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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 348, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No previous study directly compares the fixed day-5 initiation versus the flexible initiation of GnRH antagonist administration in IVF/ICSI for those patients who are predicted as high ovarian responders without PCOS. To evaluate whether the number of oocytes retrieved is different by using the two GnRH antagonist protocols in Chinese women with predicted high ovarian response except PCOS. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial of 201 infertile women with predicted high ovarian response except PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization. Ovary stimulation was performed using recombinant FSH and GnRH antagonists. GnRH antagonist ganirelix (0.25 mg/d) was started either on day 5 of stimulation (fixed group) or when LH was > 10 IU/L, and/or a follicle with mean diameter > 12 mm was present, and/or serum E2 was > 600 pg/ml. Patient monitoring was initiated on day 3 of stimulation in flexible group. RESULT(S): No significant difference was observed between the fixed and flexible groups regarding the number of oocytes retrieved (16.72 ± 7.25 vs. 17.47 ± 5.88, P = 0.421), the Gonadotropin treatment duration (9.53 ± 1.07 vs. 9.67 ± 1.03, P = 0.346) and total Gonadotropin dose (1427.75 ± 210.6 vs. 1455.94 ± 243.44, P = 0.381). GnRH antagonist treatment duration in fixed protocol was statistically longer than the flexible protocol (6.57 ± 1.17 vs 6.04 ± 1.03, P = 0.001). There was no premature LH surge in either protocol. CONCLUSION(S): Fixed GnRH antagonist administration on day 5 of stimulation appear to achieve a comparable oocyte retrieved compared with flexible antagonist administration. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02635607 posted on December 16, 2015 in clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Gonadotropina Coriônica/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante Humano/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/fisiopatologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Fish Biol ; 98(4): 1137-1143, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314092

RESUMO

Despite several studies on fish hormone therapy, finding new candidates may provide more reproductive efficiency in artificial propagation. Kisspeptins, being upstream of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, appear to play a key role in the reproduction process. In the present study, the effect of different variants of kisspeptide, including goldfish (Carassius auratus) kiss1 kisspeptin (Kiss1), human kisspeptin (Hkiss), and their combination (Kiss1 + H), on the reproductive indices of goldfish broodstock in comparison to Ovaprim (a typical synthetic Gnrh hormone) was investigated. Peptides (Kiss1 and Hkiss) were synthesized using a solid-phase synthesis approach. Kiss1 and Hkiss were injected at a dose of 100 µg kg-1 body weight, blood samples were taken 6 h after injection and sex hormones (E2, Dhp, and 11-Kt), gonadotropins (Lh and Fsh), cortisol and reproductive indices (fecundity, fertilization and hatching percentage) were measured. The results showed a significant increase of plasma sex hormones and gonadotropins in fish treated with kisspeptins. In addition, the cortisol and lipoprotein lipase in Kiss1, Hkiss and Kiss1 + H were remarkably increased compared to Ovaprim. In conclusion, kisspeptins could be a more suitable candidate than Ovaprim for accelerating and synchronizing oocyte maturation in the fisheries industry.


Assuntos
Carpa Dourada/fisiologia , Kisspeptinas/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Domperidona/administração & dosagem , Domperidona/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Estradiol/sangue , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Progesterona/sangue , Progesterona/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/metabolismo
3.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13477, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372383

RESUMO

For the timed re-insemination at the minimal interbreeding interval, cows were treated with a progesterone (P4 )-releasing intravaginal device from Days 13-15 to 21 post-insemination (Day 0 = estrus), followed by plasma P4 assay on Day 23 and then subjected to the Experiments 1 and 2. In Experiment 1, of 18 cows, 6 cows were determined as luteolysis with low (<1 ng/ml) plasma P4 concentrations on Day 23 and ovulated on Days 24 (3 cows), 25 (1 cow), and 26 (1 cow) except a cow affected by ovarian quiescence. In Experiment 2, all cows were treated with GnRH on Day 23. Cows with low (<1 ng/ml) plasma P4 concentrations on Day 23 were diagnosed as non-pregnant and subjected to the re-insemination in the morning of Day 24 irrespective of estrous signs. Of 36 cows, 15 cows were diagnosed as being non-pregnant on Day 23. Fourteen cows of the non-pregnant animals were re-inseminated in the morning of Day 24 irrespective of estrous signs and the pregnancy rate of re-insemination was 36%. The conception rates of initial and re-inseminations were 50% (18/36) and 36% (5/14), respectively. The overall pregnancy rate by adding the rates of initial and re-inseminations was 64% (23/36).


