Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.422
Filtrar
1.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1725-1734, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484938

RESUMO

The proximate composition, total phenolics, antioxidant activity, minerals, and trace elements were determined in 42 barley landraces in order to highlight their nutritional potential and promote their cultivation. Two-row barley landraces had a higher average content of starch, protein, total phenolic compounds, and iron, when compared with six-row ones that presented higher mean ash and fiber concentrations. Additionally, the six-row barley landraces with strongly pigmented grains had lower zinc and manganese and higher protein mean concentrations than the whitish or lightly pigmented barley landraces. Factor analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to correctly differentiate samples according to type of barley (landrace or commercial) and number of rows. In general, all the parameters varied considerably among the barley landraces analyzed, but some barley landraces could be emphasized according to fiber, minerals, and phenolic antioxidants. There were important differences in the mean values in all the chemical parameters according to the island of origin of the barley grains. The application of linear discriminant analysis was also a useful tool to differentiate all the barley landraces with six rows according to the island of origin. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Barley is a versatile cereal that can be used for human and animal feed, brewing, and as biodiesel. From the nutritional point of view, barley is rich in starch, protein, dietary fiber and minerals, as well as antioxidant compounds and vitamins. The landraces analyzed in this study have remained intact for the last 900 years, which gives opportunity to genome of these barley landraces to evolve some very specific traits. The physicochemical characterization of these local landraces carried out by us could be very useful as a source of new quality in breeding programs.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Minerais/análise , Sementes/química , Cruzamento , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Hordeum/classificação , Hordeum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Espanha , Amido/análise
2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232896, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401785

RESUMO

Optimizing barley (hordeum vulgare L.) production in Idaho and other parts of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) should focus on farm resource management. The effect of post-harvest residue management on barley residue decomposition has not been adequately studied. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of residue placement (surface vs. incorporated), residue size (chopped vs. ground-sieved) and soil type (sand and sandy loam) on barley residue decomposition. A 50-day(d) laboratory incubation experiment was conducted at a temperature of 25°C at the Aberdeen Research and Extension Center, Aberdeen, Idaho, USA. Following the study, a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) modeling approach was applied to investigate the first-order decay kinetics of barley residue. An accelerated initial flush of residue carbon(C)-mineralization was measured for the sieved (Day 1) compared to chopped (Day 3 to 5) residues for both surface incorporated applications. The highest evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2)-C of 8.3 g kg-1 dry residue was observed on Day 1 from the incorporated-sieved application for both soils. The highest and lowest amount of cumulative CO2-C released and percentage residue decomposed over 50-d was observed for surface-chopped (107 g kg-1 dry residue and 27%, respectively) and incorporated-sieved (69 g kg-1 dry residue and 18%, respectively) residues, respectively. There were no significant differences in C-mineralization from barley residue based on soil type or its interactions with residue placement and size (p >0.05). The largest decay constant k of 0.0083 d-1 was calculated for surface-chopped residue where the predicted half-life was 80 d, which did not differ from surface sieved or incorporated chopped. In contrast, incorporated-sieved treatments only resulted in a k of 0.0054 d-1 and would need an additional 48 d to decompose 50% of the residue. Future residue decomposition studies under field conditions are warranted to verify the residue C-mineralization and its impact on residue management.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Hordeum/química , Idaho , Cadeias de Markov , Nitrogênio/análise , Temperatura
3.
Food Chem ; 321: 126685, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240918

RESUMO

In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of isolating recombinant phage-antibodies against gluten from a non-immunized library of human single-domain antibodies (dAbs). Phage display technology enabled the selection of affinity probes by successive rounds of biopanning against a biotinylated synthetic peptide comprising repetitive immunogenic gluten motifs. The analysis of a wide representation of heterologous plant species corroborated that two of the isolated clones were specific to wheat, barley and rye proteins. The phage antibody selected as the most appropriate clone for the detection of gluten in foods (dAb8E-phage) was further applied in an indirect ELISA to the analysis of 50 commercial food samples. Although the limit of detection achieved did not improve those of current immunoassays, the proposed methodology could provide promising new pathways for the generation of recombinant antibodies that allow a comprehensive determination of gluten in foods, whilst replacing the need for animal immunization.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Análise de Alimentos , Glutens/imunologia , Hordeum/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Secale/imunologia , Triticum/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Alimentos , Glutens/análise , Hordeum/química , Humanos , Fragmentos de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Secale/química , Triticum/química
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 195: 110473, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199220

