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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 725-738, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224757

RESUMO

Highland barley (HB) is mainly composed of starch, which may account for up to 65% of the dry weight to the kernel. HB possesses unique physical and chemical properties and has good industrial application potential. It has also been identified as a minor grain crop with excellent nutritional and health functions. Highland barley starch (HBS) features a number of structural and functional properties that render it a useful material for numerous food and non-food applications. This review summarizes the current status of research on the extraction processes, chemical composition, molecular fine structures, granular morphology, physicochemical properties, digestibility, chemical and physical modifications, and potential uses of HBS. The findings provide a comprehensive reference for further research on HBS and its applications in various food and non-food industries.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Amido/química , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Estrutura Molecular
2.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069493

RESUMO

Arabinoxylan (HBAX-60) was fractioned from alkaline-extracted arabinoxylan (HBAX) in the whole grain of hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f. Poaceae) by 60% ethanol precipitation, which was studied for physicochemical properties and structure elucidation. Highly purified HBAX-60 mainly composed of arabinose (40.7%) and xylose (59.3%) was created. The methylation and NMR analysis of HBAX-60 indicated that a low-branched ß-(1→4)-linked xylan backbone possessed un-substituted (1,4-linked ß-Xylp, 36.2%), mono-substituted (ß-1,3,4-linked Xylp, 5.9%), and di-substituted (1,2,3,4-linked ß-Xylp, 12.1%) xylose units as the main chains, though other residues (α-Araf-(1→, ß-Xylp-(1→, α-Araf-(1→3)-α-Araf-(1→ or ß-Xylp-(1→3)-α-Araf-(1→) were also determined. Additionally, HBAX-60 exhibited random coil conformation in a 0.1 M NaNO3 solution. This work provides the properties and structural basis of the hull-less barley-derived arabinoxylan, which facilitates further research for exploring the structure-function relationship and application of arabinoxylan from hull-less barley.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Xilanos/química , Xilanos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metilação , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
3.
Food Chem ; 360: 129952, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000632

RESUMO

This study explored the effects of ß-glucan and various processing methods on the digestion of hulless barley starch in vitro. The whole hulless barley showed significantly lower starch digestibility compared to that hydrolyzed by ß-glucanase, indicating that ß-glucan had inhibitory effects on starch digestion. However, ß-glucan slightly accelerated the hydrolysis of extracted starch. Microscope observations of grains and flours revealed that the inhibitory effects of ß-glucan benefited from the integral cellular structure of hulless barley. Besides, the hulless barley processed through flaking-roasting and stir-frying exhibited significantly lower starch digestibility (41.5% and 38.9%, respectively) and considerable intact cells and starch granules. The hulless barley processed by steam flash-explosion showed moderate starch digestibility (48.2%), which may be attributed to the encapsulation of starch-protein-ß-glucan complexes. This elucidated the possible mechanism of ß-glucan limiting the hydrolysis of hulless barley starch and provided useful direction to produce hulless barley products with desirable starch digestibility.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Amido/química , beta-Glucanas/química , Digestão , Hidrólise , Técnicas In Vitro , Viscosidade
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 1669-1675, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023371

RESUMO

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable plastic with physical properties similar to petrochemically derived plastics. Here, Shewanella marisflavi BBL25 was engineered by inserting the pLW487 vector containing polyhydroxyalkanoates synthesis genes from Ralstonia eutropha H16. Under optimal conditions, the engineered S. marisflavi BBL25 produced 1.99 ± 0.05 g/L PHB from galactose. The strain showed high tolerance to various inhibitors and could utilize lignocellulosic biomass for PHB production. When barley straw hydrolysates were used as a carbon source, PHB production was 3.27 ± 0.19 g/L. In addition, PHB production under the microbial fuel cell system was performed to confirm electricity coproduction. The maximum electricity current output density was 1.71 mA/cm2, and dry cell weight (DCW) and PHB production were 11.4 g/L and 6.31 g/L, respectively. Our results demonstrated PHB production using various lignocellulosic biomass and the feasibility of PHB and electricity production, simultaneously, and it is the first example of PHB production in engineered Shewanella.