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Taxa de Gravidez , Testes de Gravidez/veterinária , Prenhez , Animais , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/instrumentação , Luteólise , Ovário/fisiologia , Ovulação , Gravidez , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Progesterona/sangue , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(3): 171-176, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687115

RESUMO

Background: Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone agonist (GnRHa) - long and short acting - is used for pituitary down regulation prior to ovarian stimulation in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. However, there are controversies in the literature as to their effectiveness, dose of gonadotrophin needed subsequently for ovarian stimulation and the clinical outcome. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of single-dose long-acting GnRHa - goserelin - and daily dose short-acting GnRHa - buserelin - for pituitary down regulation and their clinical outcome in IVF treatment. Materials and Methods: : This prospective comparative study was undertaken at the IVF centre in National Hospital Abuja, a public tertiary hospital in Nigeria. A total of 114 IVF patients were consecutively allocated into either long-acting GnRHa - goserelin - 3.6 mg single dose (Group A) or short-acting GnRHa - buserelin - 0.5 mg daily (Group B) both starting on day 21 of the cycle preceding the IVF treatment. The effects on pituitary down regulation and treatment outcomes were compared. Results: Time taken (days) to achieve down regulation (22.6 ± 4.3 vs. 26.1 ± 8.0; P = 0.084) and the mean number of human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) doses used (57.7 ± 13.7 vs. 54.2 ± 16.7; P = 0.222) were similar in the two groups. Although the number of oocytes retrieved (9.9 ± 6.7 vs. 7.2 ± 5.0; P = 0.02) and fertilised (6.2 ± 4.4 vs. 4.6 ± 3.5; P = 0.04) were significantly higher in Group A, there was no statistically significant difference in the number of embryos (4.4 ± 2.6 vs. 4.0 ± 3.0; P = 0.850) and clinical pregnancy rate at 6 weeks (49.2% vs. 43.6%; odds ratio 1.249; confidence interval = 0.579-2.612; P = 0.578) in both the groups. While group B had a significantly higher number of hospital visits (P = 0.0001) as well as a higher number of injections (P = 0.0001), the mean cost of GnRHa and gonadotrophin used was significantly higher in Group A (P = 0.043). Conclusion: Single-dose long-acting GnRHa is as effective as daily dose short-acting GnRHa for pituitary desensitisation prior to controlled ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Adulto , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Nigéria , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6600-6611, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359997

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of a qualitative on-farm milk progesterone test to predict non-pregnancy in dairy cows. Lactating Jersey cows (n = 752) were subjected to the 5-d Cosynch-72 protocol for timed artificial insemination (AI; d -8 GnRH, d -3 and -2 PGF2α, d 0 GnRH and timed AI). Milk was sampled on d -3, 0, 7, and 28 relative to timed AI, and progesterone concentrations were assessed using a lateral flow immunochromatographic test. Samples were classified into 3 groups indicative of high (hP4; test line not visible or lighter than reference), intermediate (iP4; test line similar to reference), and low (lP4; test line darker than reference) progesterone concentrations. Blood was sampled from a subset of cows (n = 50) on d -3, 0, 7, and 28 relative to timed AI, and plasma progesterone concentrations were determined by RIA. Cows were observed daily for signs of estrus based on removal of tail paint. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography on d 34 and 62 after AI. Plasma progesterone concentrations across all time points were greater for hP4 (3.13 ± 0.20 ng/mL) followed by iP4 (1.12 ± 0.27 ng/mL) and lP4 (0.38 ± 0.23 ng/mL). Cows in lP4 on d -3 had lesser pregnancy per AI (P/AI) compared with iP4 and hP4 (17.4, 38.3, and 37.2%, respectively). For measurements performed on the day of AI (d 0), lP4 cows had greater P/AI compared with hP4 and iP4 (34.8, 0.0, and 15.6%, respectively), and the risk of pregnancy loss tended to be greater for iP4 compared with lP4. Cows in lP4 on d 7 after AI had lesser P/AI than those in iP4 and hP4 (12.0, 34.0, and 37.7%, respectively). Cows classified as lP4 on d 28 had the least P/AI on d 62 followed by iP4 and then hP4 (0.8, 9.2, and 59.4%, respectively) and were at the greatest risk for pregnancy loss (lP4 = 74.6%, iP4 = 8.4%, hP4 = 7.1%). Sensitivity and specificity to predict non-pregnancy on d 62 were 0.86 and 0.32 (d -3), 0.95 and 0.15 (d 0), 0.93 and 0.23 (d 7), and 0.99 and 0.53 (d 28), respectively. On-farm milk progesterone profiling using a lateral flow immunochromatographic test was able to identify cows without functional corpus luteum and to predict fertility outcomes following timed AI.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Fertilidade , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Progesterona/análise , Animais , Corpo Lúteo/metabolismo , Estro , Sincronização do Estro , Fazendas , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Gravidez
6.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(2): 121-127, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236310

RESUMO

Objective To determine whether first-voided urinary LH (FV-ULH) - level measurement can adequately assess pubertal suppression as much as standard tests can. Subjects and methods The study group included patients with central precocious puberty and rapidly progressing early puberty who received up to 3 - 4 doses of GnRHa therapy monthly and did not have adequate hormonal suppression after GnRH stimulation (90-minute LH level > 4 IU/L). Design: All of the participants underwent an LHRH test just after admission to the study. According to the stimulated peak LH levels, the patients were divided into 2 groups and followed until the end of the first year of treatment. The concordance between FV-ULH and stimulated LH levels was assessed. Results The FV-ULH levels in patients with inadequate hormonal suppression were significantly high compared to patients with adequate hormonal suppression. FV-ULH levels were very strongly correlated with stimulated LH levels (r = 0.91). Its correlation with basal LH levels was significant (r = 0.65). However, this positive correlation was modestly weakened after the first year of treatment. The cutoff value for FV-ULH of 1.01 mIU/mL had the highest sensitivity (92.3%) and specificity (100%). Conclusion FV-ULH levels, using more reliable and sensitive assay methods, can be used to monitor the adequacy of GnRHa therapy.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Leuprolida/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Luteinizante/urina , Puberdade Precoce/diagnóstico , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/administração & dosagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Puberdade Precoce/tratamento farmacológico , Puberdade Precoce/urina , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol ; 33(4): 432-434, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catamenial precipitation of attacks of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is commonly treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHas). However, this leads to various adverse effects that might necessitate "add-back" therapy with estrogen. The literature on the efficacy and safety of such therapy is scarce. CASE: A 15-year-old girl presented to us with recurrent catamenial attacks of AIP. GnRHa therapy led to near-complete amelioration of the episodes but her bone density worsened as an adverse effect. To circumvent this, low-dose estrogen was added to her regimen as an "add-back" therapy, which was later coupled with cyclical progesterone. She continues to do well using this regimen, with no new episodes. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: GnRHa therapy with estrogen "add-back" is an attractive option for treating catamenial AIP episodes.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/efeitos adversos , Porfiria Aguda Intermitente/tratamento farmacológico , Progesterona/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Menstruação
8.
J Ovarian Res ; 13(1): 23, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with endometriosis and previous cystectomy may respond less well to gonadotropin stimulation, which results in fewer oocytes retrieved and poor pregnancy outcomes. Choosing an appropriate protocol for such populations is essential. This study involved an analysis of the effect of different controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols on the clinical outcomes of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) who underwent ovarian endometrioma cystectomy. METHODS: A total of 342 patients that underwent IVF-ET treatment at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital from January 1, 2013 to April 30, 2018 were included in this retrospective study. The patients were distributed into three groups according to the COS protocols, namely prolonged GnRH-agonist (Group A, n = 113), GnRH-antagonist (Group B, n = 121), and long GnRH-agonist (Group C, n = 108). The clinical and laboratory parameters of the three protocols were analyzed and a logistic regression of clinical pregnancy and live births was conducted. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the age, infertility duration, basic follicle stimulation hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), or estradiol (E2) levels as well as other baseline characteristics among groups (P > 0.05). The total gonadotrophin (Gn) dosage and duration tended to be less in the GnRH-antagonist group than in the others (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found in the implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate among the groups, but the prolonged GnRH-agonist group showed the highest rates. In addition, no significant differences were present in the number of retrieved oocytes, oocyte fertilization rate, embryo utilization rate, live birth rate, abortion rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, or multiple pregnancy rate in the three groups (P > 0.05). Age had a significant effect on both clinical pregnancy and live birth. CONCLUSION: For those DOR patients who had undergone ovarian endometriosis cystectomy, the prolonged GnRH-agonist protocol may achieve better clinical IVF-ET outcomes, but there were no significant differences from the other groups. The GnRH-antagonist protocol may reduce the cost and time of drug treatment. Age should be considered for its influence on pregnancy outcome. However, a larger sample size may be needed for further study.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , Transferência Embrionária , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Fertilização In Vitro , Nascido Vivo , Indução da Ovulação , Adulto , Cistectomia , Endometriose/cirurgia , Feminino , Preservação da Fertilidade , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 16, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oestrous synchronisation of cattle has been widely applied to accomplish simultaneous ovulation in animals and facilitate timed artificial insemination. The main aim of this study was to investigate the ovarian follicular growth and ovulatory response to oestrus and ovulation synchronisation in Norwegian Red heifers and cows. Oestrous cycles in 34 heifers and 10 cows from 4 herds were synchronised with two PGF2α analogue treatments 11 days apart, followed by GnRH analogue treatment for induction of ovulation. Thereafter, the ovaries were examined by ultrasonography at 3 h intervals until ovulation. RESULTS: The luteolytic effect of the PGF2α analogue was verified in 9 of 10 cows by progesterone contents in milk. Maximum physical activity of the cows occurred on average 69 h after PGF2α analogue treatment. An ovulatory response was recorded in 95.5% (42/44) of the animals. A significant difference in follicle size at ovulation was found between 2 of the herds. Animals with medium sized and large follicles and heifers aged > 16 months ovulated earlier than other animals. CONCLUSIONS: The applied sequence of treatments in the study was shown to be effective in synchronizing and inducing ovulation within a relatively narrow time interval in the Norwegian Red heifers and cows, consistent with findings in other cattle breeds.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Animais , Cruzamento , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955201

RESUMO

Efforts to understand biological functions and develop management schemes specific to Bos indicus-influenced cattle raised in tropical and subtropical environments are critical to meet the increasing global demand for protein. In the United States, B. indicus breeds are mostly used to generate B. indicus × B. taurus crosses with increased thermal and parasite tolerance, while retaining some productive characteristics of B. taurus cattle. Although crossbreeding represents a proven strategy to improve cattle adaptation almost immediately, research has also attempted to identify B. taurus genetics that can withstand subtropical and tropical climates. Reduced milk production and delayed reproductive maturation appear to be related with tropical adaptation of B. taurus breeds, as a means to conserve energy under stressful conditions and limited nutrition. Moreover, longevity may be the ultimate adaptation response to unfavorable environments, and retention of bulls and heifers from proven cows is the recommended strategy to improve longevity in B. indicus-influenced herds. Besides selection for longevity, other aspects should be considered when planning reproductive management in tropical and subtropical regions. Bos indicus and B. taurus breeds have multiple differences pertaining to reproductive function, including age at puberty, ovarian dynamics, and pregnancy development. Nutritional strategies such as the stair-step regimen, and use of exogenous progesterone (P4) inserts are options to hasten puberty attainment of late-maturing B. indicus-influenced heifers. Yet, limited pharmacological alternatives are available for reproductive management of B. indicus-influenced females in the United States, which rely on GnRH-based protocols not specifically designed to the reproductive function of B. indicus breeds. In contrast, hormonal protocols based on exogenous P4, estradiol esters, and equine chorionic gonadotropin are available for use in B. indicus females in South America. These include protocols tailored to prepubertal heifers, anestrous cows, and cycling nulliparous or parous females, which often yield pregnancy rates of 50% to fixed-time artificial insemination. The global dairy industry also faces similar challenges in increasing demand and production as the beef industry. Selection of cows capable of sustaining optimal milk yield, reproductive success, and health status in hot and humid conditions is essential for optimal dairy production in subtropical and tropical regions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Bovinos/fisiologia , Reprodução , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Estradiol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Longevidade , Masculino , Ovário/fisiologia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Clima Tropical
11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with diminished testosterone (Te) secretion, which may be attributed to Leydig cell dysfunction, decreased pituitary stimulation, and altered Te feedback. OBJECTIVE: To study all regulatory nodes-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and Leydig cell-in the same cohort of healthy men. STUDY DESIGN: This was a placebo-controlled, blinded, prospectively randomized cross-over study in 40 men, age range 19 to 73 years, and body mass index (BMI) range 20 to 34.3 kg/m2. A submaximal dose of the GnRH antagonist ganirelix was used to assess outflow of GnRH, by calculating the difference between LH output during the control arm and ganirelix arm. Ketoconazole (a steroidogenic inhibitor) was used to estimate feedback, by the difference in LH output during the ketoconazole and control arm. High-dose ganirelix and repeated LH infusions were used to measure testicular responsivity. Blood sampling was performed at 10-minute intervals. RESULTS: There were age-related, but not body composition-related decreases in estimated GnRH secretion, the feedback strength of Te on LH, and Leydig cell responsivity to LH, accompanied by changes in approximate entropy. Bioavailable Te levels were negatively related to both age and computed tomography (CT)-estimated abdominal visceral mass (AVF), without interaction between these variables. The LH response to a submaximal dose of GnRH was independent of age and AVF. CONCLUSION: Advancing age is associated with (1) attenuated bioavailable Te secretion caused by diminished GnRH outflow and not by decreased GnRH responsivity of the gonadotrope, (2) diminished testicular responsivity to infused LH pulses, and (3) partial compensation by diminished Te feedback on central gonadotropic regulation.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/farmacocinética , Testosterona/farmacocinética , Adulto , Idoso , Disponibilidade Biológica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/análogos & derivados , Voluntários Saudáveis , Antagonistas de Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Vida Independente , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Testículo/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 2006-2018, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785879

RESUMO

One strategy for improving fertility in cattle is administration of GnRH or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during the luteal phase, which increases progesterone (P4) secretion and delays luteolysis. To provide an overview of how GnRH or hCG treatment between 4 and 15 d after artificial insemination (AI) improves pregnancy per AI (P/AI) in cows, a meta-analysis was performed on 107 different trials from 52 publications. Data from 18,082 treated cows and 18,385 untreated controls were meta-analyzed. The meta-analysis explained the relative risk for P/AI with GnRH or hCG treatment under various circumstances. The results did not show any difference in P/AI between cows treated with hCG and cows treated with GnRH. Compared with no treatment, treatment with GnRH or hCG improved the chances of P/AI in cows with very poor (<30%) and poor (30.1 to 45%) fertility, whereas treatment did not benefit cows with very good fertility (>60.1%). Moreover, treatment with GnRH and hCG improved the chances of P/AI in primiparous cows. The improvement was much better in primiparous cows with very low fertility. Treatment with buserelin at a dose above 10 µg and with hCG at a dose above 2,500 IU was associated with increased chances of P/AI compared with lower doses. Treatment with GnRH 10 d after AI was also associated with increased chances of P/AI compared with earlier treatment. The present meta-analysis showed that the use of GnRH and hCG after AI should be focused on cows expected to have low or moderate fertility. Day and dose of treatment have to be considered as well.


Assuntos
Busserrelina/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Gonadotropina Coriônica/administração & dosagem , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Humanos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Fase Luteal , Luteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Progesterona/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Theriogenology ; 141: 202-210, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606718

RESUMO

The present study tested the hypothesis that administration of GnRH on day 5 of the estrous cycle in embryo transfer (ET) recipients would increase progesterone (P4) concentrations, embryo size, and improve fertility. Holstein and cross-bred Holstein heifers (n = 1562) were synchronized using a modified 5-day CIDR-Synch protocol as follows (All AM treatments): D-8, CIDR inserted; D-3, CIDR removed and PGF2α (500 µg cloprostenol) treatment; D-2, second PGF2α; D0, GnRH (G1, 100 µg gonadorelin acetate) to induce ovulation. On D5 in the afternoon, heifers were assigned in a completely randomized design to one of two treatments: Control (untreated) or GnRH (200 µg). Transfer of day 7 fresh IVP embryos was performed between D6 and D8 after G1. Data collected from each heifer included: embryo stage and quality, body condition score, technician performing ET, interval from G1 to ET, and number of previous transfers. All heifers were evaluated by transrectal ultrasonography on D5, D33, and D60 and a subset of heifers was scanned on D12 (n = 718; to determine ovulation to treatment) and another subset on D33 (n = 295; 16 s video to determine embryo and amniotic vesicle size). Serum P4 was determined from a subset of heifers on D12 (n = 467) and on D21 (n = 837) and pregnancy specific protein B (PSPB) on D28 (n = 843). Pregnancies per ET (P/ET) were analyzed by logistic regression and continuous outcomes by ANOVA. Ovulation to D5 GnRH, defined by the presence of an accessory CL on D12, was 83.9% (302/360) in GnRH-treated heifers vs. 3.3% (12/358) in Controls (P < 0.001). On D12, P4 was greater (P < 0.001) in GnRH-treated heifers (7.2 ±â€¯0.1 ng/ml) vs Controls (6.0 ±â€¯0.1 ng/ml). There was greater P/ET at D33 and D60 of pregnancy for Stage 7 than Stage 6 embryos. Treatment with GnRH did not alter P/ET with either embryo stage but decreased pregnancy loss between D33 and D60 in heifers receiving Stage 7 embryos. Presence of an accessory CL at the D33 pregnancy diagnosis was associated with a larger reduction in pregnancy loss from D33 to D60 in recipients of Stage 7 embryos (11.6 vs 27.6%). Although there was no GnRH effect on embryo size, the presence of an accessory CL was associated (P < 0.05) with larger amniotic vesicle volume in recipients of Stage 7 embryos. In addition, greater PSPB was linked to greater amniotic vesicle volume (P = 0.01) and to reduced pregnancy loss (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, treatment with GnRH on D5 caused ovulation and formation of an accessory CL, increased circulating P4, and reduced pregnancy loss in heifers receiving a Stage 7 but not a Stage 6 IVP embryo.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/prevenção & controle , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Bovinos , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Ovulação/fisiologia , Gravidez , Proteínas da Gravidez/sangue , Progesterona/sangue
14.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 148(1): 59-64, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist microdose flare-up and GnRH agonist flare-up protocols among women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial study among 131 women with poor ovarian reserve who underwent ICSI cycles at a single center in Tehran, Iran, between September 2008 and May 2014. Eligible women were randomly assigned to either the microdose flare-up (n=66) or flare-up (n=65) protocol. The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. RESULTS: Both groups were comparable in cycle cancellation, mean number of dominant follicles, retrieved oocytes, and metaphase II oocytes. Number of stimulation days (P=032) and endometrial thickness (P=0.001) were significantly higher, and gonadotropin dose was non-significantly higher (P=0.075) in the microdose flare-up group than in the flare-up group. No difference in clinical pregnancy, implantation, or abortion rate was observed between the two protocols. Live birth was higher in the microdose flare-up group than in the flare-up group (P=0.036). CONCLUSION: The microdose flare-up protocol seemed to be superior to the flare-up protocol, but it required a higher dose of gonadotropins and a longer duration of stimulation. Further prospective clinical trials of the microdose flare-up protocol are recommended. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01006954.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Antagonistas de Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/métodos , Adulto , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Hormônios/farmacologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Nascido Vivo , Recuperação de Oócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez
15.
Theriogenology ; 142: 229-235, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629308

RESUMO

Objectives were to 1) characterize fixed-time AI (FTAI) pregnancy rates using the 5-Day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in mature, suckled Bos indicus-influenced beef cows, 2) compare FTAI pregnancy rates in the latter to a modified version (5-Day Bee Synch + CIDR; Bee Synch I) that included treatment with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) at CIDR insertion on Day 0, and 3) test the hypothesis that elimination of both GnRH-1 at the onset of synchronization and the double dose of PGF on Day 5 (Bee Synch II) would not reduce FTAI pregnancy rates compared to Bee Synch I. For Experiment 1-trial 1, Brahman x Hereford (F-1) cows (n = 168) at least 40 d postpartum (PP; r = 40-92 d) at the time of CIDR insertion were administered the 5-Day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol with FTAI at 72 h after CIDR removal. Pregnancy rates to FTAI averaged 34.9 ± 1.9%. In Experiment 1-trial 2, fall- and spring-breeding Brahman x Hereford (F-1) beef cows (n = 269) were stratified by days PP and assigned randomly to receive either the 5-Day CO-Synch + CIDR (n = 136) or Bee Synch I (n = 133) protocol, with FTAI at 66 h after CIDR removal. Pregnancy rate to FTAI was greater (P < 0.05) in Bee Synch I (52.6 ± 0.9%) than in the 5-Day CO-Synch + CIDR procedure (40.4 ± 5.7%). For Experiment 2, 422 mature Braford, Brangus, Nelore x Brahman, and Brahman crossbred cows (Bos indicus proportion unknown) at 4 locations were treated with Bee Synch I, with FTAI at 66 h. Overall FTAI pregnancy rate averaged 51.7 ±â€¯2.1%. Finally, from 2013 through spring 2018, we used a switchback design using fall- and spring-breeding herds to compare Bee Synch I (402 observations) to Bee Synch II (393 observations). Overall frequency of detected estrus at 66 h using ESTROTECT™ breeding indicator patches was 57.2 ±â€¯2.4%, conception rates of those detected in estrus was 64.4 ±â€¯3.5%, and FTAI pregnancy rates averaged 52.3 ±â€¯2.4%, none of which differed between treatments. Moreover, pregnancy rates to FTAI in both treatments did not differ in cows synchronized between 40 and 80 d PP but increased after 80 d PP (P < 0.05). Bee Synch II, which eliminates GnRH-1 and the double dose of PGF2α on Day 5, results in FTAI pregnancy rates essentially identical to Bee Synch I but reduces synchronization costs and avoids the need for off-label (double dose PGF2α) drug use.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/administração & dosagem , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Prenhez , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Detecção do Estro/métodos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Injeções , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 500: 110629, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678419

RESUMO

Reproduction and growth are under multifactorial control of neurohormones and peripheral hormones. This study investigated seasonally related effects of GnIH, GnRH, and T3 on the reproductive and growth axis in male goldfish at three stages of gonadal recrudescence. The effects of injection treatments with GnRH, GnIH and/or T3 were examined by measuring serum LH and GH levels, as well as peripheral transcript levels, using a factorial design. As expected, GnRH elevated serum LH and GH levels in a seasonally dependant manner, with maximal elevations of LH in late stages of gonadal recrudescence (Spring) and maximal increases in GH in the regressed gonadal stage (Summer). GnIH injection increased serum LH and GH levels only in fish at the regressed stage but exerted both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on GnRH-induced LH responses depending on season. T3 treatment mainly had stimulatory effects on circulating LH levels and inhibitory effects on serum GH concentrations. In the liver and testes, we observed seasonal differences in thyroid receptors, estrogen receptors, vitellogenin, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, aromatase and IGF-I transcript levels that were tissue- and sex-specific. Generally, there were no clear correlation between circulating LH and GH levels and peripheral transcript levels, presumably due to time-related response and possible direct interaction of GnRH and GnIH at the level of liver and testis. The results support the hypothesis that GnRH and GnIH are important components of multifactorial mechanisms that work in concert with T3 to regulate reciprocal control of reproduction and growth in goldfish.


Assuntos
Carpa Dourada/fisiologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Neuropeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Tri-Iodotironina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Neuropeptídeos/farmacologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Reprodução , Testículo/metabolismo , Tri-Iodotironina/farmacologia
17.
Theriogenology ; 141: 105-112, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536859

RESUMO

We hypothesized that a shortened version of a modified Ovsynch program (OVS: GnRH-1 - 7 d - PGF2α-1 - 24 h - PGF2α-2 - 32 h - GnRH-2 - 16 h - AI) that excluded GnRH-1 to resynchronize ovulation in cows bearing a corpus luteum (CL) after a non-pregnancy diagnosis (NPD) or including progesterone supplementation with the OVS treatment for cows without a CL would produce shorter inter-insemination intervals and pregnancy per AI (P/AI) not different from that of cows treated with the OVS treatment. Of the 1697 lactating Holstein cows enrolled in this experiment, complete data were available for only 1584 cows because the remainder was not treated, inseminated per treatment design, left the herd before pregnancy diagnosis, or some other outcome was missing. Cows were enrolled in the study and assigned to either of three treatments at NPD (32 ±â€¯3 d after AI [Day 0]). Cows with a detected CL were assigned randomly to: (1) a modified Ovsynch (OVS; GnRH-1 - 7 d - PGF2α-1 - 24 h - PGF2α-2 - 32 h - GnRH-2 - 16 h - AI) or (2) Short Synch (SS; PGF2α-1 - 24 h - PGF2α-2 - 32 h - GnRH-2 - 16 h - AI). Cows with no CL were assigned to OVS plus a progesterone insert (CIDR). Blood was collected at NPD to measure progesterone concentration and determine accuracy of treatment assignment (progesterone ≥ 1 ng/mL for a functional CL). Overall progesterone concentration at NPD was less in OVS + CIDR cows (1.5 ± 0.3 ng/mL) than in OVS (5.2 ± 0.2 ng/mL) or SS cows (3.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL). No differences in luteolytic risk (progesterone < 0.5 ng/mL at 72 h after PGF2α-1) were detected after PGF2α (>96.7%) and ovulation risk after GnRH-2 was 93.8, 91.7, and 86.2% for SS, OVS, and OVS + CIDR, respectively. Mean and median inter-insemination interval were less in SS (mean = 34.3 ± 0.05 d [median = 35 d] than OVS cows (40.2 ± 0.05 d [42 d]), but that in OVS cows did not differ from OVS + CIDR cows (41.4 ± 0.05 d [42 d]). Technicians were more accurate in visually detecting a functional CL than a non-functional CL (81.2 vs. 61.1%). Sensitivity of detecting a functional CL by technicians averaged 91.2%, but specificity was 39.8%. Pregnancy per AI at 32 ± 3 d after AI was less for SS (16.5% [n = 115]) than OVS (29.3% [n = 133] when a functional CL was inaccurately detected, but did not differ when a functional CL was detected accurately (27.6% [n = 561] vs 30.3% [508]). Pregnancy per AI did not differ between OVS and OVS + CIDR cows regardless of CL status. Short synch is an alternative to the entire modified Ovsynch program to produce similar P/AI when the CL status was detected accurately, and regardless of functional CL status, SS reduced inter-insemination intervals by 7 d.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Corpo Lúteo , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Animais , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866283