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of fermented black barley on cooking oil fume (COF)-induced lung injury, male ICR mice were randomized into five groups: normal control (NC), fermented black barley treatment (NF), COF exposure (O), COF + fermented black barley treatment (OF) and COF + Lactobacillus treatment (OL). The exposure of mice to COF was performed for 5 min per day and 4 days per week for a total of 9 weeks, and the mice in the OF, NF and OL groups were administered fermented black barley or Lactobacillus continuously for 9 weeks (1 mL/100 g). Our results showed that the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), total phenolic, and flavonoid contents significantly increased after fermentation (P < 0.01). In addition, fermented black barley significantly increased SOD activity in the lung tissue, decreased the wet pulmonary coefficient, inhibited the reduction of microbial diversity and richness, and upregulated genes involved in cilium assembly and the cilium axoneme. These findings support the notion that fermented black barley can ameliorate COF-induced lung injury in mice.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hordeum , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cílios/metabolismo , Culinária , Fermentação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Lactobacillus , Pulmão/enzimologia , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar/enzimologia , Lesão Pulmonar/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fenóis/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
5.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1045-1059, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112435

RESUMO

Highland barley brewer's spent grain (BSG), being China's brewing industry's major by-product is the focus of current research. The aim of the present study was to scrutinize the effects of ultrasound and heat pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysis of highland barley BSG protein hydrolysates (HBSGPH) and evaluate the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis time on the antioxidant activity of hydrolysates by Alcalase. Different ultrasonic waves (40 and 50 kHz) and heat pretreatment temperatures (50 and 100 °C) were chosen and the pretreatment time was 15, 30, and 60 min. The obtained results revealed that the ultrasound pretreatment of highland barley BSG protein at 40 and 50 kHz has significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced about 57 and 67% of oxygen radical absorption capacity of obtained hydrolysate over the untreated substrate. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhdrazl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (DRSA) 28%, metal chelating activity (MCA) 54%, superoxide radical scavenging activity (SRSA) 18%, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HRSA) 25% of HBSGPH at 50 kHz were also improved (P < 0.05) significantly. HBSGPH from heat treatment at 100 °C showed no SRSA and HRSA scavenging activities but improved significantly (P < 0.05) about 27% ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay values. In the present work, the resultant HBSGPH had stronger antioxidant properties with ultrasound pretreatment at 50 kHz and the enzymatic hydrolysis after 4 hr was facilitating the enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from HBSGPH. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Highland barley BSG is attracting toward natural food products due to its potent natural antioxidants to overcome the risk of diseases and are beneficial for human health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Hordeum/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , China , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hidrólise , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Subtilisinas/química , Ultrassom , Resíduos/análise
6.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 64, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pressed juice of Barley Grass (BG) has become very popular among people for various assumed benefits along with many testimonies of people who have been healed from various ailments such as anemia, cancer, GI problems by consuming BG. The aim of our research was to validate the claims of its medicinal values such as chemo-protective action, high anti-oxidants, RBC membrane stabilization activity, and toxicity level. METHODS: Extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol were quantitatively estimated for total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC). The same extracts were assessed for their antioxidative potentials with the use of DPPH free radical scavenging assay followed by determination of HRBC membrane stabilization method, Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA) and GC-MS analysis. RESULTS: All the extracts showed high TPC and TFC along with the stronger correlation with the antioxidant activity of the extracts suggesting phenolics and flavonoids contents of the extract might be attributed to showing antioxidant activity. The methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of the plant also showed remarkable anti-inflammatory activity where methanolic extracts had the lowest EC50. During Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay, all extracts of BG were found to be bioactive and the degree of lethality was found to be concentration dependent. The GC-MS analysis of the methanolic extract of BG revealed 23 compounds which are reported to possess different biological activities. CONCLUSION: The study reveals the strong antioxidant and RBC membrane stabilization activity of BG. The Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay found extracts to be bioactive suggesting extracts as a promising candidate for plant-derived anti-tumor compounds. Further, studies are needed to validate the data on cancer cell lines.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hordeum/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Artemia , Cromatografia Gasosa , Flavonoides/toxicidade , Hordeum/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(9): 2728-2737, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045517

