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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121704, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276990

RESUMO

Rhodococcus sp. YHY01 was studied to utilize various lignin derived aromatic compounds. It was able to utilize p-coumaric acid, cresol, and 2,6 dimethoxyphenol and resulted in biomass production i.e. 0.38 g dcw/L, 0.25 g dcw/L and 0.1 g dcw/L, and lipid accumulation i.e. 49%, 40%, 30%, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for p-coumaric acid (13.4 mM), cresol (7.9 mM), and 2,6 dimethoxyphenol (3.4 mM) was analyzed. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solubilized barley straw lignin fraction was used as a carbon source for Rhodococcus sp. YHY01 and resulted in 0.130 g dcw/L with 39% w/w lipid accumulation. Major fatty acids were palmitic acid (C16:0) 51.87%, palmitoleic acid (C16:l) 14.90%, and oleic acid (C18:1) 13.76%, respectively. Properties of biodiesel produced from barley straw lignin were as iodine value (IV) 27.25, cetane number (CN) 65.57, cold filter plugging point (CFPP) 14.36, viscosity (υ) 3.81, and density (ρ) 0.86.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Hordeum/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Rhodococcus/metabolismo , Biomassa , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lignina/química
2.
Food Chem ; 293: 32-40, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151618

RESUMO

Low alcohol hulless barley wine (HW) is a popular beverage among the highland areas in China. It is known to have several health benefits due to the presence of ß-glucan and antioxidant compounds. Therefore, the total ß-glucan content, total phenols and flavonoids of HW samples from the highland areas of Sichuan province and Tibet were determined in this study. The results indicated that HW is abundant in both ß-glucan (54-76 mg/L) and phenolic compounds (131-178 mg/L). Moreover, this study also investigated the flavor and aroma characteristics of HW samples. A total of forty six volatile aroma substances were identified by GC-MS. The HWs could be classified into three distinct groups in terms of the region of origin according to the results of PCA based on the GC-MS data. These findings provide a useful foundation for further study of the health benefits and the flavor characteristics of HW in highland areas.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/análise , Hordeum/química , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , beta-Glucanas/análise , China , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hordeum/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Paladar
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 215-224, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181509

RESUMO

Plants are usually exposed to several types of abiotic stress in regular field conditions. The lipid profile of barley homozygous lines exposed to drought, heat, salinity, and their combinations, was investigated in the present study. Free fatty acids, free sterols, and diacylglycerols were the most abundant classes (∼8.0% of plant material). The genetic background significantly impacted the lipid composition rather than the treatments, and diacylglycerols were the only lipid class affected by salinity (1.84 mg/100 mg plant tissue; ∼33% reduction). However, the genotype × treatment interaction analysis revealed that the lipid and sterol compositions depended on both genotype and environment. Our results suggest that inborn stress tolerance in barley is manifested by enhanced accumulation of most lipids, mainly sterols, especially in heat/drought-stressed plants. In addition, expression of the LTP2 gene may be indirectly involved in the abiotic stress reaction of barley by mediating intracellular transport of some lipid classes.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Lipídeos/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Esteróis/química , Estresse Fisiológico , Adaptação Fisiológica , Diglicerídeos/química , Secas , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Hordeum/genética , Temperatura Alta , Fenótipo , Fitosteróis/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Salinidade
4.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(6): 877-886, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154743

