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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238814, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881970

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) cells become castrate-resistant after initial tumor regression following castration-based lowering of testosterone (T). De-novo intra-tumoral steroid synthesis is a suggested biological mechanism of castration resistant PCa, but the regulators are unknown. Testicular T production is controlled by the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR). To elucidate the influence of LHCGR on PCa development the presence and effects of LHCGR in PCa and whether LHCGR in serum holds prognostic information in PCa patients is investigated. LHCGR expression was investigated by RT-PCR, WB, IHC, qPCR in PCa cell lines and prostatic tissue. Steroid production was measured in media from cell lines with LC-MS/MS and expression of steroidogenic enzymes with qPCR. Serum LHCGR (sLHCGR) was measured with ELISA in PCa patients (N = 157). Presence of LHCGR was established in prostatic tissue and PCa cell lines. Cell proliferation increased by 1.29-fold in LNCaP (P = 0.007) and 1.33-fold in PC-3 cells (P = 0.0007), when stimulated by luteinizing hormone. Choriogonadotropin stimulation decreased proliferation 0.93-fold in DU145 cells (P = 0.05), but none of the treatments altered steroid metabolite secretion. Low sLHCGR concentration was associated with a higher risk of biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (HR = 3.05, P = 0.06) and castration resistance (HR = 6.92, P = 0.004) compared to high sLHCGR concentration. LHCGR is expressed in PCa and may exert a growth regulatory role in PCa derived cell lines. A potential prognostic role of sLHCGR for determining recurrence risk in PCa patients is found in this pilot study but needs verification in larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/fisiopatologia , Receptores do LH/metabolismo , Idoso , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Humanos , Luteinização/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Próstata/patologia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
2.
Toxicology ; 441: 152528, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565124

RESUMO

Cisplatin (Cis) is an effective chemotherapeutic intervention against many cancer types. However, the oxidative stress-related toxicities associated with cancer cell resistance-induced dose scaling has limited its long-term use. In the present study, we explored the benefits of the antioxidant, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ; 50 mg/kg b.w./day, for 14 days) against Cis single dose injection (7 mg/kg b.w., i.p on Day 8), on testicular toxicity of male Wistar rats. Cis triggered testicular and epididymal oxidative stress, testicular inflammation (upregulated NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-1ß mRNA levels, and downregulated IL-10 mRNA level), increased testicular apoptosis (increased Bax/Bcl2 and caspase-3 mRNA levels) and decreased testicular germ cells proliferation. Further, Cis decreased testicular steroidogenesis (decreased expression of StAR, CYP11A1, 3ß-HSD and 17ß-HSD mRNA and proteins) and decreased follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels. Cis also decreased sperm count, motility, viability, normal morphology and Johnsen score. However, intervention with tBHQ significantly decreased oxidative stress by upregulating Nrf2 gene, suppressed inflammation, apoptosis and increased testicular germ cells proliferation. tBHQ also increased steroidogenesis and improved sperm parameters. Taken together, tBHQ improves steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in Cis-intoxicated rats by improving antioxidant status, dampening inflammation and apoptosis, thus improving the proliferative capacity of spermatogenic cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Hidroquinonas/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cisplatino/antagonistas & inibidores , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
3.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(1): E81-E90, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396496

RESUMO

We have previously shown that systemic injection of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A7 (EPHA7)-Fc raises serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels before ovulation in female rats, indicating the induction of EPHA7 in ovulation. In this study, we aimed to identify the mechanism and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis level underlying the promotion of LH secretion by EPHA7. Using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, in conjunction with low-dose 17ß-estradiol (E2) treatment, we investigated the association between EPHA7-ephrin (EFN)A5 signaling and E2 negative feedback. Various rat models (OVX, E2-treated OVX, and abarelix treated) were injected with the recombinant EPHA7-Fc protein through the caudal vein to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the promotion of LH secretion by EPHA7. Efna5 was observed strongly expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the female rat by using RNAscope in situ hybridization. Our results indicated that E2, combined with estrogen receptor (ER)α, but not ERß, inhibited Efna5 and gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (Gnrh1) expressions in the hypothalamus. In addition, the systemic administration of EPHA7-Fc restrained the inhibition of Efna5 and Gnrh1 by E2, resulting in increased Efna5 and Gnrh1 expressions in the hypothalamus as well as increased serum LH levels. Collectively, our findings demonstrated the involvement of EPHA7-EFNA5 signaling in the regulation of LH and the E2 negative feedback pathway in the hypothalamus, highlighting the functional role of EPHA7 in female reproduction.