RESUMO

The volatiles isolated by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) from roasted barley tea, prepared from either hulled barley or naked barley, were subjected to a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis, which resulted in 27 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution factors (FD factors) of 64-1024. An additional 5 odorants were detected by static headspace analysis. Quantitation of these 32 compounds revealed 22 and 23 odorants in the naked barley tea and in the hulled barley tea, respectively, that exceeded their odor-threshold values. On the basis of these data, the aromas of both barley tea variants were successfully reconstituted with reference compounds. The calculation of odor-activity values (OAVs = concentration/odor-threshold value) and omission tests suggested 2-methoxyphenol (OAVs 69 and 160) and trans-isoeugenol (OAVs 1.4 and 31) as key compounds responsible for the stronger smoky note in the hulled barley tea. Further important odorants in the naked and hulled barley teas included 2-acetylpyrazine (OAVs 23 and 16), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (OAVs 19 and 16), and 3-methylbutanal (OAVs 12 and 15).


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Hordeum/química , Odorantes/análise , Culinária , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Japão , Sementes/química , Chá , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 1064-1070, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917563

RESUMO

The present study aims to evaluate the effect of the growth conditions and the cultivar on the total and water-extractable (W-E) arabinoxylan (AX) in barley. For this purpose, nine barley varieties from two different years were analyzed. The total AX content ranged from 5.97 to 8.98 wt % d.m., while the W-E AX ranged from 0.06 to 0.35 wt % d.m. The W-E AX molecular properties were characterized by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC)-triple detector array (TDA). The molecular weight was between 2.3 × 105 and 12.6 × 105 Da, the polydispersity was between moderate and broad (1.1 < Mw/Mn < 4.3), and the conformation was a stiff semiflexible coil (0.5 < α < 1.3). The results indicate that the year influences the content of total AX and W-E AX and some molecular characteristics of W-E AX, such as its polydispersity and its conformation. Finally, the results demonstrated that the W-E AX can be used as an index of the malting attitude of barley because it positively correlates with germinative energy and kernel dimension.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Xilanos/química , Cromatografia em Gel , Hordeum/classificação , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Molecular , Sementes/química , Sementes/classificação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Food Chem ; 312: 126120, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901827

RESUMO

Fusarium mycotoxin contamination in malting barley is of great concerns in malting industry. Our recent study found that clove oil nanoemulsions can act as highly efficient antifungal agents in vitro. Therefore, we explored the efficacy of clove oil nanoemulsions on Fusarium growth and mycotoxin during malting process. The impact of emulsifier types (Tween 80, BSA and quillaja saponins) on the formation of clove oil nanoemulsion, the mitigation effects on mycotoxin levels and fungal biomass, and the clove oil flavor residues on malts were measured. We observed that 1.5 mg clove oil/g nanoemulsion showed a negligible influence on germinative energy of barley, while still efficiently eliminated the DON levels and toxicogenic fungal biomass as quantified by Tri5 DNA content. Tween 80-stablized clove oil nanoemulsion displayed higher mycotoxin inhibitory activity and less flavor impact on the final malt. The results indicated the potential application of essential oil nanoemulsion during the malting process.


