as root and shoot biomasses were significantly decreased due to salinity stress. Based on the results of the multi-trait genotype ideotype distance index (MGIDI) as a multiple-traits method, G12 and G14 were identified as the superior salt-tolerant advanced genotypes. In the molecular analysis, salinity stress significantly increased the mean relative expression of HvSOS1, HvSOS3, HvHKT2, HvHKT3, HvNHX1, and HvNHX3 genes by 12.87-, 3.16-, 3.65-, 2.54-, 2.19-, and 3.18-fold more than the control conditions, respectively. The results of heatmap-based correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a clear association pattern among measured traits and expression data. Indeed, these associations confirmed relationships between tolerance pathways and physiological functions. In conclusion, the genotype G14 (D10*2/4/Productive/3/Roho//Alger/Ceres362-1-1) responded well to salinity stress and showed a better expression pattern of studied genes than other genotypes. Hence, this promising genotype can be a candidate for further assessments before commercial introduction.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Salinidade , Genótipo , Sódio/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430758

RESUMO

The stomatal closure of salt-stressed plants reduces transpiration bringing about the maintenance of plant tissue hydration. The aim of this work was to test for any involvement of aquaporins (AQPs) in stomatal closure under salinity. The changes in the level of aquaporins in the cells were detected with the help of an immunohistochemical technique using antibodies against HvPIP2;2. In parallel, leaf sections were stained for abscisic acid (ABA). The effects of salinity were compared to those of exogenously applied ABA on leaf HvPIP2;2 levels and the stomatal and leaf hydraulic conductance of barley plants. Salinity reduced the abundance of HvPIP2;2 in the cells of the mestome sheath due to it being the more likely hydraulic barrier due to the deposition of lignin, accompanied by a decline in the hydraulic conductivity, transpiration, and ABA accumulation. The effects of exogenous ABA differed from those of salinity. This hormone decreased transpiration but increased the shoot hydraulic conductivity and PIP2;2 abundance. The difference in the action of the exogenous hormone and salinity may be related to the difference in the ABA distribution between leaf cells, with the hormone accumulating mainly in the mesophyll of salt-stressed plants and in the cells of the bundle sheaths of ABA-treated plants. The obtained results suggest the following succession of events: salinity decreases water flow into the shoots due to the decreased abundance of PIP2;2 and hydraulic conductance, while the decline in leaf hydration leads to the production of ABA in the leaves and stomatal closure.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Hordeum , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Hordeum/metabolismo , Transpiração Vegetal , Salinidade , Água/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Hormônios/farmacologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361814

RESUMO

Cuticular waxes comprise the hydrophobic layer that protects crops against nonstomatal water loss and biotic and abiotic stresses. Expanding on our current knowledge of the genes that are involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis and regulation plays an important role in dissecting the processes of cuticular wax metabolism. In this study, we identified the Cer-GN1 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutant that is generated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis with a glossy spike phenotype that is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. A physiological analysis showed that the total cuticular wax loads of Cer-GN1 were one-third that of the progenitor wild-type (WT), and its water loss rate was significantly accelerated (p < 0.05). In addition, Cer-GN1 was defective in the glume's cuticle according to the toluidine blue dye test, and it was deficient in the tubule-shaped crystals which were observed on the glume surfaces by scanning electron microscopy. Using metabolomics and transcriptomics, we investigated the impacts of cuticular wax composition and waxy regulatory genes on the loss of the glaucous wax in the spikes of Cer-GN1. Among the differential metabolites, we found that 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid, which is one of the predominant C16 and C18 fatty acid-derived cutin monomers, was significantly downregulated in Cer-GN1 when it was compared to that of WT. We identified two novel genes that are located on chromosome 4H and are downregulated in Cer-GN1 (HvMSTRG.29184 and HvMSTRG.29185) that encode long-chain fatty acid omega-monooxygenase CYP704B1, which regulates the conversion of C16 palmitic acid to 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid. A quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the expression levels of HvMSTRG.29184 and HvMSTRG.29185 were downregulated at 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 days after the heading stage in Cer-GN1 when it was compared to those of WT. These results suggested that HvMSTRG.29184 and HvMSTRG.29185 have CYP704B1 activity, which could regulate the conversion of C16 palmitic acid to 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid in barley. Their downregulation in Cer-GN1 reduced the synthesis of the cuticular wax components and ultimately caused the loss of the glaucous wax in the spikes. It is necessary to verify whether HvMSTRG.29184 and HvMSTRG.29185 truly encode a CYP704B1 that regulates the conversion of C16 palmitic acid to 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid in barley.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ceras/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361820