RESUMO

Brewing with buckwheat as an ingredient has been proven to be successful in several previous studies. However, few studies have focused on the effects of buckwheat on the rutin content and antioxidant activity of beer. In order to develop a lager beer with high rutin content and desirable sensory characteristics, tartary buckwheat malt was used as a brewing adjunct. The results showed that the rutin-degrading enzyme was the key factor affecting the rutin content in the wort and beer. Compared to beer made using the common mashing method, the rutin content in the buckwheat beers produced using an improved mashing method was approximately 60 times higher. The total flavonoid contents in buckwheat beers also depended strongly on the mashing methods, ranging from 530.75 to 1,704.68 mg QE/l. The rutin-rich beers also showed better oxidative stability during forced-aging. Meanwhile, the buckwheat beers were found to be acceptable in terms of the main quality attributes, flavor, and taste.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Fagopyrum/química , Rutina/química , Amilases/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Fermentação , Flavonoides/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Quercetina/química , Rutina/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/metabolismo , Sensação , Paladar
5.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 143, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constipation, a common health problem, causes discomfort and affects the quality of life. This study intended to evaluate the potential laxative effect of triple fermented barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) extract (FBe), produced by saccharification, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Weissella cibaria, on loperamide (LP)-induced constipation in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, a well-established animal model of spastic constipation. METHODS: Spastic constipation was induced via oral treatment with LP (3 mg/kg) for 6 days 1 h before the administration of each test compound. Similarly, FBe (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) was orally administered to rats once a day for 6 days. The changes in number, weight, and water content of fecal, motility ratio, colonic mucosa histology, and fecal mucous contents were recorded. The laxative properties of FBe were compared with those of a cathartic stimulant, sodium picosulfate. A total of 48 (8 rats in 6 groups) healthy male rats were selected and following 10 days of acclimatization. Fecal pellets were collected one day before administration of the first dose and starting from immediately after the fourth administration for a duration of 24 h. Charcoal transfer was conducted after the sixth and final administration of the test compounds. RESULTS: In the present study, oral administration of 100-300 mg/kg of FBe exhibited promising laxative properties including intestinal charcoal transit ratio, thicknesses and mucous producing goblet cells of colonic mucosa with decreases of fecal pellet numbers and mean diameters remained in the lumen of colon, mediated by increases in gastrointestinal motility. CONCLUSION: Therefore, FBe might act as a promising laxative agent and functional food ingredient to cure spastic constipation, with less toxicity observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/dietoterapia , Alimentos Fermentados/análise , Hordeum/microbiologia , Laxantes/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Animais , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Alimentos Fermentados/microbiologia , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Humanos , Laxantes/química , Loperamida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Weissella/metabolismo
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 149, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The kidney is an essential organ required by the body to perform several important functions. Nephrotoxicity is one of the most prevailing kidney complications that result from exposure to an extrinsic or intrinsic toxicant, which increase the need for the acquisition of proper remedies. Recently, natural remedies are gaining great attention owed to the fact that they have fewer side effects than most conventional drugs. METHODS: The current study recorded a new therapeutic role of the well-known medicinal plants for kidney stones [Ammi visnaga (AVE), Petroselinum crispum (PCE), Hordeum vulgare (HVE), and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (CSE)]. Hence, the aqueous extracts of these plants examined against CCl4-induced toxicity in mammalian kidney (Vero) cells. RESULTS: These extracts showed the presence of varying amounts of phenolic and triterpenoid compounds, as well as vitamin C. Owing to the antioxidant potential of these constituents, the extracts suppressed the CCl4-induced oxidative stress significantly (p < 0.05) by scavenging the reactive oxygen species and enhancing the cellular antioxidant indices. In addition, these extracts significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the CCl4-induced inflammation by inhibiting the gene expression of NF-кB, iNOS, and in turn the level of nitric oxide. Consequently, the morphological appearance of Vero cells, cellular necrosis, and the gene expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (a marker of renal injury) after these treatments were improved. The AVE improved CCl4-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress in Vero cells and showed a more potent effect than the commonly used alpha-Ketoanalogue drug (ketosteril) in most of the studied assays. CONCLUSION: Thus, the studied plant extracts, especially AVE can be considered as promising extracts in the management of nephrotoxicity and other chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation.


Assuntos
Ammi/química , Cymbopogon/química , Hordeum/química , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Petroselinum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cercopithecus aethiops , Rim/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico/imunologia , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Sementes/química , Células Vero
7.
J Chromatogr A ; 1600: 55-64, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036362

RESUMO

Plant defense protein α-amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) have been proposed as one of the triggers of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, however there have been no focused studies on their optimal extraction and quantitation from cereal grains. The efficiency of extraction is of utmost interest for the downstream detection and characterisation. In the present study, three extraction buffers and two modified protocols were investigated using LC-MRM-MS in order to examine their ability to efficiently and repeatably extract ATIs from selected barley cultivars. Initially, three extraction buffers IPA/DTT, urea and Tris-HCl were used to extract ATIs from two selected barley cultivars, Commander and Hindmarsh. The results obtained from the preliminary study showed that IPA/DTT and urea-based buffer extraction could yield ∼70% and ∼45% more ATIs, respectively than a buffer based on Tris-HCl extraction, with all methods showing high repeatability (CV < 15%). A multi-step protocol, employing IPA/DTT and urea improved the extraction efficiency in comparison to the single buffer extraction protocols (p<0.0001). When solutions from parallel extractions using IPA/DTT and urea were combined, the results were comparable (p = 0.99) with a sequential multi-step IPA/DTT-urea protocol. However, the repeatability of the combined process was compromised, as discerned by greater variation (CV>30%). The optimised sequential two-step extraction protocol was successfully used to extract and quantify ATIs from 12 barley cultivars. LC-MS analysis revealed that cv Yagan and cv Scope contain the higher levels (∼143% relative to the average barley ATI content), whereas cultivars Fleet (61%), Baudin (77%) and Commander (79%) contained the lowest levels. The libraries of ATIs identified and the quantitative methods described here provide a foundation for the future application of MS-based quantitative methodologies to detect and quantify ATIs in barley varieties and in food products.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Hordeum/química , Proteômica/métodos , Inibidores da Tripsina/análise , Inibidores da Tripsina/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Cromatografia Líquida , Grão Comestível/química , Glutens/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(4): 53-62, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078153