Assuntos
Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/microbiologia , Micotoxinas/biossíntese , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Óleo de Cravo/farmacologia , Fusarium/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/química , Água/farmacologia
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917428

RESUMO

Five ruminally cannulated heifers were used in an incomplete 6 × 6 Latin square design to determine the effects of cereal silage (barley vs. corn), cereal grain (barley vs. corn vs. a 50:50 blend of barley and corn), and their interaction (S × G) on dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, nitrogen balance, and in situ degradation. Corn silage (CS) or barley silage (BS) was included at 8% of dietary dry matter (DM). Within each silage source, diets contained (DM basis) either dry-rolled barley (BG; 86%), dry-rolled corn (CG; 85%), or an equal blend of barley and corn (BLEND; 85%). Periods were 25 d, with 5 d of dietary transition, 13 d of dietary adaptation, and 7 d of data and sample collection. Samples collected included feed and refusals, total urine and feces, and ruminal fluid. All data were analyzed using the Mixed model of SAS with the fixed effects of silage, grain, and the S × G. Dry matter intake (P ≥ 0.19) and mean ruminal pH (P ≥ 0.096) were not affected by the silage, grain, or S × G. Total short-chain fatty acid concentrations were greater for BLEND than BG or CG (grain, P = 0.003) and for CS (silage, P = 0.009) relative to BS. The molar proportion of acetate was greater for BS-BG and BS-CG (S × G, P < 0.001), while molar proportion of propionate was greater for CS-BG (S × G, P < 0.001) relative to other silage and grain source combinations. Rumen ammonia-N concentration was greater for CG than BG, or BLEND (grain, P < 0.001), and greater for CS compared to BS (silage, P = 0.023). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy were greatest for BG (grain, P ≤ 0.035). Digestible energy content (Mcal/kg) was greater for BG (grain, P = 0.029) than CG and BLEND. Total nitrogen retention (g/d and % of intake) was greatest for CS-BG (S × G, P ≤ 0.033) relative to all other treatments. In situ degradation rates of DM, crude protein, and starch were greater for BG than CG (P ≤ 0.004). The potentially degradable fraction of DM, crude protein, and starch was greater for CG (P ≤ 0.031), while the undegradable fraction was greater for BG (P ≤ 0.046). For silage sources, CS had greater 24 h in situ DM digestibility (P = 0.009) and starch digestibility (24, 48, and 72 h incubations, P ≤ 0.034) relative to BS. Results suggest that while feeding a combination of CS and BG promotes propionate production and greater N retention; few other additive effects were observed.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Digestão , Hordeum , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem , Zea mays , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha , Silagem/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Zea mays/química
11.
Food Chem ; 312: 125829, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901703