Assuntos
Efrina-A5/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Efrina-A5/efeitos dos fármacos , Efrina-A5/genética , Estradiol/farmacologia , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Retroalimentação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Retroalimentação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas de Hormônios/farmacologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Ovariectomia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Receptor EphA7/genética , Receptor EphA7/metabolismo , Receptor EphA7/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes
4.
Eur J Histochem ; 64(2)2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363846

RESUMO

Sperm-associated antigen 11A (SPAG11A) is expressed exclusively in the epididymis, which can specifically regulate sperm maturation. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal expressions of beta-defensin (SPAG11A) and androgen receptor (AR) in the epididymis of the wild ground squirrels (Citellus dauricus Brandt). Morphologically, the results showed that epididymis length and weight in the breeding season were significantly higher than those of the non-breeding season. Histologically, the results revealed that enlarged lumen diameters, thickened epithelial and abundant sperm in the breeding season while reduced lumen diameters and epithelial with no sperm in the non-breeding season. SPAG11A was intensely expressed in cytoplasm and nucleus of epithelial cells in the breeding season, and weaker staining in the non-breeding season. The immunostaining of AR was only presented in nucleus of smooth muscle cells and epithelial cells in the whole epididymis with stronger staining in the breeding season. The results of real-time quantitative PCR also showed that the mRNA levels of SPAG11A and AR in the epididymis during the breeding season were significantly higher than those of the non-breeding season. In addition, the levels of testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the serum were higher during the breeding season. Taken together, these results suggested that SPAG11A might play an important role to regulate seasonal changes in epididymal function of the wild ground squirrels.


Assuntos
Epididimo/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Animais , Cruzamento , Epididimo/citologia , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Sciuridae , Testosterona/metabolismo
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 12772-12783, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467166

RESUMO

The luteinizing hormone surge is essential for fertility as it triggers ovulation in females and sperm release in males. We previously reported that secretoneurin-a, a neuropeptide derived from the processing of secretogranin-2a (Scg2a), stimulates luteinizing hormone release, suggesting a role in reproduction. Here we provide evidence that mutation of the scg2a and scg2b genes using TALENs in zebrafish reduces sexual behavior, ovulation, oviposition, and fertility. Large-scale spawning within-line crossings (n = 82 to 101) were conducted. Wild-type (WT) males paired with WT females successfully spawned in 62% of the breeding trials. Spawning success was reduced to 37% (P = 0.006), 44% (P = 0.0169), and 6% (P < 0.0001) for scg2a -/- , scg2b -/- , and scg2a -/- ;scg2b -/- mutants, respectively. Comprehensive video analysis indicates that scg2a -/- ;scg2b -/- mutation reduces all male courtship behaviors. Spawning success was 47% in saline-injected WT controls compared to 11% in saline-injected scg2a -/- ;scg2b -/- double mutants. For these mutants, spawning success increased 3-fold following a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of synthetic secretoneurin-a (P = 0.0403) and increased 3.5-fold with injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Embryonic survival at 24 h remained on average lower in scg2a -/- ;scg2b -/- fish compared to WT injected with secretoneurin-a (P < 0.001). Significant reductions in the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 in the hypothalamus, and luteinizing hormone beta and glycoprotein alpha subunits in the pituitary provide evidence for disrupted hypothalamo-pituitary function in scg2a and scg2b mutant fish. Our results indicate that secretogranin-2 is required for optimal reproductive function and support the hypothesis that secretoneurin is a reproductive hormone.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Mutação , Secretogranina II/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Oviposição , Ovulação , Hipófise/metabolismo , Secretogranina II/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
6.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 25(3): 233-234, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469251

RESUMO

Objective: Although sex-disaggregated data for COVID-19 show equal numbers of cases between men and women, there seem to be sex differences in mortality rate and vulnerability to the disease: more men than women are dying. Methods: We have explored the potential role of estrogens in this COVID-19 gendered impact. Results: Estrogens stimulate the humoral response to viral infections, while testosterone and progesterone give an immune suppression of both innate and cell-mediated immune responses. We hypothesise that estrogens, in particular estradiol but also synthetic estrogen such as ethinylestradiol, could protect women from the most serious complications of COVID-19. The use of medications that keep hormonal levels high and stable, such as combined hormonal contraceptive, could therefore play a protective role. These potential benefits overtake the thrombotic risk in healthy women. As stated by the World Health Organization, all modern methods of contraception were safe to use during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Gene ; 753: 144812, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470507

RESUMO

Spermatogenesis is a complex and elaborate differentiation process and is critical for male fertility. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis serves as a significant neuroendocrine system to regulate spermatogenesis. As a constitute of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, Sertoli cells promote spermatogenesis via protecting, nourishing, and supporting germ cells upon hormone determination. Here we clarified how the hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, including FSH, testosterone and LH, regulate spermatogenesis via the androgen receptor, cAMP/PKA, PI3k/Akt signaling pathways in Sertoli cells. Other endogenous hormones in higher vertebrates, including ouabain, estradiol, leptin, MIS, PGD2, and thyroid hormone, also regulate spermatogenesis via the AR or cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Among them, the dynamics of adherens junctions, gap junctions, and blood-testis barrier, glucose uptake, lactate supply and differentiation of Sertoli cells are regulated by more comprehensive hormones and signaling pathways in Sertoli cells. In infertile patients or patients with blocked spermatogenesis, the AR, cAMP/PKA and PI3k/Akt signaling pathways and related components exhibit abnormal activity or disordered content. The clinical specimens from patients with testicular cancer show similar mutated AR genes. According to the existing clinical evidence, it is valuable to study the deep mechanism of male infertility and testicular tumors from the perspective of hormones and signaling pathways in Sertoli cells.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/fisiologia , Animais , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/fisiopatologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
8.
Life Sci ; 254: 117782, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407847