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones regulate the development and maturation of the brain by maintaining levels of neurotransmitters and their related metabolites. The present work emphasizes the neural dysfunction in the brain caused by hypothyroidism and the potential role of Hordeum vulgare (water soluble barley, (B)) in ameliorating these effects. The study was conducted on euothyroid and hypothyroid adult female rats. The induction of hypothyroidism was conducted by oral-administration of neo-mercazole (5.0 mg.kg-1) daily for thirty days prior the study and terminated at the end of the study. The groups were assigned as; euthyroid (EU) and hypothyroid (H) groups and other two groups were treated with 100 mg.kg-1 water soluble barley; daily for one month and assigned as (EU+B) and (H+B) groups. Compared with EU and EU+B groups, a reduction in fT4, and ERK1/2 levels and elevation in TSH in brain tissue, Moreover, a  significant elevation in 8-OH deoxyguanosine and caspase-3 levels, confirmed with increase percentage DNA-damage in the brain and thyroid tissues in hypothyroid control rats. Furthermore, a significant decrease in all monoamines levels in different brain areas and downregulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytreptamin receptors transcription, with a significant increase in excitatory amino acids and no significant change in the levels inhibitory amino acids were recorded in control hypothyroid group. Treatment of hypothyroid group with Hordeum vulgare improved the above-mentioned adverse impact by ameliorating the thyroid hormone levels with depleting the DNA-degradation and elaborating the levels of neurotransmitters with related receptors and amino acids in brain areas.  Water soluble Hordeum vulgare as a phytonutrient, is safe and efficient agent in ameliorating the neural dysfunction resulting from hypothyroidism status in adult female rats.


Assuntos
Monoaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(22): 6324-6335, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083935

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of growth conditions and genotype on the barley yield and ß-glucan content of grain and malt. Total and water-extractable (W-E) ß-glucans and their molecular and structural properties were analyzed in nine 2-row barley varieties and corresponding malts. The total ß-glucan content of barley is not influenced by year or by the cultivar, while the grain yield and W-E ß-glucan content are significantly influenced by the year. Barley W-E ß-glucans have a molecular weight between 1.0 × 105 and 4.0 × 105 Da and a random coil conformation. ß-Glucan levels in malt are significantly lower than in barley, and neither the total nor the W-E ß-glucans are influenced by environmental factors or genetic aspects. W-E ß-glucans are mainly composed of fractions with Mw values below 1.0 × 105 Da. In conclusion, the molecular characterization of ß-glucans could represent a powerful tool to understand their role in the brewing process.


Assuntos
Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , beta-Glucanas/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Genótipo , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(22): 6432-6444, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095381

RESUMO

Liquid feeding strategies have been devised with the aim of enhancing grain nutrient availability for livestock. It is characterized by a steeping/soaking period that softens the grains and initiates mobilization of seed storage reserves. The present study uses 2D gel-based proteomics to investigate the role of proteolysis and reduction by thioredoxins over a 48 h steeping period by monitoring protein abundance dynamics in barley-based liquid feed samples supplemented with either protease inhibitors or NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin (NTR/Trx). Several full-length storage proteins were only identified in the water-extractable fraction of feed containing protease inhibitors, illustrating significant inhibition of proteolytic activities arising during the steeping period. Application of functional NTR/Trx to liquid feed reductively increased the solubility of known and potentially new Trx-target proteins, e.g., outer membrane protein X, and their susceptibility to proteolysis. Thus, the NTR/Trx system exhibits important potential as a feed additive to enhance nutrient digestibility in monogastric animals.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Hordeum/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/química , Tiorredoxinas/química , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hordeum/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sementes/química , Sementes/enzimologia , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/metabolismo , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo
11.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(2): 284-288, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A new method for the determination of 16 amino acids in Hulless barley which were planted in the Tibetan plateau of China was established by the amino acid analyzer(AAA), and the amino acid was graded. METHODS: The samples were subjected to hydrolysis by the hydrochloric acid solution containing 0. 05% thioglycolic acid, and were carried out by AAA and hydrolyzed amino acid column PH(4. 6 mm×60 mm, 3 µm). The external standard method was used for quantitative analysis. RESULTS: This hydrolysis pretreatment process could effectively prevent oxidation of methionine. The recoveries were 93. 2%-96. 7%, and the relative standard deviations were no more than 2. 9%(n=6). As the cereal-restricted amino acid, Hulless barley restricted amino acid lysine was the content of up to 0. 367 g/100 g, and the lysine score(AAS) was 62. 4, which was better than the corresponding scores of wheat, glutinous rice, corn and millet. CONCLUSION: The method is accurate, and has good repeatability which could meet the requirements for determination of 16 amino acids in Hulless barley.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Hordeum/química , China , Hidrólise , Zea mays
12.
J Food Sci ; 84(6): 1353-1361, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066915