RESUMO

Free and bound phenolics were extracted from the fibre fraction of wholemeal (W) wheat and barley (B) cookies which had been fortified with 15% blackcurrant powder. Blackcurrant enriched cookies contained between 55 and 66 % higher total phenolics respectively compared control cookies. Ferulic acid in wheat and barley cookie extracts, and quercetin and kaempferol-3-glucoside in wheat cookies with 15% blackcurrant were the dominant phenolic acids. Cellular antioxidant activity was higher in samples with blackcurrant inclusion when evaluated in a cancer cell HepG2 model. Inhibition of cell proliferation was lower for the phenolic samples from cookies with blackcurrant addition. These samples suppressed the regulation of inflammatory cytokine IL-1ß (about 3 to 4-fold), IL-6 (about 2-fold) and transcription signalling factor NF-kB (about 2-fold) and showed an up-regulation of the satiety gene NUCB-2/nesfatin-1 (about 4-fold) in compared with control samples.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ribes/genética , Antioxidantes/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Hordeum/química , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Triticum/química
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 2, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidaemia is considered a cause of other diseases that are clinically important and potentially life threatening. Combination of pea and barley as exclusive starch sources is known to interfere with glycemic control in diabetic dogs, but their effect on lipid profile of hiperlipidaemic dogs is yet to be evaluated. Twelve adult diabetic dogs were fed three dry extruded diets with different starch sources and different fat levels: peas and barley (PB), maize (Mi), and peas, barley and rice (Ba) with 15.7, 15.6 and 9.0% of their dry matter as fat, respectively. Plasmatic cholesterol and triglycerides concentration curves over 10 h were obtained after 60 days on each diet and with the same NPH insulin dose. ANOVA test or Friedman test were used to compare the dietary effects on triglycerides and cholesterol variables among the diets. RESULTS: Dogs presented lower mean (p = 0.05), fasting (p = 0.03), and time 8-h postprandial (p = 0.05) triglyceridemia after PB diet period than Ba diet period and time 4-h postprandial (p = 0.02) lower after PB than Mi diet. Cholesterolemia mean, minimum, maximum, area under the cholesterol curve and times points: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10-h postprandial, had lower values after PB ingestion in comparison to Mi, without difference to Ba diet. CONCLUSION: Inclusion of pea and barley, as exclusive starch sources, in therapeutic diets for diabetic dogs can minimize plasmatic triglycerides and cholesterol concentration at fasting and at different postprandial time, compared to the maize diet or diet with lesser fat content.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Diabetes Mellitus/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Hiperlipidemias/veterinária , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Carboidratos da Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Cães , Hordeum/química , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Oryza/química , Ervilhas/química , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Zea mays/química
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 231: 115685, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888856

RESUMO

The effects of fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 on the main structural changes of barley ß-glucan and their in vitro activities were studied. Molecular characteristics, infrared spectroscopy, monosaccharide composition, methylation, 1D and 2D-NMR analyses and scanning electron microscopy revealed that both (raw barley ß-glucan) RBG and fermented barley ß-glucan (FBG) are polysaccharides predominanted by ß-(1→3) and ß-(1→4) linked glucose. However, different molecular weight (decreasing from 1.13×105 D to 6.35×104 D), the ratio of the ß-(1→3) residues to the ß-(1→4) residues (ranging from 1:1.98-1:2.50 to 1:1.8-1:2.24) and microstructure features (transforming from a rod-like to sheet-like structure) were observed. Bioassay results showed that FBG exhibited improved inhibitory activities of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase, as well as the adsorption of cholesterol under acidic conditions compared to RBG. These results suggested that fermentation may enhance in vitro physiological activities of barley ß-glucan, especially related to glucose and lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , beta-Glucanas/química , Colesterol/química , Fermentação , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipase/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936315

RESUMO

The influence of stress factors on the plant can, on the one hand, lead to worse functioning of the plant and loss of its crop, but on the other, it can have a positive effect on the metabolism of compounds with documented biological activity. In this study, the effect of light and drought intensity on photosynthetic activity and physiological status of two barley varieties, as well as the antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and profile of polyphenolic compounds of green barley were analysed. It was shown that under the conditions of water shortage, the KWS Olof variety showed a smaller decrease in CO2 assimilation and transpiration and higher values of these parameters at both light intensities. Only in the KWS Olof variety increased stress as a result of increased light intensity. It has also been shown that both the intensity of radiation and drought-related stress have a significant impact on the profile of polyphenolic compounds from green barley, without a simple relationship between the impact of stress factors on the content of polyphenols. Changes in the profile of polyphenolic compounds augmented the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the material. This, in turn, proposes the possibility of reducing the applied doses of herbal material thanks to a greater content of active substances in extracts obtained from the plants used to produce medicinal preparations.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Hordeum/química , Polifenóis/química , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dióxido de Carbono , Secas , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese/genética , Polifenóis/classificação , Água/química
15.
Animal ; 14(1): 39-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426877