RESUMO

The hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channel gene family (OSCA) is one kind of conserved osmosensors, playing a crucial role in maintaining ion and water homeostasis and protecting cellular stability from the damage of hypertonic stress. Although it has been systematically characterized in diverse plants, it is necessary to explore the role of the OSCA family in barley, especially its importance in regulating abiotic stress response. In this study, a total of 13 OSCA genes (HvOSCAs) were identified in barley through an in silico genome search method, which were clustered into 4 clades based on phylogenetic relationships with members in the same clade showing similar protein structures and conserved motif compositions. These HvOSCAs had many cis-regulatory elements related to various abiotic stress, such as MBS and ARE, indicating their potential roles in abiotic stress regulation. Furthermore, their expression patterns were systematically detected under diverse stresses using RNA-seq data and qRT-PCR methods. All of these 13 HvOSCAs were significantly induced by drought, cold, salt and ABA treatment, demonstrating their functions in osmotic regulation. Finally, the genetic variations of the HvOSCAs were investigated using the re-sequencing data, and their nucleotide diversity in wild barley and landrace populations were 0.4966 × 10-3 and 0.391 × 10-3, respectively, indicating that a genetic bottleneck has occurred in the OSCA family during the barley evolution process. This study evaluated the genomic organization, evolutionary relationship and genetic expression of the OSCA family in barley, which not only provides potential candidates for further functional genomic study, but also contributes to genetically improving stress tolerance in barley and other crops.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Secas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
13.
Food Funct ; 13(21): 10970-10980, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254783

RESUMO

Barley consumption is expected to increase insulin sensitivity by increasing the level of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and promoting the secretion of GLP-1. However, the involvement of GPR43, a receptor for SCFAs, has not been investigated. Therefore, we evaluated whether the inhibitory effect of ß-glucan-rich barley intake on blood glucose rise is mediated by GPR43 signalling via an increase of SCFAs. C57BL/6J mice and GPR43-knockout mice were fed high-fat diets with either cellulose (HC) or ß-glucan-rich barley flour (HB) for 12 weeks. The level of SCFAs in cecum contents was measured and the concentration of GLP-1 in the portal vein was determined. The supernatant of the cecum contents of C57BL/6J mice was added to GLUTag cells, and then the changes to GLP-1 and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations determined. The same parameters were measured using cells in which GPR43 was knocked down by siRNA. C57BL/6J mice fed HB diets showed a suppressed glucose rise compared to those on the HC diet. Cecum SCFAs and GLP-1 concentration in the portal vein were also increased by the HB diet. When an aqueous solution from the cecum content of mice fed a HB diet was added to GLUTag cells, GLP-1 secretion and intracellular Ca2+ concentration were increased. These phenomena were not observed in cells with knockdown of GPR43. In GPR43 knockout mice an increase of GLP-1 in the portal vein and suppression of blood glucose elevation was attenuated, despite increased SCFAs brought on by the HB diet. In conclusion, GPR43 activation in the intestinal tract via increased SCFAs is required for the glucose intolerance-improving effect of barley consumption.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Glucose , Hordeum , beta-Glucanas , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Hordeum/metabolismo , Camundongos Obesos , Glicemia , Farinha , Fermentação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232941

RESUMO

Crops grown under stress conditions show restricted growth and, eventually, reduced yield. Among others, brassinosteroids (BRs) mitigate the effects of stress and improve plant growth. We used two barley cultivars with differing sensitivities to BRs, as determined by the lamina joint inclination test. Barley plants with the 2nd unfolded leaf were sprayed with a diluted series of bikinin, an inhibitor of the Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) family, which controls the BR signaling pathway. Barley was grown under salt stress conditions up to the start of the 5th leaf growth stage. The phenotypical, molecular, and physiological changes were determined. Our results indicate that the salt tolerance of barley depends on its sensitivity to BRs. We confirmed that barley treatment with bikinin reduced the level of the phosphorylated form of HvBZR1, the activity of which is regulated by GSK3. The use of two barley varieties with different responses to salinity led to the identification of the role of BR signaling in photosynthesis activity. These results suggest that salinity reduces the expression of the genes controlling the BR signaling pathway. Moreover, the results also suggest that the functional analysis of the GSK3 family in stress responses can be a tool for plant breeding in order to improve crops' resistance to salinity or to other stresses.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides , Hordeum , Aminopiridinas , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Salinidade , Succinatos
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6050, 2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229435

RESUMO

Faced with terrestrial threats, land plants seal their aerial surfaces with a lipid-rich cuticle. To breathe, plants interrupt their cuticles with adjustable epidermal pores, called stomata, that regulate gas exchange, and develop other specialised epidermal cells such as defensive hairs. Mechanisms coordinating epidermal features remain poorly understood. Addressing this, we studied two loci whose allelic variation causes both cuticular wax-deficiency and misarranged stomata in barley, identifying the underlying genes, Cer-g/ HvYDA1, encoding a YODA-like (YDA) MAPKKK, and Cer-s/ HvBRX-Solo, encoding a single BREVIS-RADIX (BRX) domain protein. Both genes control cuticular integrity, the spacing and identity of epidermal cells, and barley's distinctive epicuticular wax blooms, as well as stomatal patterning in elevated CO2 conditions. Genetic analyses revealed epistatic and modifying relationships between HvYDA1 and HvBRX-Solo, intimating that their products participate in interacting pathway(s) linking epidermal patterning with cuticular properties in barley. This may represent a mechanism for coordinating multiple adaptive features of the land plant epidermis in a cultivated cereal.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Epiderme Vegetal/metabolismo , Ceras/metabolismo
16.
Cells ; 11(20)2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36291081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious fungal disease affecting crop plants, causing substantial yield reductions and the production of mycotoxins in the infected grains. Achieving progress in the breeding of crops with increased resistance and maintaining a high yield is not possible without a thorough examination of the molecular basis of plant immunity responses. METHODS: LC-MS-based metabolomics approaches powered by three-way ANOVA and the selec-tion of differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were used for studying plant immunity. A correlation network and functional enrichment analysis were conducted on grains of barley and wheat genotypes that were resistant or susceptible to FHB, as well as on the model grass Brachypodium distachyon (Bd), as this is still poorly understood at the metabolomic level. RESULTS: We selected common and genotype-specific DAMs in response to F. culmorum inoculation. The immunological reaction at the metabolomic level was strongly diversified between resistant and susceptible genotypes. DAMs that were common to all tested species from the porphyrin, flavonoid, and phenylpropanoid metabolic pathways were highly correlated, reflecting con-servativeness in the FHB response in the Poaceae family. Resistance-related DAMs belonged to different structural classes, including tryptophan-derived metabolites, pyrimidines, the amino acids proline and serine, as well as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. The physiological re-sponse to F. culmorum of Bd was close to that of barley and wheat genotypes; however, metabo-lomic changes were strongly diversified. CONCLUSIONS: Combined targeted and untargeted metabolomics provides comprehensive knowledge about significant elements of plant immuni-ty that have the potential to be molecular biomarkers of enhanced resistance to FHB in the grass family. Thorough examination of the Bd metabolome in juxtaposition with diversified geno-types of barley and wheat facilitated its use as a model grass for plant-microbe interaction.


Assuntos
Brachypodium , Fusarium , Hordeum , Micotoxinas , Porfirinas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triptofano/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Brachypodium/genética , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Prolina/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/metabolismo
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 447, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants are continuously exposed to changing environmental conditions and biotic attacks that affect plant growth. In crops, the inability to respond appropriately to stress has strong detrimental effects on agricultural production and yield. Ca2+ signalling plays a fundamental role in the response of plants to most abiotic and biotic stresses. However, research on stimulus-specific Ca2+ signals has mostly been pursued in Arabidopsis thaliana, while in other species these events are little investigated . RESULTS: In this study, we introduced the Ca2+ reporter-encoding gene APOAEQUORIN into the crop species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Measurements of the dynamic changes in [Ca2+]cyt in response to various stimuli such as NaCl, mannitol, H2O2, and flagellin 22 (flg22) revealed the occurrence of dose- as well as tissue-dependent [Ca2+]cyt transients. Moreover, the Ca2+ signatures were unique for each stimulus, suggesting the involvement of different Ca2+ signalling components in the corresponding stress response. Alongside, the barley Ca2+ signatures were compared to those produced by the phylogenetically distant model plant Arabidopsis. Notable differences in temporal kinetics and dose responses were observed, implying species-specific differences in stress response mechanisms. The plasma membrane Ca2+ channel blocker La3+ strongly inhibited the [Ca2+]cyt response to all tested stimuli, indicating a critical role of extracellular Ca2+ in the induction of stress-associated Ca2+ signatures in barley. Moreover, by analysing spatio-temporal dynamics of the [Ca2+]cyt transients along the developmental gradient of the barley leaf blade we demonstrate that different parts of the barley leaf show quantitative differences in [Ca2+]cyt transients in response to NaCl and H2O2. There were only marginal differences in the response to flg22, indicative of developmental stage-dependent Ca2+ responses specifically to NaCl and H2O2. CONCLUSION: This study reveals tissue-specific Ca2+ signals with stimulus-specific kinetics in the crop species barley, as well as quantitative differences along the barley leaf blade. A number of notable differences to the model plants Arabidopsis may be linked to different stimulus sensitivity. These transgenic barley reporter lines thus present a valuable tool to further analyse mechanisms of Ca2+ signalling in this crop and to gain insights into the variation of Ca2+-dependent stress responses between stress-susceptible and -resistant species.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Hordeum , Arabidopsis/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Flagelina/metabolismo , Flagelina/farmacologia , Hordeum/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Manitol/metabolismo , Manitol/farmacologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142428

RESUMO

Salt stress is a major abiotic stress factor affecting crop production, and understanding of the response mechanisms of seed germination to salt stress can help to improve crop tolerance and yield. The differences in regulatory pathways during germination in different salt-tolerant barley seeds are not clear. Therefore, this study investigated the responses of different salt-tolerant barley seeds during germination to salt stress at the proteomic and metabolic levels. To do so, the proteomics and metabolomics of two barley seeds with different salt tolerances were comprehensively examined. Through comparative proteomic analysis, 778 differentially expressed proteins were identified, of which 335 were upregulated and 443 were downregulated. These proteins, were mainly involved in signal transduction, propanoate metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, plant hormones and cell wall stress. In addition, a total of 187 salt-regulated metabolites were identified in this research, which were mainly related to ABC transporters, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism; 72 were increased and 112 were decreased. Compared with salt-sensitive materials, salt-tolerant materials responded more positively to salt stress at the protein and metabolic levels. Taken together, these results suggest that salt-tolerant germplasm may enhance resilience by repairing intracellular structures, promoting lipid metabolism and increasing osmotic metabolites. These data not only provide new ideas for how seeds respond to salt stress but also provide new directions for studying the molecular mechanisms and the metabolic homeostasis of seeds in the early stages of germination under abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Germinação , Hordeum , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Hordeum/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Estresse Salino , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
19.
J Appl Microbiol ; 133(6): 3708-3718, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082438

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore how fermented barley extracts could affect obesity-associated inflammatory responses to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, and investigate whether their anti-inflammatory properties were affected by modulating the gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four male rats were assigned randomly to three groups for 8 weeks. Inflammatory status and gut microbiota in HFD-induced obese rats were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and 16sRNA sequencing technology. The dietary supplementation of Extract of fermented barley with L. plantarum JDM1 (LFBE) reduced HFD-induced obesity and improved insulin sensitivity. LFBE significantly decreased the levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1ß, monocyte chemotactic protein-1), and increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) in serum. In addition, LFBE suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by inhibiting the inhibitor of NF-κB alpha degradation and phosphorylation of JNK/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases in adipose tissue. Combined with changes in gut microbiota, these results illustrated that LFBE treatment markedly decreased the proportion of the LPS-producing opportunistic pathogens and increased the proportion of Bifidobacterium. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of LFBE has beneficial effects on ameliorating HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance, lessening HFD-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THIS STUDY: The results suggest that fermented barley extracts may be a useful functional compound and beneficial to improve inflammatory status and gut microflora.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hordeum , Resistência à Insulina , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hordeum/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/microbiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Plant Cell Environ ; 45(12): 3523-3536, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130879

RESUMO

Proline accumulation is one of the major responses of plants to many abiotic stresses. However, the significance of proline accumulation for drought stress tolerance remains enigmatic in crop plants. First, we examined the natural variation of the pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS1) among 49 barley genotypes. Allele mining identified a previously unknown allelic series that showed polymorphisms at 42 cis-elements across the P5CS1 promoter. Selected haplotypes had quantitative variation in P5CS1 gene expression and proline accumulation, putatively influenced by both  abscisic acid-dependent and independent pathways under drought stress. Next, we introgressed the P5CS1 allele from a high proline accumulating wild barley accession ISR42-8 into cultivar Scarlett developing a near-isogenic line (NIL-143). NIL-143 accumulated higher proline concentrations than Scarlett under drought stress at seedling and reproductive stages. Under drought stress, NIL-143 showed less pigment damage, sustained photosynthetic health, and higher drought stress recovery compared to Scarlett. Further, the drought-induced damage to yield-related traits, mainly thousand-grain weight, was lower in NIL-143 compared with Scarlett in field conditions. Our data uncovered new variants of the P5CS1 promoter and the significance of the increased proline accumulation regulated by the P5CS1 allele of ISR42-8 in drought stress tolerance and yield stability in barley.


Assuntos
Secas , Hordeum , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Prolina/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo
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