RESUMO

Gibberellic acid (GA3) was added to three types of beer barley, and the chemical changes to GA3 during the beer brewing process were studied using HPLC. The results demonstrated that the GA3 concentration decreased throughout the malting, mashing, and boiling processes and that no GA3 was detected in the congress wort. A new substance, herein called Substance A, was detected by HPLC analysis using a C18 column; this substance exhibited retention characteristics different from GA3. The concentration of Substance A increased throughout the malting, mashing, and boiling processes. Mass spectrometry revealed that Substance A has the same molecular weight as GA3 and nuclear magnetic resonance studies determined that Substance A is a structural isomer of GA3. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study developed a new idea to understand GA3 behavior during the brewing, which provided a practical reference for food safety in beer and other fields using GA3 as a food additive.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Giberelinas/química , Hordeum/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Isomerismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas
13.
J Food Sci ; 84(6): 1340-1345, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112293

RESUMO

Barley sprouts and wheat sprouts have received much interest as functional foods in many countries. In this study, the effects of heat processing and extraction temperature on the bioactive components and antioxidative properties were examined in barley and wheat sprout teas. Both barley and wheat sprout teas were processed with two different methods (steaming or pan-roasting). Crude protein was increased, and moisture content was the lowest, in the roasted barley and wheat sprout teas. Total phenolics content and flavonoid contents were significantly higher in the roasted teas than in the steamed teas. Vitamin C content was the highest after an extraction temperature of 55 °C (24.05 mg/mL) in the roasted wheat sprout tea. Both roasted barley and wheat sprout teas exhibited the most antioxidative effects in vitro, demonstrated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and nitrite-scavenging activities. Therefore, the roasting method can be considered an appropriate technique for the production of barley and wheat sprout teas. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Barley and wheat sprouts have received much attention in recent years as functional food materials in many countries and can be consumed as a form of tea. Heat processing methods such as steaming and roasting were applied and compared to increase the bioactive components and antioxidative activity in barley and wheat sprout teas. We found that roasting showed higher bioactive components and antioxidative activity than steaming in both barley and wheat sprout teas. In addition, wheat sprouts tea showed better bioactive components and antioxidative activity compared with the barley sprout tea.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bebidas/análise , Hordeum/química , Temperatura Alta , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plântula/química , Triticum/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Culinária , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Picratos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Chá
14.
Food Funct ; 10(4): 2176-2185, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942230

RESUMO

Consumption of cereal foods has been related to health improvement, which is partly because of their phytochemicals. To explore the functionality and effective application of barley malt, a widely consumed nutritional food, the entire phytochemical profiles and bioactivities of three common barley malt products obtained under different roasting temperatures were analyzed. Results showed that they are abundant in phenolics including flavonoids with high antioxidative activities, as displayed by cellular antioxidant activity (CAA), oxygen radical absorbance capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, and DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. Among the three barley malts, the raw barley malt bound extract and the dark barley malt free extract exhibited higher CAA values, while the raw barley malt contained a negligible amount of bound phenolics. An efficacious antiproliferation capacity of the dark barley malt free extract was detected in Caco-2 cells. Results also provide an insight into the positive attributes of thermal processing for the biofunctionality of barley malts, especially through the tuning of the accessibility and variability of beneficial phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Hordeum/química , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células CACO-2 , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889938

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to reveal an interactive curve-linear relationship between altered carbohydrate macromolecular structure traits of hulless barley cultivars and nutrient utilization, biodegradation, as well as bioavailability. The cultivars had different carbohydrate macromolecular traits, including amylose (A), amylopectin (AP), and ß-glucan contents, as well as their ratios (A:AP). The parameters assessed included: (1) chemical and nutrient profiles; (2) protein and carbohydrate sub-fractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS); (3) total digestible nutrients (TDN) and energy values; and (4) in situ rumen degradation kinetics of nutrients and truly absorbed nutrient supply. The hulless barley samples were analyzed for starch (ST), crude protein (CP), total soluble crude protein (SCP), etc. The in situ incubation technique was performed to evaluate the degradation kinetics of the nutrients, as well as the effective degradability (ED) and bypass nutrient (B). Results showed that the carbohydrates (g/kg DM) had a cubic relationship (p < 0.05), with the A:AP ratio and ß-glucan level; while the starch level presented a quadratic relationship (p < 0.05), with the A:AP ratio and cubic relationship (p < 0.05), with ß-glucan level. The CP and SCP contents had a cubic relationship (p < 0.05) with the A:AP ratio and ß-glucan level. The altered carbohydrate macromolecular traits were observed to have strongly curve-linear correlations with protein and carbohydrate fractions partitioned by CNCPS. For the in situ protein degradation kinetics, there was a quadratic effect of A:AP ratio on the rumen undegraded protein (RUP, g/kg DM) and a linear effect of ß-glucan on the bypass protein (BCP, g/kg DM). The A:AP ratio and ß-glucan levels had quadratic effects (p < 0.05) on BCP and EDCP. For ST degradation kinetics, the ST degradation rate (Kd), BST and EDST showed cubic effects (p < 0.05) with A:AP ratio. The ß-glucan level showed a cubic effect on EDST (g/kg DM) and a quadratic effect on BST (g/kg ST or g/kg DM) and EDST (g/kg DM). In conclusion, alteration of carbohydrate macromolecular traits in hulless barley significantly impacted nutrient utilization, metabolic characteristics, biodegradation, and bioavailability. Altered carbohydrate macromolecular traits curve-linearly affected the nutrient profiles, protein and carbohydrate fractions, total digestible nutrient, energy values, and in situ degradation kinetics.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/química , Grão Comestível/química , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Disponibilidade Biológica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 130: 595-604, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840860

RESUMO

Barley starch citrate (BSC), a type IV resistant starch (RS) is associated with numerous health benefits when incorporated in bakery products. Physicochemical, pasting and rheological properties of the wheat starch (WS) and wheat starch-barley starch citrate (WS-BSC) blends and textural and sensorial attributes of wheat starch noodles incorporated with BSC at 10, 20, 30 and 40% were evaluated. As the level of BSC increases, physico-chemical properties were reduced. Except pasting temperature all pasting parameters were decreased as the proportion of BSC increased in WS. All WS-BSC blends possessed decreased viscosity with increasing resistant starch type IV (RS4), which was well described by the Herschel-Bulkley model. As compared to WS, Firmness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of BSC blends gels were decreased by addition of BSC. Study revealed a remarkable decrease in resistance of wheat starch gel by increasing the BCS substitution level. The results concluded the possibility of blending of BSC with WS up to 20% to produce noodles of acceptable quality.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Hordeum/química , Reologia , Amido/análise , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Solubilidade , Temperatura Ambiente , Viscosidade
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(9): 4445-4451, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive cropping systems have caused widespread Zn deficiency, low nutritional quality of cereals and environmental problems. The aim of the microplot field experiment reported in this paper was to assess the option of using Zn in conjunction with urea fertilization in order to reduce N rate and to maintain the yield level and grain quality but minimizing environmental risks. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was cultivated in a calcareous soil under semi-realistic conditions. Combinations of four Zn levels, applied by spraying aqueous solutions of ZnSO4 , and three N levels, applied by spreading granular urea, were tested. RESULTS: Zn and N showed a synergistic effect, increasing yield and Zn content in all plant parts and protein content in grain. A low Zn dosage of 5 kg ha-1 was sufficient to significantly increase the amount of bioavailable Zn in soil and significantly raise its concentration in plant material and also the protein content in grain. The remobilization of Zn from leaf tissue to grain was dependent on the availability of Zn and was only crucial when its bioavailability was low. CONCLUSIONS: A Zn dosage of 5 kg ha-1 enhanced the agronomic efficiency of N by 15.5 kg grain kg-1 N. The Zn applied to the soil permitted a reduction in the rate of N with only a small decrease in barley grain yield and nutritional value. However, due to the interannual variability in rainfall, which is characteristic of Mediterranean climates, further studies will be necessary to confirm and extend these results. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Hordeum/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Biofortificação , Fertilizantes/análise , Hordeum/química , Zinco/análise
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(9): 4460-4467, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young barley grass powder contains abundant nutrition and its antioxidant substances are severely impaired by radiation (60 Co) sterilization. To overcome product quality degradation, radiofrequency pasteurization was conducted using pilot-scale radiofrequency equipment (27 MHz, 6 kW) with electrode gaps of 12, 14 and 16 cm, while hot-air (80 °C) pasteurization was used for comparison. RESULTS: Assessment suggested that uneven radiofrequency heating was improved for the 14 cm electrode gap. With an increase of electrode gap, microbial inactivation needs more energy consumption. A minimum energy consumption of 970 J g-1 was required for 1 log-reduction of colonies. Radiofrequency pasteurization retained better antioxidant substances, lightness (L*), green color (a*) and odors in barley grass powder, compared with hot-air sterilization. Contents of flavonoid and chlorophyll were 5.82 and 4.87 g kg-1 respectively, using the 14 cm electrode gap. Additionally, radiofrequency pasteurization led to an improvement in sourness, bitterness and umami tastes. CONCLUSIONS: Radiofrequency pasteurization would be a superior alternative for the pasteurization of barley grass powder. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Hordeum/química , Pasteurização/métodos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Clorofila/análise , Cor , Flavonoides/análise , Hordeum/microbiologia , Hordeum/efeitos da radiação , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Pós/análise , Ondas de Rádio , Paladar
19.
Molecules ; 24(5)2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813540