RESUMO

Fermented feeds are being considered as practical alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP) supplemented in nursery pig diets. This study aimed to investigate health-promoting effects of fermented barley in weaned pigs challenged with Escherichia coli K88 +. A total of 37 piglets were weaned at 21 ± 1 day of age (6.41 ± 0.47 kg of BW) and assigned to either of the following five treatment groups: (1) unchallenged control (UCC; n = 7), (2) challenged control (CC; n = 7), (3) AGP (CC + 0.1% AGP; n = 7), (4) Ferm1 (challenged and fed homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum (Homo)-fermented barley; n = 8) and (5) Ferm2 (challenged and fed heterofermentative L. buchneri (Hetero)-fermented barley; n = 8). The control diet included unfermented barley. Barley was fermented with either Homo or Hetero for 90 days under anaerobic conditions. On day 10, all pigs except those in UCC group were orally inoculated with E. coli K88 + (6 × 109 colony forming units/ml). The pre-planned orthogonal test was performed to compare (1) UCC and CC, (2) CC and AGP, (3) CC and Ferm1 + Ferm2, as well as (4) Ferm1 and Ferm2. Challenged control pigs showed shorter (P < 0.05) villus height (VH) in the duodenum and deeper (P < 0.05) crypt depth (CD) in the jejunum than UCC pigs. The AGP group had higher (P < 0.05) VH and lower (P < 0.05) IL-6 gene expression in the jejunum compared with CC group. Compared to CC, Ferm1 and Ferm2 had decreased (P < 0.05) CD in the duodenum, IL-6 gene expression in the jejunum and rectal temperature at 24 h post-challenge. Pigs fed fermented barley diets showed greater (P < 0.05) faecal abundance of Clostridium Cluster IV and Lactobacilli than those fed UCC diet. Ferm2-fed pigs showed lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of band cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes at 6, 24 and 48 h after challenge, respectively, and lower (P < 0.05) faecal abundance of Enterobacteriaceae 24 h after challenge than the Ferm1-fed pigs. In conclusion, the substitution of unfermented barley with fermented barley in a nursery diet showed similar results as those shown by AGP supplementation in terms of enhancing the intestinal morphology and modulating faecal microbiota composition, as well as down-regulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines; therefore, fermented barley can be a possible nutritional strategy for managing nursery pigs fed diets without in-feed AGP.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Hordeum/química , Lactobacillus/química , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fermentação , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
16.
Comput Biol Chem ; 84: 107138, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767506

RESUMO

There has been an increasing interest in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) ever since it was proven that they are ubiquitous and involved in key cellular functions. Interestingly, they have shown a large abundance in complete proteomes. In the current study, we have investigated the first large-scale study of the repertoire of IDPs in Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare proteomes, in order to get insight into the biological roles of IDPs in both species. Results show that proteins in T. aestivum are significantly more disordered than those of H. vulgare. Moreover, the data revealed that DNA/RNA binding domains, co-factors, heme, metal ions binding domains, ATP/GTP binding proteins, ligands, linker domains and repeats, other domains typical to transcription factors such as zinc finger, F-box domain, homeodomain-like, l-domain like and chaperones, are predominantly present and co-occur in disordered proteins in T.aestivum and H.vulgare. The Gene Ontology analysis revealed that IDPs in T. aestivum and H. vulgare are mainly involved in regulation of cellular and biological processes up on response to stress. In future, this study may provide valuable information while considering IDPs in understanding the organism complexity and environmental adaptation.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteoma/análise , Triticum/química , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteoma/genética , Proteômica/métodos , Triticum/genética
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1004-1011, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most important cereals worldwide, and its quality is affected by fungal contamination such as species of the genus Alternaria. No information is available about the occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in Argentinean barley grains, which is of concern, because they can be transferred into malt and beer. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TeA) in malting barley grains from the main producing region of Argentina during the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. RESULTS: The most frequent mycotoxin was AOH (64%), which was detected at higher levels (712 µg kg-1 ) compared with other studies, followed by TeA (37%, 1522 µg kg-1 ), while AME was present in five samples in the 2015 growing season only, with a mean of 4876 µg kg-1 . A similar frequency of mycotoxin occurrence was observed in both years (80.8 vs 85.3%), but more diverse contamination was found in 2015, which was characterized by lower accumulated precipitation. Nevertheless, AOH was more frequently found in 2014 than in 2015 (80.8 and 47.1% respectively). A negative correlation between AOH concentration and temperature was observed. The susceptibility of different barley varieties to mycotoxin accumulation varied with the mycotoxin, geographical location and meteorological conditions. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in the present work represent a tool for risk assessment of exposition to these mycotoxins and could be used by food safety authorities to determine the need for their regulation. Furthermore, the establishment of a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system to minimize fungal and mycotoxin contamination in barley from farm to processing could be apply to ensure food safety. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Alternaria/metabolismo , Hordeum/microbiologia , Micotoxinas/análise , Argentina , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hordeum/química , Lactonas/análise , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/microbiologia
18.
Food Chem ; 310: 125979, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835231