Assuntos
Cupriavidus necator/genética , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Hidroxibutiratos/metabolismo , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/genética , Shewanella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Galactose/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Hidrólise , Plasmídeos/genética , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/biossíntese , Shewanella/genética
5.
Food Chem ; 358: 129905, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940288

RESUMO

In order to gain understanding of bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in food-grade barley, an investigation was conducted using four cooked whole-grain, hulless, barley varieties. An in vitro digestion model was used to mimic human upper gastrointestinal digestion. Boiling enhanced the extractability of bound phenolic acids while digestion increased the level of free phenolic acids. The high bioaccessibilities observed were likely due to the release of bound phenolic acids during cooking and digestion. The major bioaccessible phenolics were ferulic and p-coumaric acids with bioaccessibility ranging from 131 to 173% and 51-135%, respectively. Peru-35 had significantly greater bioaccessibility of ferulic acid compared to other varieties. A hydroxycinnamic acid amide not reported before in boiled barley, N1, N8- dicaffeoyl spermidine, was identified in free phenolic extracts with relatively high abundance compared to the phenolic acids. It may provide additional anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions. These cooked whole-grain, hulless barley varieties are sources of bioaccessible phenolic acids.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Fenóis/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Canadá , Culinária , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacocinética , Digestão , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacocinética , Fenóis/análise , Grãos Integrais/química
6.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925104

RESUMO

The natural occurrence of six major ergot alkaloids, ergometrine, ergosine, ergotamine, ergocornine, ergokryptine and ergocristine, as well as their corresponding epimers, were investigated in 60 cereal samples (barley and wheat) from Algeria. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and a QuEChERS extraction method were used for sample analysis. The results revealed that 12 out of 60 samples (20%) were contaminated with ergot alkaloids. Wheat was the most contaminated matrix, with an incidence of 26.7% (8 out of 30 samples). The concentration of total ergot alkaloids ranged from 17.8 to 53.9 µg/kg for barley and from 3.66 to 76.0 µg/kg for wheat samples. Ergosine, ergokryptine and ergocristine showed the highest incidences in wheat, while ergometrine was the most common ergot in barley.


Assuntos
Alcaloides de Claviceps/análise , Hordeum/química , Triticum/química , Argélia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ergolinas/análise , Ergonovina/análise , Ergotamina/análise , Ergotaminas/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809304

RESUMO

Extracts from barley seedlings (BS) have known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The flavonoid lutonarin (LN) is a component of BS extract and has several known bioactivities. Here, we evaluated LN anti-inflammatory efficacy against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Lutonarin was isolated from BS by methanol extraction and characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Lutonarin did not reduce the viability or enhance the apoptosis rate of RAW 264.7 macrophages at concentrations up to 150 µM. Concentrations within 20-60 µM dose-dependently suppressed the LPS-induced expression, phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation of the inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). Furthermore, LN suppressed the LPS-induced upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and of the inflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Lutonarin may be a safe and effective therapeutic agent for alleviation of pathological inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Hordeum/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Plântula/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919686

RESUMO

Cereal crops, such as oats and barley, possess a number of valuable properties that meet the requirements for functional diet components. This review summarized the available information about bioactive compounds of oat and barley grain. The results of studying the structure and physicochemical properties of the cell wall polysaccharides of barley and oat are presented. The main components of the flavonoids formation pathway are shown and data, concerning anthocyanins biosynthesis in various barley tissues, are discussed. Moreover, we analyzed the available information about structural and regulatory genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Hordeum vulgare L. genome, including ß-glucan biosynthesis genes in Avena sativa L species. However, there is not enough knowledge about the genes responsible for biosynthesis of ß-glucans and corresponding enzymes and plant polyphenols. The review also covers contemporary studies about collections of oat and barley genetic resources held by the N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR). This review intended to provide information on the processes of biosynthesis of biologically active compounds in cereals that will promote further researches devoted to transcription factors controlling expression of structural genes and their role in other physiological processes in higher plants. Found achievements will allow breeders to create new highly productive varieties with the desirable properties.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Grão Comestível/química , Alimento Funcional , Hordeum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Melhoramento Vegetal , Avena/genética , Hordeum/genética
9.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(4): 70, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748917

RESUMO

Streptomyces tunisiensis DSM 42037 exhibited growth capacity on a minimum medium containing 1% barley bran. This peculiar strain released 83.5% of total ferulic acid present in barley bran after 5 days of incubation and the highest amount of released ferulic acid (19 mg/L) was observed on the 3rd day of incubation. The concentrated supernatant of S. tunisiensis also released ferulic acid from the parietal arabinoxylan complex of barley bran. This strain was able to convert the free ferulic acid into 4-vinyl guaiacol (14 mg/L) and acetovanillone (12 mg/L) at molar yield of 97% and 83% respectively. The biotransformation products were successively purified by preparative thin layer and silica gel column chromatography followed by HPLC and identified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. Streptomyces tunisiensis DSM 42037 could have potential applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries thanks to its ability in biotransforming ferulic acid into 4-vinyl guaiacol and acetovanillone.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Meios de Cultura , Guaiacol/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Cinética , Ácido Vanílico/metabolismo
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(13): 5541-5549, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meeting the energy and nitrogen (N) requirements of high-performing ruminants at the same time as avoiding digestive disturbances (i.e. rumen acidosis) is a key priority in ruminant nutrition. The present study evaluated the effect of a cereal ammoniation treatment, in which barley grains are combined with urea and enzymes that catalyze the conversion of urea to ammonia to optimize rumen function. Twelve rumen cannulated sheep were randomly divided into two groups and fed a diet containing 60% of ammoniated barley (AMM) or untreated barley supplemented with urea (CTL) to investigate the impact on rumen fermentation and feed utilization. RESULTS: AMM had higher total N content and effective rumen degradable N than untreated barely. AMM sheep had a consistently higher rumen pH throughout the day (6.31 versus 6.03) and tended to have a lower post-prandial ammonia peak and higher acetate molar proportion (+5.1%) than CTL sheep. The rumen environment in AMM sheep favored the colonization and utilization of agro-industrial by-products (i.e. orange pulp) by the rumen microbes leading to a higher feed degradability. AMM sheep also had higher total tract apparent N digestibility (+21.7%) and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (+34%), suggesting a higher N uptake and microbial protein synthesis than CTL sheep. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of AMM in the diet of ruminants represents a valid strategy for maintaining rumen pH within a physiological range and improving N utilization by the rumen microbes, which could have positive effects on the health and productivity of animals in intensive production systems. These findings warrant further studies under conventional farm conditions. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Amônia/química , Ração Animal/análise , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Hordeum/química , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hordeum/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ureia/química
11.
Food Chem ; 354: 129491, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756330

RESUMO

The study was aimed to evaluate if deetiolation of barley and wheat microgreens after cultivaton in dark (for 5, 7 and 9 days) can enhance the contents of pigments, ascorbic acid, polyphenols, and equivalent antioxidant capacities (EAC) (measured by DPPH and FRAP assay) in correlation to other. Chlorophylls and carotenoids were higher in microgreens that were exposed more to daylight. In contrast, ascorbic acid, polyphenols and EAC of microgreens could be enhanced by 5-7 days of etiolation. However, prolonged etiolation reduced overall antioxidant capacities of microgreens. All evaluated parameters could be satisfactorily represented by regression expressions for the given number of days of etiolation and growth. The ascorbic acid and total carotenoids content had higher correlations with total chlorophyll contents, while the antioxidant capacities were highly correlated to total polyphenols content. The study confirms the potential of deetiolated cultivation of microgreens to enhance selective phytochemicals content and EAC of microgreens.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Clorofila/análise , Hordeum/química , Polifenóis/análise , Triticum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrofotometria , Temperatura , Triticum/metabolismo
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 346: 109161, 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773354

RESUMO

Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a very important fungal disease that affects small grain cereals worldwide. This disease not only causes yield loses but also crops contamination with mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). Species within the Fusarium graminearum species complex have been described as the main causal agents of this disease, however lately there have been few reports of Fusarium cerealis causing the disease in wheat and barley in different parts of the world. This study evaluated the aggressiveness of F. cerealis to durum wheat cultivars and also mycotoxin production in planta. Moreover, the mycotoxin profile of F. cerealis strains was characterized molecularly and chemically. All durum wheat cultivars showed typical FHB symptoms but the disease severity varied among them in levels up to 66%. In addition, seventeen different compounds were detected in the infected heads including DON, NIV and nivalenol-3-ß-d-glucose (NIV3G). NIV was detected in all cultivars and was the most produced mycotoxin with levels ranging from 1.04 to 6.8 mg/kg. On the other hand, the molecular analysis of F. cerealis strains showed that all of them possessed NIV genotype while the chemical assessment showed that the strains were able to produce not only this toxin in vitro but also DON, zearalenone and other twenty-one secondary metabolites. The increasing incidence of F. cerealis and the possible contamination of crops with the mycotoxins that it produces are of great concern for food security and world cereal trade since it has been reported that NIV is more toxic for humans and animals than DON.


Assuntos
Fusarium/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fusarium/genética , Genótipo , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/microbiologia , Tricotecenos/análise , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Zearalenona/análise , Zearalenona/metabolismo
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(12): 5214-5224, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ergot alkaloids are secondary metabolites produced by fungi in the genus Claviceps. They contaminate a large variety of cereals, such as rye, triticale, wheat and barley. The ingestion of contaminated cereals might cause adverse health effects in humans and animals. In fact, pigs, cattle, sheep, and poultry are involved in sporadic outbreaks and, although there are several studies about occurrence of ergot alkaloids in grain cereals, there are scarce studies focused on compound feed. RESULTS: Twelve ergot alkaloids have been quantified in 228 feed samples intended for swine. The analytes were extracted using QuEChERS with Z-Sep+ as sorbent in the clean-up step, which reduced the matrix effect, allowing limits of quantification between 2.1 and 21.7 µg kg-1 . The analytes were subsequently quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A total of 29 samples (12.7%) revealed contamination by at least one ergot alkaloid, and among contaminated samples, 65% were contaminated by more than one. Only 6 of 12 target ergot alkaloids showed concentrations above the limit of quantification. The concentrations for individual ergot alkaloids ranged between 5.9 µg kg-1 for ergosinine to 145.3 µg kg-1 for ergometrine (the predominant ergot alkaloid), while the total ergot alkaloid content ranged from 5.9 to 158.7 µg kg-1 . CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of ergot alkaloids in feed samples in Spain seems to be lower than in other regions of Europe. All the samples fulfilled current recommendations of the feed industry about practical limits for ergot alkaloids in pig feeds. This suggests that the feeds are safe for pig consumption, regarding the presence of ergot alkaloids. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Alcaloides de Claviceps/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Alcaloides de Claviceps/metabolismo , Europa (Continente) , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fungos/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Hordeum/microbiologia , Suínos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
14.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 85(5): 1215-1226, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587104

RESUMO

We examined whether peripheral leukocytes of mice derived from in vitro αMEM-cultured embryos and exhibiting type 2 diabetes had higher expression of inflammatory-related genes associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Also, we examined the impact of a barley diet on inflammatory gene expression. Adult mice were produced by embryo transfer, after culturing two-cell embryos for 48 h in either α minimal essential media (α-MEM) or potassium simplex optimized medium control media. Mice were fed either a barley or rice diet for 10 weeks. Postprandial blood glucose and mRNA levels of several inflammatory genes, including Tnfa and Nox2, in blood leukocytes were significantly higher in MEM mice fed a rice diet compared with control mice. Barley intake reduced expression of S100a8 and Nox2. In summary, MEM mice exhibited postprandial hyperglycemia and peripheral leukocytes with higher expression of genes related to the development of atherosclerosis, and barley intake reduced some gene expression.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/dietoterapia , Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/métodos , Hordeum/química , Hiperglicemia/dietoterapia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/dietoterapia , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Blastocisto/patologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Calgranulina A/genética , Calgranulina A/metabolismo , Transferência Embrionária , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hiperglicemia/genética , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/patologia , Camundongos , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/efeitos adversos , Oryza/química , Período Pós-Prandial , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561965

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanism for the improvement of glucose tolerance following intake of high ß-glucan barley (HGB) in terms of intestinal metabolism. C57BL/6J male mice were fed a fatty diet supplemented with HGB corresponding to 5% of dietary fiber for 83 days. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed at the end of the experimental period. The concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the cecum was analyzed by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The mRNA expression levels related to L cell function in the ileum were measured by real-time PCR. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels in the portal vein and cecal content were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GLP-1-producing L cells of the ileum were quantified by immunohistochemistry. HGB intake improved glucose tolerance and increased the cecal levels of SCFAs, acetate, and propionate. The number of GLP-1-positive L cells in the HGB group was significantly higher than in the control group. GLP-1 levels in the portal vein and cecal GLP-1 pool size in the HGB group were significantly higher than the control group. In conclusion, we report improved glucose tolerance after HGB intake induced by an increase in L cell number and subsequent rise in GLP-1 secretion.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Obesidade/dietoterapia , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Secreções Corporais , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo
16.
J Med Food ; 24(2): 172-179, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617364

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the lipolytic effects of an Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry [IG]) and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley sprout [BP]) mixture on differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. On the ninth day of differentiation, Oil red O staining and Western blotting were performed; additionally, glycerol release and triglyceride (TG), fatty acid (FA), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were measured. Compared to the differentiation-induced control (C) group, the IG and BP mixture inhibited intracellular TG and FA levels by 61.7% and 48.9%, respectively, at a concentration of 200 µg/mL. Moreover, the mixture increased glycerol release and cAMP levels by more than twofold more than those in the C group. Western blotting was performed to confirm the protein expression involved in lipolysis, and the IG and BP mixture was found to significantly increase the protein activities of AMP-activated protein kinase, protein kinase A, and hormone-sensitive lipase compared to those of the C group. Furthermore, the mixture significantly inhibited the protein activities of phosphodiesterase 3B, adipose TG lipase, and perilipin compared to those of the C group at a concentration of 200 µg/mL. We found that the IG and BP mixture activates the cAMP pathway and regulates lipolytic enzymes, which are necessary for lipolysis. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the IG and BP mixture can be potentially developed as a new material for targeting mechanisms underlying lipolysis.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Lipólise , Phyllanthus emblica , Extratos Vegetais , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/química , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Phyllanthus emblica/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 177: 129-134, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571592

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of germination on the bioactive phytochemicals in the barley variety 'Betaone', which has high ß-glucan content. Betaone barley seeds were germinated for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h at 25 °C in a growth chamber. As the germination period progressed, crude protein, crude fat, and crude ash levels increased, while starch content decreased. ß-Glucan content significantly decreased during the germination period. However, after 96 h of germination, it was still 4.31%, which is similar to the amount found in ordinary barley varieties. The α- and ß-amylase activities in Betaone barley increased, thereby significantly decreasing pasting viscosities (p ≤ 0.05), as germination progressed. The water absorption index increased in the early germination stage, subsequently decreasing as germination progressed. While the water solubility index fell in the first stage of germination, it subsequently increased as germination progressed. Oil absorption decreased as germination progressed. Bioactive compounds, in particular the total phenolic (122.84-322.67 µg/g), total flavonoid (32.20-124.09 µg/g), and GABA content (176.94-212.64 µg/g), increased as germination progressed. The antioxidative properties mainly DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity also increased during the germination period. Therefore, these findings could be a useful method for improving new products with enhanced bioactive phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/química , beta-Glucanas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sementes/química , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/química
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 174: 289-299, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524482

RESUMO

Capsaicin (CAP) is the main pungent component in capsicum fruits. Eating too much CAP leads to gastrointestinal injury. Previously, Qingke ß-glucan combined with ß-glucan-utilizing Lactobacillus plantarum S58 (LP.S58) ameliorated high fat-diet-induced obesity, but their effects on CAP-induced gastrointestinal injury have not been investigated. Our results showed that Qingke ß-glucan reduced the CAP-induced gastrointestinal injury in Kunming mice. The serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and gastrointestinal hormones, and the localized inflammation and the expression of EGF, EGFR, VEGF, and ZO-1 in the gastrointestinal tissues in CAP-treated mice were partly restored by Qingke ß-glucan. The CAP-induced increase in the abundances of proinflammatory intestinal bacteria was also reduced by Qingke ß-glucan. More importantly, we found that these beneficial effects of Qingke ß-glucan were markedly enhanced by ß-glucan-utilizing LP.S58 supplementation. Our study indicated that Qingke ß-glucan coupled with ß-glucan-utilizing LP.S58 relieved CAP-induced gastrointestinal injury.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/efeitos adversos , Gastroenterite/terapia , Glucanos/administração & dosagem , Hordeum/química , Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Terapia Combinada , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Gastroenterite/induzido quimicamente , Gastroenterite/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucanos/metabolismo , Glucanos/farmacologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/genética , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
19.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477637

RESUMO

This review reports recent knowledge on the role of ingredients (barley, hop and yeasts), including genetic factors, on the final yield of phenolic compounds in beer, and how these molecules generally affect resulting beer attributes, focusing mainly on new attempts at the enrichment of beer phenols, with fruits or cereals other than barley. An entire section is dedicated to health-related effects, analyzing the degree up to which studies, investigating phenols-related health effects of beer, have appropriately considered the contribution of alcohol (pure or spirits) intake. For such purpose, we searched Scopus.com for any kind of experimental model (in vitro, animal, human observational or intervention) using beer and considering phenols. Overall, data reported so far support the existence of the somehow additive or synergistic effects of phenols and ethanol present in beer. However, findings are inconclusive and thus deserve further animal and human studies.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Cerveja/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Nível de Saúde , Hordeum/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Leveduras/química , Animais , Humanos
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 77, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404863

RESUMO

In Kerala and other South Indian States, the ayurvedic by-products are widely available which can adequately be incorporated into pig diets. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary incorporation of cooked barley residue and spent grapes on feed intake, growth performance, and nutrient utilization in sows and their piglets. Using completely randomized design (CRD), fifteen (15) Large White Yorkshire (LWY) pregnant sows with an average body weight of 180.53 kg, 3 weeks before the estimated date of farrowing, were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups. The dietary treatment groups consisted of T1 (control), fed with a ration containing maize and soya bean meal of 18% CP and 3265 kcal/kg ME, T2 with a ration containing cooked barley residue replacing 25% maize in control, and T3 with a ration containing spent grapes replacing 25% maize in control ration. Data on average daily feed intake (ADFI), fortnightly bodyweight of sows and their piglets were recorded for 63 days. Also, the average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and cost of feed per kg of weight gain of the piglets were calculated. The result showed no significant (P > 0.05) dietary treatment effects on average weekly dry matter intake and fortnightly average body weight gain among the sows in all the three groups. Piglets showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in total dry matter intake (DMI), total body weight gain, ADG, and FCR among the three groups during the entire study period. No variations were observed for the apparent digestibility of nitrogen-free extract and the availability of magnesium in the three rations. The cost of feed per kg weight gain was lower in piglets belonging to T2 and T3 than the control (T1), though not significant statistically (P > 0.05). It is, therefore, concluded that cooked barley residue and spent grapes could be included up to 25% in the ration of sow and their piglets by partially replacing maize without affecting their overall performances.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Hordeum/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Prenhez/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Vitis/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Índia , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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