RESUMO

Administration of cyclophosphamide (CYC), an alkylating agent used to treat malignancies and severe rheumatic diseases, creates a risk of ovarian insufficiency that is related to the intensity and duration of therapy and the age of the patient. To preserve reproductive capacity in the appropriate clinical setting, oocyte, embryo, and/or ovarian tissue cryopreservation are recommended. Medical protection with depot gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GNRHa) has emerged as a potential means to preserve both fertility and ovarian function through the suppression of ovarian activity during treatment with alkylators. We review the trials of GNRHa for ovarian protection in both cancer and rheumatic disease patients. Trials in cancer patients receiving CYC alone, or in combination with other gonadotoxic agents that have employed several different GNRHa have yielded mixed results. Trials in lupus patients receiving lower doses of CYC alone utilizing depot leuprolide acetate have tended to show favorable results.


Assuntos
Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/prevenção & controle , Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina , Humanos , Leuprolida , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/etiologia
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2743-2755, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882220

RESUMO

Our objectives were to test the efficacy of intravaginal (IVG) administration of PGF2α to induce corpus luteum (CL) regression, compare circulating progesterone (P4) profiles in cows receiving IVG versus intramuscular (IM) treatment with PGF2α, and evaluate reproductive outcomes. Lactating Holstein cows were synchronized using a Double-Ovsynch protocol [GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 3 d later GnRH, 7 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 1 d later PGF2α, 32 h later GnRH, 16 to 20 h timed artificial insemination (TAI)] to receive TAI at 67 ± 3 d in milk. Seven days after the first GnRH treatment (time 0), cows with at least 1 visible CL ≥15 mm were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to a treatment that consisted of IM injection (IM-PGF; n = 201) or IVG instillation (IVG-PGF; n = 201) of PGF2α. Cows in IM-PGF received a single 25-mg dose of PGF2α (dinoprost tromethamine) intramuscularly. Cows in IVG-PGF received two 25-mg doses of PGF2α 12 h apart delivered through a catheter in the cranial portion of the vagina. Blood samples were collected at 0, 12, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Ovulation to the first GnRH of Double-Ovsynch was determined through transrectal ultrasonography. Only cows with P4 ≥1 ng/mL (functional CL) at time 0 (IM-PGF = 169; IVG-PGF = 179) were included in the analyses. Binary and quantitative data were analyzed by logistic regression and ANOVA with repeated measures, respectively. Results are presented as least squares means. Concentrations of P4 and the proportion of cows with a new CL at time 0 did not differ. Overall, the proportion of cows with CL regression using 1 ng of P4/mL (IM-PGF = 89.0%; IVG-PGF = 86.7%) or 0.5 ng of P4/mL (IM-PGF = 82.2%; IVG-PGF = 82.1%) as the cutoff did not differ. Concentrations of P4 were affected by treatment, time, and treatment × time interaction. Cows in IVG-PGF had greater mean P4 at 12 h than cows in IM-PGF. Mean P4 did not differ at 48 or 72 h after treatment. The proportion of cows with estrus recorded within 3 d of treatment (IM-PGF = 45.4%; IVG-PGF = 48.9%), ovulation risk after treatment (IM-PGF = 88.5%; IVG-PGF = 85.1%), and pregnancies per artificial insemination after TAI (IM-PGF = 51.5%; IVG-PGF = 57.8%) did not differ. We concluded that 2 IVG doses of 25 mg of PGF2α 12 h apart were as effective as a single 25-mg IM dose of PGF2α for inducing luteal regression in lactating dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Luteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Reprodução , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Paridade , Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Zoo Biol ; 39(1): 23-28, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617256

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate variation in sperm quality metrics (motility, velocity, and concentration) in the critically endangered Mississippi gopher frog (Lithobates sevosus) over three sampling time points after a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog (LHRHa) induction injection. Sperm was repeatedly collected from 11 individuals over three sampling times (30, 60, and 120 min) after injection. Variation in sperm quality was investigated using a repeated-measures mixed model approach. Repeated measures analyses of variance showed a significant effect of sampling time for percent motility and velocity. Concentration was found to be marginally related to sampling time, while progressive motility was not significantly related to time after injection. Our findings are important for optimizing assisted reproduction-related fertilization success and increasing the successful propagation of endangered species of imperiled frogs in captive breeding programs.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Ranidae/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
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