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional functions of highland barley subjected to heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and dry heat treatment (DHT) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro test indicated HMT and DHT play part in the reduced glycemic potency of highland barley. Meanwhile, in vivo results showed that thermally-processed highland barley (THB) supplementation significantly decreased the body weight and serum glucose, improved oxidation resistance and altered the composition of gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria, Fusicatenibacter and Desulfovibrio were identified as types of bacteria that might related to the relatively higher content of dietary fiber in THB. The Spearman's correlation analysis revealed that Fusicatenibacter and Desulfovibrio were positively correlated with T-AOC levels. In addition, the putative metagenomes implicated that THB might regulate the metabolic pathways of gut microbiota. Overall, our findings provide important information for the rational design of highland barley-based health-promoting foods with nutritional functions.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hordeum/química , Animais , Bifidobacterium , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Oxirredução , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Grãos Integrais/química
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110937, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682932

RESUMO

Large prospective cohort studies suggested an important role of cereal insoluble fiber in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, which challenge the traditional view that viscosity and solubility are the main driving factors for these beneficial effects of dietary fiber. To evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of insoluble- (BIF) and soluble fibers (BSF) enzymatically isolated from barley, a conventional rat model and a type 2 diabetes rat model were used. Our results showed that 4-week treatment of BIF or BSF effectively reduced FBG in the diabetic condition, with caecal level of propionic acid and minor SCFAs increased by BIF and that of butyric acid and insulin sensitivity improved by BSF, respectively. The two treatments further ameliorated liver function, judged by the recovered serum level of ALT, albumin and total protein levels. BIF and BSF also increased HDL-C and decreased serum MDA. In normal rats, BIF and BSF showed a hypolipidaemic effect in triglycerides and LDL-C, reduced body weight and enhanced the caecal production of minor SCFAs. Furthermore, the two treatments reduced the caecal level of butyric acid while BSF increased that of propionic acid. In conclusion, BIF could exert anti-diabetic effects that might via a different mechanism from BSF.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ceco/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Ratos Wistar , Solubilidade
20.
Food Chem ; 305: 125452, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514050

RESUMO

Flakes are an assortment of grain products mainly consumed for breakfast. Most of them are important source of nutrients including minerals. Twenty commercial flakes from different raw materials were included in this study, both gluten (barley, rye, spelt, wheat) and gluten-free (amaranth, buckwheat, corn, quinoa, millet, oat, rice, teff). The content of minerals (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn), dietary fiber (total, soluble and insoluble), tannins and phytates was determined. Moreover, the phytates:mineral molar ratios and the percentage of the realization of mineral requirements were calculated. For the first time the mineral bioavailability from the gluten and gluten-free flakes was evaluated and compared. It allowed indicating amaranth and teff products as flakes with the highest impact on the realization of daily requirements for minerals, especially for magnesium and iron. This aspect is particularly important for people on a gluten-free diet who often represent mineral deficiencies.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Minerais/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Taninos/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Fagopyrum/química , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Glutens/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Milhetes/química , Milhetes/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA