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1.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(2): 121-127, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236310

RESUMO

Objective To determine whether first-voided urinary LH (FV-ULH) - level measurement can adequately assess pubertal suppression as much as standard tests can. Subjects and methods The study group included patients with central precocious puberty and rapidly progressing early puberty who received up to 3 - 4 doses of GnRHa therapy monthly and did not have adequate hormonal suppression after GnRH stimulation (90-minute LH level > 4 IU/L). Design: All of the participants underwent an LHRH test just after admission to the study. According to the stimulated peak LH levels, the patients were divided into 2 groups and followed until the end of the first year of treatment. The concordance between FV-ULH and stimulated LH levels was assessed. Results The FV-ULH levels in patients with inadequate hormonal suppression were significantly high compared to patients with adequate hormonal suppression. FV-ULH levels were very strongly correlated with stimulated LH levels (r = 0.91). Its correlation with basal LH levels was significant (r = 0.65). However, this positive correlation was modestly weakened after the first year of treatment. The cutoff value for FV-ULH of 1.01 mIU/mL had the highest sensitivity (92.3%) and specificity (100%). Conclusion FV-ULH levels, using more reliable and sensitive assay methods, can be used to monitor the adequacy of GnRHa therapy.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Leuprolida/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Luteinizante/urina , Puberdade Precoce/diagnóstico , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/administração & dosagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Puberdade Precoce/tratamento farmacológico , Puberdade Precoce/urina , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Anim Sci ; 98(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955201

RESUMO

Efforts to understand biological functions and develop management schemes specific to Bos indicus-influenced cattle raised in tropical and subtropical environments are critical to meet the increasing global demand for protein. In the United States, B. indicus breeds are mostly used to generate B. indicus × B. taurus crosses with increased thermal and parasite tolerance, while retaining some productive characteristics of B. taurus cattle. Although crossbreeding represents a proven strategy to improve cattle adaptation almost immediately, research has also attempted to identify B. taurus genetics that can withstand subtropical and tropical climates. Reduced milk production and delayed reproductive maturation appear to be related with tropical adaptation of B. taurus breeds, as a means to conserve energy under stressful conditions and limited nutrition. Moreover, longevity may be the ultimate adaptation response to unfavorable environments, and retention of bulls and heifers from proven cows is the recommended strategy to improve longevity in B. indicus-influenced herds. Besides selection for longevity, other aspects should be considered when planning reproductive management in tropical and subtropical regions. Bos indicus and B. taurus breeds have multiple differences pertaining to reproductive function, including age at puberty, ovarian dynamics, and pregnancy development. Nutritional strategies such as the stair-step regimen, and use of exogenous progesterone (P4) inserts are options to hasten puberty attainment of late-maturing B. indicus-influenced heifers. Yet, limited pharmacological alternatives are available for reproductive management of B. indicus-influenced females in the United States, which rely on GnRH-based protocols not specifically designed to the reproductive function of B. indicus breeds. In contrast, hormonal protocols based on exogenous P4, estradiol esters, and equine chorionic gonadotropin are available for use in B. indicus females in South America. These include protocols tailored to prepubertal heifers, anestrous cows, and cycling nulliparous or parous females, which often yield pregnancy rates of 50% to fixed-time artificial insemination. The global dairy industry also faces similar challenges in increasing demand and production as the beef industry. Selection of cows capable of sustaining optimal milk yield, reproductive success, and health status in hot and humid conditions is essential for optimal dairy production in subtropical and tropical regions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Bovinos/fisiologia , Reprodução , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Estradiol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Longevidade , Masculino , Ovário/fisiologia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Clima Tropical
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 2006-2018, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785879

RESUMO

One strategy for improving fertility in cattle is administration of GnRH or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during the luteal phase, which increases progesterone (P4) secretion and delays luteolysis. To provide an overview of how GnRH or hCG treatment between 4 and 15 d after artificial insemination (AI) improves pregnancy per AI (P/AI) in cows, a meta-analysis was performed on 107 different trials from 52 publications. Data from 18,082 treated cows and 18,385 untreated controls were meta-analyzed. The meta-analysis explained the relative risk for P/AI with GnRH or hCG treatment under various circumstances. The results did not show any difference in P/AI between cows treated with hCG and cows treated with GnRH. Compared with no treatment, treatment with GnRH or hCG improved the chances of P/AI in cows with very poor (<30%) and poor (30.1 to 45%) fertility, whereas treatment did not benefit cows with very good fertility (>60.1%). Moreover, treatment with GnRH and hCG improved the chances of P/AI in primiparous cows. The improvement was much better in primiparous cows with very low fertility. Treatment with buserelin at a dose above 10 µg and with hCG at a dose above 2,500 IU was associated with increased chances of P/AI compared with lower doses. Treatment with GnRH 10 d after AI was also associated with increased chances of P/AI compared with earlier treatment. The present meta-analysis showed that the use of GnRH and hCG after AI should be focused on cows expected to have low or moderate fertility. Day and dose of treatment have to be considered as well.


Assuntos
Busserrelina/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Gonadotropina Coriônica/administração & dosagem , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Humanos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Fase Luteal , Luteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Progesterona/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Zoo Biol ; 39(1): 23-28, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617256

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate variation in sperm quality metrics (motility, velocity, and concentration) in the critically endangered Mississippi gopher frog (Lithobates sevosus) over three sampling time points after a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog (LHRHa) induction injection. Sperm was repeatedly collected from 11 individuals over three sampling times (30, 60, and 120 min) after injection. Variation in sperm quality was investigated using a repeated-measures mixed model approach. Repeated measures analyses of variance showed a significant effect of sampling time for percent motility and velocity. Concentration was found to be marginally related to sampling time, while progressive motility was not significantly related to time after injection. Our findings are important for optimizing assisted reproduction-related fertilization success and increasing the successful propagation of endangered species of imperiled frogs in captive breeding programs.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Ranidae/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
5.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 148(1): 59-64, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist microdose flare-up and GnRH agonist flare-up protocols among women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial study among 131 women with poor ovarian reserve who underwent ICSI cycles at a single center in Tehran, Iran, between September 2008 and May 2014. Eligible women were randomly assigned to either the microdose flare-up (n=66) or flare-up (n=65) protocol. The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. RESULTS: Both groups were comparable in cycle cancellation, mean number of dominant follicles, retrieved oocytes, and metaphase II oocytes. Number of stimulation days (P=032) and endometrial thickness (P=0.001) were significantly higher, and gonadotropin dose was non-significantly higher (P=0.075) in the microdose flare-up group than in the flare-up group. No difference in clinical pregnancy, implantation, or abortion rate was observed between the two protocols. Live birth was higher in the microdose flare-up group than in the flare-up group (P=0.036). CONCLUSION: The microdose flare-up protocol seemed to be superior to the flare-up protocol, but it required a higher dose of gonadotropins and a longer duration of stimulation. Further prospective clinical trials of the microdose flare-up protocol are recommended. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01006954.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Antagonistas de Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/métodos , Adulto , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Hormônios/farmacologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Nascimento Vivo , Recuperação de Oócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez
6.
Theriogenology ; 141: 105-112, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536859

RESUMO

We hypothesized that a shortened version of a modified Ovsynch program (OVS: GnRH-1 - 7 d - PGF2α-1 - 24 h - PGF2α-2 - 32 h - GnRH-2 - 16 h - AI) that excluded GnRH-1 to resynchronize ovulation in cows bearing a corpus luteum (CL) after a non-pregnancy diagnosis (NPD) or including progesterone supplementation with the OVS treatment for cows without a CL would produce shorter inter-insemination intervals and pregnancy per AI (P/AI) not different from that of cows treated with the OVS treatment. Of the 1697 lactating Holstein cows enrolled in this experiment, complete data were available for only 1584 cows because the remainder was not treated, inseminated per treatment design, left the herd before pregnancy diagnosis, or some other outcome was missing. Cows were enrolled in the study and assigned to either of three treatments at NPD (32 ±â€¯3 d after AI [Day 0]). Cows with a detected CL were assigned randomly to: (1) a modified Ovsynch (OVS; GnRH-1 - 7 d - PGF2α-1 - 24 h - PGF2α-2 - 32 h - GnRH-2 - 16 h - AI) or (2) Short Synch (SS; PGF2α-1 - 24 h - PGF2α-2 - 32 h - GnRH-2 - 16 h - AI). Cows with no CL were assigned to OVS plus a progesterone insert (CIDR). Blood was collected at NPD to measure progesterone concentration and determine accuracy of treatment assignment (progesterone ≥ 1 ng/mL for a functional CL). Overall progesterone concentration at NPD was less in OVS + CIDR cows (1.5 ± 0.3 ng/mL) than in OVS (5.2 ± 0.2 ng/mL) or SS cows (3.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL). No differences in luteolytic risk (progesterone < 0.5 ng/mL at 72 h after PGF2α-1) were detected after PGF2α (>96.7%) and ovulation risk after GnRH-2 was 93.8, 91.7, and 86.2% for SS, OVS, and OVS + CIDR, respectively. Mean and median inter-insemination interval were less in SS (mean = 34.3 ± 0.05 d [median = 35 d] than OVS cows (40.2 ± 0.05 d [42 d]), but that in OVS cows did not differ from OVS + CIDR cows (41.4 ± 0.05 d [42 d]). Technicians were more accurate in visually detecting a functional CL than a non-functional CL (81.2 vs. 61.1%). Sensitivity of detecting a functional CL by technicians averaged 91.2%, but specificity was 39.8%. Pregnancy per AI at 32 ± 3 d after AI was less for SS (16.5% [n = 115]) than OVS (29.3% [n = 133] when a functional CL was inaccurately detected, but did not differ when a functional CL was detected accurately (27.6% [n = 561] vs 30.3% [508]). Pregnancy per AI did not differ between OVS and OVS + CIDR cows regardless of CL status. Short synch is an alternative to the entire modified Ovsynch program to produce similar P/AI when the CL status was detected accurately, and regardless of functional CL status, SS reduced inter-insemination intervals by 7 d.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Corpo Lúteo , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Animais , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez
7.
Theriogenology ; 141: 202-210, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606718

RESUMO

The present study tested the hypothesis that administration of GnRH on day 5 of the estrous cycle in embryo transfer (ET) recipients would increase progesterone (P4) concentrations, embryo size, and improve fertility. Holstein and cross-bred Holstein heifers (n = 1562) were synchronized using a modified 5-day CIDR-Synch protocol as follows (All AM treatments): D-8, CIDR inserted; D-3, CIDR removed and PGF2α (500 µg cloprostenol) treatment; D-2, second PGF2α; D0, GnRH (G1, 100 µg gonadorelin acetate) to induce ovulation. On D5 in the afternoon, heifers were assigned in a completely randomized design to one of two treatments: Control (untreated) or GnRH (200 µg). Transfer of day 7 fresh IVP embryos was performed between D6 and D8 after G1. Data collected from each heifer included: embryo stage and quality, body condition score, technician performing ET, interval from G1 to ET, and number of previous transfers. All heifers were evaluated by transrectal ultrasonography on D5, D33, and D60 and a subset of heifers was scanned on D12 (n = 718; to determine ovulation to treatment) and another subset on D33 (n = 295; 16 s video to determine embryo and amniotic vesicle size). Serum P4 was determined from a subset of heifers on D12 (n = 467) and on D21 (n = 837) and pregnancy specific protein B (PSPB) on D28 (n = 843). Pregnancies per ET (P/ET) were analyzed by logistic regression and continuous outcomes by ANOVA. Ovulation to D5 GnRH, defined by the presence of an accessory CL on D12, was 83.9% (302/360) in GnRH-treated heifers vs. 3.3% (12/358) in Controls (P < 0.001). On D12, P4 was greater (P < 0.001) in GnRH-treated heifers (7.2 ±â€¯0.1 ng/ml) vs Controls (6.0 ±â€¯0.1 ng/ml). There was greater P/ET at D33 and D60 of pregnancy for Stage 7 than Stage 6 embryos. Treatment with GnRH did not alter P/ET with either embryo stage but decreased pregnancy loss between D33 and D60 in heifers receiving Stage 7 embryos. Presence of an accessory CL at the D33 pregnancy diagnosis was associated with a larger reduction in pregnancy loss from D33 to D60 in recipients of Stage 7 embryos (11.6 vs 27.6%). Although there was no GnRH effect on embryo size, the presence of an accessory CL was associated (P < 0.05) with larger amniotic vesicle volume in recipients of Stage 7 embryos. In addition, greater PSPB was linked to greater amniotic vesicle volume (P = 0.01) and to reduced pregnancy loss (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, treatment with GnRH on D5 caused ovulation and formation of an accessory CL, increased circulating P4, and reduced pregnancy loss in heifers receiving a Stage 7 but not a Stage 6 IVP embryo.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/prevenção & controle , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Bovinos , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Ovulação/fisiologia , Gravidez , Proteínas da Gravidez/sangue , Progesterona/sangue
8.
Theriogenology ; 142: 229-235, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629308

RESUMO

Objectives were to 1) characterize fixed-time AI (FTAI) pregnancy rates using the 5-Day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in mature, suckled Bos indicus-influenced beef cows, 2) compare FTAI pregnancy rates in the latter to a modified version (5-Day Bee Synch + CIDR; Bee Synch I) that included treatment with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) at CIDR insertion on Day 0, and 3) test the hypothesis that elimination of both GnRH-1 at the onset of synchronization and the double dose of PGF on Day 5 (Bee Synch II) would not reduce FTAI pregnancy rates compared to Bee Synch I. For Experiment 1-trial 1, Brahman x Hereford (F-1) cows (n = 168) at least 40 d postpartum (PP; r = 40-92 d) at the time of CIDR insertion were administered the 5-Day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol with FTAI at 72 h after CIDR removal. Pregnancy rates to FTAI averaged 34.9 ± 1.9%. In Experiment 1-trial 2, fall- and spring-breeding Brahman x Hereford (F-1) beef cows (n = 269) were stratified by days PP and assigned randomly to receive either the 5-Day CO-Synch + CIDR (n = 136) or Bee Synch I (n = 133) protocol, with FTAI at 66 h after CIDR removal. Pregnancy rate to FTAI was greater (P < 0.05) in Bee Synch I (52.6 ± 0.9%) than in the 5-Day CO-Synch + CIDR procedure (40.4 ± 5.7%). For Experiment 2, 422 mature Braford, Brangus, Nelore x Brahman, and Brahman crossbred cows (Bos indicus proportion unknown) at 4 locations were treated with Bee Synch I, with FTAI at 66 h. Overall FTAI pregnancy rate averaged 51.7 ±â€¯2.1%. Finally, from 2013 through spring 2018, we used a switchback design using fall- and spring-breeding herds to compare Bee Synch I (402 observations) to Bee Synch II (393 observations). Overall frequency of detected estrus at 66 h using ESTROTECT™ breeding indicator patches was 57.2 ±â€¯2.4%, conception rates of those detected in estrus was 64.4 ±â€¯3.5%, and FTAI pregnancy rates averaged 52.3 ±â€¯2.4%, none of which differed between treatments. Moreover, pregnancy rates to FTAI in both treatments did not differ in cows synchronized between 40 and 80 d PP but increased after 80 d PP (P < 0.05). Bee Synch II, which eliminates GnRH-1 and the double dose of PGF2α on Day 5, results in FTAI pregnancy rates essentially identical to Bee Synch I but reduces synchronization costs and avoids the need for off-label (double dose PGF2α) drug use.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/administração & dosagem , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Prenhez , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Detecção do Estro/métodos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Injeções , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866283

RESUMO

Administration of cyclophosphamide (CYC), an alkylating agent used to treat malignancies and severe rheumatic diseases, creates a risk of ovarian insufficiency that is related to the intensity and duration of therapy and the age of the patient. To preserve reproductive capacity in the appropriate clinical setting, oocyte, embryo, and/or ovarian tissue cryopreservation are recommended. Medical protection with depot gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GNRHa) has emerged as a potential means to preserve both fertility and ovarian function through the suppression of ovarian activity during treatment with alkylators. We review the trials of GNRHa for ovarian protection in both cancer and rheumatic disease patients. Trials in cancer patients receiving CYC alone, or in combination with other gonadotoxic agents that have employed several different GNRHa have yielded mixed results. Trials in lupus patients receiving lower doses of CYC alone utilizing depot leuprolide acetate have tended to show favorable results.


Assuntos
Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/prevenção & controle , Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina , Humanos , Leuprolida , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/etiologia
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2743-2755, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882220

RESUMO

Our objectives were to test the efficacy of intravaginal (IVG) administration of PGF2α to induce corpus luteum (CL) regression, compare circulating progesterone (P4) profiles in cows receiving IVG versus intramuscular (IM) treatment with PGF2α, and evaluate reproductive outcomes. Lactating Holstein cows were synchronized using a Double-Ovsynch protocol [GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 3 d later GnRH, 7 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 1 d later PGF2α, 32 h later GnRH, 16 to 20 h timed artificial insemination (TAI)] to receive TAI at 67 ± 3 d in milk. Seven days after the first GnRH treatment (time 0), cows with at least 1 visible CL ≥15 mm were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to a treatment that consisted of IM injection (IM-PGF; n = 201) or IVG instillation (IVG-PGF; n = 201) of PGF2α. Cows in IM-PGF received a single 25-mg dose of PGF2α (dinoprost tromethamine) intramuscularly. Cows in IVG-PGF received two 25-mg doses of PGF2α 12 h apart delivered through a catheter in the cranial portion of the vagina. Blood samples were collected at 0, 12, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Ovulation to the first GnRH of Double-Ovsynch was determined through transrectal ultrasonography. Only cows with P4 ≥1 ng/mL (functional CL) at time 0 (IM-PGF = 169; IVG-PGF = 179) were included in the analyses. Binary and quantitative data were analyzed by logistic regression and ANOVA with repeated measures, respectively. Results are presented as least squares means. Concentrations of P4 and the proportion of cows with a new CL at time 0 did not differ. Overall, the proportion of cows with CL regression using 1 ng of P4/mL (IM-PGF = 89.0%; IVG-PGF = 86.7%) or 0.5 ng of P4/mL (IM-PGF = 82.2%; IVG-PGF = 82.1%) as the cutoff did not differ. Concentrations of P4 were affected by treatment, time, and treatment × time interaction. Cows in IVG-PGF had greater mean P4 at 12 h than cows in IM-PGF. Mean P4 did not differ at 48 or 72 h after treatment. The proportion of cows with estrus recorded within 3 d of treatment (IM-PGF = 45.4%; IVG-PGF = 48.9%), ovulation risk after treatment (IM-PGF = 88.5%; IVG-PGF = 85.1%), and pregnancies per artificial insemination after TAI (IM-PGF = 51.5%; IVG-PGF = 57.8%) did not differ. We concluded that 2 IVG doses of 25 mg of PGF2α 12 h apart were as effective as a single 25-mg IM dose of PGF2α for inducing luteal regression in lactating dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Luteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Reprodução , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Paridade , Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória
11.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0227095, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887207

RESUMO

We hypothesized that heat-induced perturbations in cumulus cells surrounding the maturing oocyte may extend to the mural granulosa of the periovulatory follicle in the heat-stressed cow to subsequently the follicular fluid proteome. Lactating Holsteins were pharmacologically stimulated to have a dominant follicle that was capable of responding to a gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone surge. Following gonadotropin releasing hormone administration, cows were maintained at ~67 temperature humidity index (THI; thermoneutral conditions) or exposed to conditions simulating an acute heat stress event (71 to 86 THI; heat stress for ~12 h). Dominant follicle collection was conducted in the periovulatory period ~16 h after gonadotropin releasing hormone. Follicular fluid proteome from thermoneutral (n = 5) and hyperthermic (n = 5) cows was evaluated by quantitative tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS/MS). We identified 35 differentially-abundant proteins. Functional annotation revealed numerous immune-related proteins. Subsequent efforts revealed an increase in levels of the proinflammatory mediator bradykinin in follicular fluid (P = 0.0456) but not in serum (P = 0.9319) of hyperthermic cows. Intrafollicular increases in transferrin (negative acute phase protein) in hyperthermic cows (P = 0.0181) coincided with a tendency for levels to be increased in the circulation (P = 0.0683). Nine out of 15 cytokines evaluated were detected in follicular fluid. Heat stress increased intrafollicular interleukin 6 levels (P = 0.0160). Whether hyperthermia-induced changes in the heat-stressed cow's follicular fluid milieu reflect changes in mural granulosa, cumulus, other cell types secretions, and/or transudative changes from circulation remains unclear. Regardless of origin, heat stress/hyperthermia related changes in the follicular fluid milieu may have an impact on components important for ovulation and competence of the cumulus-oocyte complex contained within the periovulatory follicle.


Assuntos
Células do Cúmulo/metabolismo , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Proteoma/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bradicinina/análise , Bradicinina/metabolismo , Bovinos , Células do Cúmulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/etiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Lactação/fisiologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Tennessee , Transferrina/análise , Transferrina/metabolismo
12.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 152(6): 423-437, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630211

RESUMO

Wide application of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists for clinical purposes determines their effects on ovarian signaling pathways. Our study aimed to determine the localization, expression levels of Wnt signaling members in the pubertal and adult mouse ovary and the impact of GnRH antagonist cetrorelix on these signaling members. 0.5 mg/kg of cetrorelix was injected to 3-and 6-week-old mice for 2 weeks. At the end of injection, ovaries from 5 (5Ce)- to 8-week (8Ce)-old mice were embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemistry and homogenized for western blot to compare with control (5C-8C) and sham groups (5S-8S). WNT2 and WNT4 showed higher expression in thecal and stromal cells in adult mouse ovaries and only WNT4 expression was affected by cetrorelix. FZD1 was localized mainly in oocytes of pubertal ovaries and granulosa cells and oocytes of adult ovaries. FZD1 was reduced by cetrorelix in pubertal ovaries. FZD4 was abundantly localized in thecal and stromal cells of all groups and protein level was not affected by cetrorelix. LRP-6 was expressed mainly in oocytes and stromal cells of pubertal, oocytes of adult ovaries and its expression was reduced by cetrorelix in adult ovaries. CTNNB1 intensity in granulosa cells was the lowest in pubertal and the highest in adult ovaries and its expression was decreased by cetrorelix in adult ovaries. Cetrorelix affected the expression of specific members of the Wnt signaling depending on the developmental stage of mice, pointing out its possible interaction with gonadotropins during pubertal and adult stages.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/análogos & derivados , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/antagonistas & inibidores , Antagonistas de Hormônios/farmacologia , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Puberdade/efeitos dos fármacos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/química , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Hormônios/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oócitos/metabolismo , Puberdade/metabolismo
13.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(12): 1369-1375, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605579

RESUMO

Background The standard treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) is gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa). It is a concern that children treated with GnRHa are at risk of developing obesity which could impair the treatment outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of GnRHa on body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS), and the influence of BMI status on treatment outcomes in children with idiopathic CPP (iCPP). Methods A retrospective cohort study in children with iCPP who completed GnRHa treatment and had attained near final adult height (NFAH) was conducted. Children with a history of disease or drug ingestion which could affect their BMI were excluded. BMI, BMI SDS, height (Ht), Ht SDS, predicted adult height (PAH), and NFAH were compared at baseline, 1 and 2 years during treatment, and at NFAH according to the baseline BMI status; normal weight and overweight/obesity. Results Fifty-eight children with iCPP treated with GnRHa were enrolled. The BMI SDS was significantly increased at 1 and 2 years during treatment in the overweight/obese group and at 1 year during treatment in the normal-weight group. However, at NFAH (2 years after treatment discontinuation), the BMI SDS was not statistically different from baseline in both groups. Ht gain, change in Ht SDS and BMI SDS were not statistically different from the baseline in both groups. Conclusions GnRHa results in a transient increase in BMI SDS during treatment and returned to baseline after treatment cessation. The benefit of GnRHa treatment on final Ht improvement is similar between overweight/obese and normal-weight patients.


Assuntos
Estatura , Peso Corporal , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Puberdade Precoce/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Puberdade Precoce/epidemiologia , Puberdade Precoce/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 58(5): 656-661, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and fresh embryo transfer (ET) using corifollitropin alfa in ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) protocol and GnRH antagonist protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 245 unselected patients undergoing IVF/fresh ET were enrolled between January 1 and December 31, 2017, including 135 treated with ultrashort GnRHa protocol and 110 treated with antagonist protocol. The primary outcomes were number of total injections and outpatient department (OPD) visits before ovulation triggering. The secondary outcomes were the duration of stimulation, dosage of additional gonadotropin for ovarian hyperstimulation, rates of pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, live birth, ovarian response, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) rate. RESULTS: Patients treated with ultrashort GnRHa required less additional gonadotropin, fewer total injections, but had better ovarian responses, including more oocytes retrieved, more metaphase II oocytes, and more blastocysts than those treated with antagonist did. A premature LH surge occurred only in six patients treated with antagonist protocol. The rates of pregnancy (37.0% vs. 43.6%), clinical pregnancy (25.2% vs. 34.6%), and live birth (19.3% vs. 30.0%) did not differ significantly between the two groups. The OHSS rate was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION: In unselected patients using corifollitropin alfa, the ultrashort GnRHa protocol needed lower dose of additional gonadotropin and fewer injections but produced similar pregnancy outcomes than antagonist protocol did, suggesting that the ultrashort GnRHa protocol could be an alternative.


Assuntos
Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante Humano/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Antagonistas de Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(11): 1567-1574, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527339

RESUMO

Follicle development in post-weaning sows is influenced by various factors. To control ovulation time using hormone, factors that influence ovulation should be investigated. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of GnRH (buserelin) administration in relation to season and sow parameters on ovulation time in weaned sows. Seventy-seven weaned sows were divided into the following groups: control (hot season, n=21; cool season, n=16) and treatment (hot season, n=22; cool season, n=18). Sows were kept in a close house equipped with an evaporative cooling system. Ovulation time was determined every 6 hr using transrectal ultrasonography. Administration of 10 µg buserelin at 72 hr after weaning affected estrus-to-ovulation interval (EOI) and weaning-to-ovulation interval (WOI) in sows (P<0.05). The percentage of sows that ovulated between 44-56 hr after injection was higher in the cool season than in hot season (P<0.05). Weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) and injection-to-estrus interval (IEI) were affected by season (P<0.05). Body condition score (BCS) of sows influenced EOI (P<0.01). Sows with low backfat thickness, lactation length <20 days, or litter weight ≥67 kg, had delayed injection-to-ovulation interval (P<0.05). In conclusions, buserelin administration (10 µg, at 72 hr after weaning) advanced ovulation. Hot season prolonged ovulation time. Sows that were weaned with lactation length of at least 20 days, litter weight less than 67 kg, or BCS of at least 3, had better responses to buserelin injection. High backfat reserve after weaning is important for ovulation induction response by buserelin injection.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estações do Ano , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Ovulação/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16616, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the efficacies of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse subcutaneous infusion with combined human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin (HCG/HMG) intramuscular injection have been performed to treat male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) spermatogenesis. METHODS: In total, 220 idiopathic/isolated HH patients were divided into the GnRH pulse therapy and HCG/HMG combined treatment groups (n = 103 and n = 117, respectively). The luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were monitored in the groups for the 1st week and monthly, as were the serum total testosterone level, testicular volume and spermatogenesis rate in monthly follow-up sessions. RESULTS: In the GnRH group and HCG/HMG group, the testosterone level and testicular volume at the 6-month follow-up session were significantly higher than were those before treatment. There were 62 patients (62/117, 52.99%) in the GnRH group and 26 patients in the HCG/HMG (26/103, 25.24%) group who produced sperm following treatment. The GnRH group (6.2 ±â€Š3.8 months) had a shorter sperm initial time than did the HCG/HMG group (10.9 ±â€Š3.5 months). The testosterone levels in the GnRH and HCG/HMG groups were 9.8 ±â€Š3.3 nmol/L and 14.8 ±â€Š8.8 nmol/L, respectively. CONCLUSION: The GnRH pulse subcutaneous infusion successfully treated male patients with HH, leading to earlier sperm production than that in the HCG/HMG-treated patients. GnRH pulse subcutaneous infusion is a preferred method.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/uso terapêutico , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias para o Controle da Reprodução/uso terapêutico , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Gonadotropina Coriônica/uso terapêutico , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Bombas de Infusão , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Menotropinas/uso terapêutico , Substâncias para o Controle da Reprodução/administração & dosagem , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
17.
Reprod Biol ; 19(3): 245-254, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383475

RESUMO

Granulosa Cells (GCs) are sensitive to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Quercetin (QUR) is a free radical scavenger which can alleviate oxidative stress through nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway and thioredoxin (Trx) system. We aimed to explore the probable protective role of QUR on cultured human GCs treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an inducer of oxidative stress. MTT assay was applied for evaluating the cell cytotoxicity of QUR and H2O2. The rate of apoptotic cells and intracellular ROS generation were determined by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and 2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescent probes (DCFH-DA), respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis and western blot analysis were used to evaluate the gene and protein expression of Nrf2 and kelch-like ech-associated protein 1 (Keap1)1. The Nrf2 and Trx activities were measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The results indicated that QUR pretreatment can decrease ROS production and apoptosis induced by H2O2. In addition, QUR increased Nrf2 gene and protein expression, as well as its nuclear translocation. Moreover, in QUR-treated group, a lower level of Keap1 protein was observed, which was not reported as significant. The results also indicated a significant correlation between the expression of Nrf2 and Keap1 in QUR-treated group. Further, QUR protected GCs from oxidative stress by increasing Trx gene expression and activity. This study suggests that QUR as a supplementary factor may protect GCs from oxidative stress in diseases related to this condition.


Assuntos
Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/farmacologia , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo , Adulto , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Gonadotropina Coriônica/administração & dosagem , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Estrogênios/sangue , Feminino , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/administração & dosagem , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/farmacologia , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante Humano/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante Humano/farmacologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/análogos & derivados , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(9): 1005-1011, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323005

RESUMO

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic training, 4 weeks of detraining and use gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and cortisol levels in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). Methods Forty-five girls (aged 6-8 years) with precocious puberty were randomly divided into three groups (medication, training and medicine + training groups). Fifteen healthy girls (without precocious puberty) were also included as the control group. Serum CRP and cortisol levels were measured at baseline by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Then, the experimental groups performed an aerobic training program for 3 days/week 20-75 min per day at 45-75% maximum heart rate for 12 weeks. The medication groups also received GnRHa during the study, once a month (1 mL every 4 weeks) by intramuscular injection. Serum CRP and cortisol levels were measured again 48 h after the last training session and also after 4 weeks of detraining. Results Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures showed a significant decrease in CRP (p = 0.02) and cortisol levels (p = 0.01) in the training group and the medicine + training group. Detraining led to return of CRP and cortisol levels to the pre-training levels (p = 0.001). No significant difference in serum CRP (p = 0.43) and cortisol levels (p = 0.06) was observed in the medication group. Further, no significant difference was observed between groups in CRP and cortisol. Conclusions Long-term regular moderate training decreases inflammation indices, and detraining eliminates the benefits of training in girls with precocious puberty.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Exercício Físico , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Puberdade Precoce/sangue , Puberdade Precoce/terapia , Estatura , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Prognóstico , Puberdade Precoce/patologia
19.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(2): 355-362, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269345

RESUMO

Primiparous and multiparous lactating crossbred dairy cows with a mature corpus luteum and a follicle with >10 mm in diameter were treated with cloprostenol. Those cows that showed oestrus within 5 days after treatment were inseminated (Group P). The other cows (Group PG) were treated with GnRH 2 days after cloprostenol treatment and timed artificial insemination (AI) was performed on the consecutive day, or were inseminated (Group G) after detected oestrus and treated with GnRH immediately after AI. The control cows (Group C) after detected oestrus were only inseminated. All of the AIs using frozen semen were done between 6 and 7 a.m. while the ultrasonographic examinations after AI were performed between 4 to 6 p.m. The ovaries of each cow were scanned by means of transrectal ultrasonography from the day of AI until ovulation. Daily blood samples were collected for progesterone measurements. The ovulation and pregnancy rates among the groups changed between 84.6% and 95.5%, as well as 44.4% and 60%, respectively, however the differences were not statistically significant. All the cows were evaluated according to date of ovulation after AI and the pregnancy rate was 55.4% (Group 1: ovulation occurred between AI and 9-11 h after AI), 54.5% (Group 2: ovulation occurred between 9-11 h and 33-35 h after AI) and 35.5% (Group 3: ovulation occurred between 33-35 h and 57-59 h after AI), respectively. There was a trend (P=0.087) for 2.2 greater odds of staying open among cows inseminated between 33 to 35 h and 57 to 59 h before ovulation compared to cows inseminated within 9 to 11 h before ovulation. If ovulation occurred before AI, the pregnancy rate was only 22.2%, therefore determination of optimal time for AI is of great importance.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Cloprostenol/farmacologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Gravidez , Animais , Cloprostenol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Gravidez
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