RESUMO

Barley contains high level of ß-1,3-1,4-glucans (BBGs) which can be fermented by microbes and are a potential prebiotic. In the present study, native BBG with low viscosity and a MW of 319 kDa was depolymerized by acid hydrolysis to produce a series of four structurally characterized fragments with MWs ranging from 6⁻104 kDa. In vitro fermentation of these BBG samples by infant faecal microbiome was evaluated using a validated deep-well plate protocol as parallel miniature bioreactors. Microbial taxa were identified using 16S amplicon sequencing after 40 h of anaerobic fermentation. Bioinformatics analysis including diversity indexes, predicted metagenomic KEGG functions and predicted phenotypes were performed on the sequenced data. Short chain fatty acids and dissolved ammonia were quantified and the SCFAs/NH3 ratio was used to evaluate the eubiosis/dysbiosis potential. Correlation analysis showed that most of the parameters investigated showed a parabolic function instead of a monotonous function with the BBG samples having different MWs. Among the five BBGs, it was concluded that BBG with an intermediate MW of 28 kDa is the most promising candidate to be developed as a novel prebiotic.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Hordeum/química , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fermentação , Humanos , Hidrólise , Lactente , Peso Molecular , Prebióticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Viscosidade
20.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(1): 174-181, 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922050

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Young green barley is the most valuable source of nutrients and bioactive substances. It has a broad spectrum of health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, anti-depressant, anti-atherosclerotic and anticancer. The presented study is an attempt to extend this knowledge with particular emphasis on the possibility of using green barley in colon cancer prevention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Extracts were prepared on the basis of two commercial products: ground dried barley grass (YGB INT) and powder of young green barley juice (YGB GW). Their influence on colon epithelial cells (CCD841 CoN) viability and proliferation were analyzed by LDH and MTT assays. Anticancer properties of extracts were screened on colon cancer cell lines (LS180, HT-29) by MTT and BrdU assays. Changes in cells morphology induced by extracts were investigated after May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining. RESULTS: Tested extracts were not toxic against CCD841 CoN and did not affected their proliferation or morphology (LDH test, MTT test, microscopy observation). The MTT revealed that extracts significantly inhibited proliferation of colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Results of BrdU test confirmed antiproliferative properties of extracts, but opposite to MTT test, indicated YGB GW as a better anticancer agent. Light microscopy observation proved the data obtained from both MTT and BrdU tests and additionally suggested the ability of the extracts to induce necrosis in LS180 and HT-29 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that YGB extracts specifically inhibit proliferation of colon cancer cells without any undesirable effect on colon epithelial cells. Obtained results will provide a rationele for the future development of dietary supplements which could be beneficial in colon cancer chemoprevention.


Assuntos
Quimioprevenção , Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Hordeum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HT29 , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Folhas de Planta/química
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