RESUMO

AIMS: This study assessed the prophylactic or therapeutic effects of taurine (TR) and/or hesperidin (HES) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute kidney and testicular injury in rats. MAIN METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into nine experimental groups including control; corn oil; CCl4; HES/CCl4; TR/CCl4; HES + TR/CCl4; CCl4/HES; CCl4/TR; and CCl4/HES + TR groups. CCl4 was intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 2 ml /kg b.w. HES and TR were orally gavaged twice weekly 100 mg/kg b.w. for four weeks. Kidney function, inflammatory response, sexual hormones, and oxidative stress indicators were assessed. Histomorphological and immune-histochemical studies of the inflammatory marker nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) in renal and testicular tissues were performed. KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that the TR and/or HES treatment significantly suppressed CCl4 induced rise of urea, uric acid, potassium, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. However, significant restoration of sodium, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone was apparent in CCl4 exposed rats received HES and/or TR. Also, the HES and/or TR treatment significantly rescues CCl4 induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Moreover, the HES and/or TR dosing significantly repaired the CCl4 evoked altered renal and testicular architecture and suppressed NF-κB immunoexpression. Notably, alleviating CCl4 induced renal and testicular damage was more effective in the prophylactic groups than the therapeutic groups. Also, most of the estimated parameters of the HES + TR group did not significantly vary from those of single TR or HES. SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, HES or TR could efficiently guard against CCl4 nephro-and reprotoxic effects, but both bioactive combinations afford only a limited synergistic outcome.


Assuntos
Hesperidina/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Rim/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Ratos , Sódio/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
9.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 160, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the protective effects of Tualang honey against the toxicity effects induced by cadmium (Cd) on the ovary. METHODS: A total of 32 female Sprague Dawley rats were taken and randomly divided into four groups (n = 8). Throughout the experimental period of 6 weeks, negative control-NC (vehicle deionized water), positive control-CD (Cd at 5 mg/kg), Tualang honey followed by Cd exposure-TH (Tualang honey at 200 mg/kg and Cd at 5 mg/kg) and Tualang honey control-THC (Tualang honey at 200 mg/kg) groups, were administered orally on a daily basis. RESULTS: Rats exposed to Cd were significantly higher in ovarian weight, number of antral and atretic follicles as compared to the NC group. The disruptive effects of Cd on ovarian follicles were associated with a disruption in gonadotropin hormones and decreases in follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Moreover, a significant formation of oxidative stress in ovarian Cd-exposed rats has been proven by increasing the level of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) and decreasing the levels of enzymatic antioxidant (catalase). Interestingly, a daily supplementation of high antioxidant agents such as Tualang honey in these animals, caused significant improvements in the histological changes. Additionally, less atretic follicles were observed, restoring the normal level of LH and FSH (P < 0.001), and normalizing the ovarian malondialdehyde (P < 0.05) and catalase levels in comparison with CD group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Tualang honey has protective effects against Cd-induced ovarian toxicity by reducing morphological abnormalities, restoring the normal levels of gonadotropin hormones and stabilizing equilibrium levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme in ovaries of rats.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Cádmio/tratamento farmacológico , Mel , Doenças Ovarianas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Malásia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 324: 109093, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298659

RESUMO

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), as a common endocrine disorder is accompanied by hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, ovulation problems, and infertility. Various types of off-label drugs like metformin have been used for the management of targeted problems caused by PCOS such as insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Nicotinamide (NAM) acts as a substrate of visfatin and Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase (NNMT) leading to the generation of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) and N1-Methylnicotinamide (MNAM), respectively. MNAM is known as an anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombosis, and anti-diabetic agent. In this study, the effects of NAM and MNAM on metabolic and endocrine abnormalities were evaluated in the adipose and ovarian tissues of a letrozole-induced rat model of PCOS. Our results showed that MNAM and NAM reversed abnormal estrous cycle and reduced the serum testosterone levels and CYP17A1 gene expression. Furthermore, all therapeutic factors improved HOMA-IR after treatment and NAM significantly increased the expression of GLUT4 and decreased the gene expression of visfatin. Also, MNAM diminished the gene expression of visfatin and resistin. It is noteworthy that all the therapeutic factors successfully activated the AMPK. In summary, this study is the first study reported beneficial effects of NAM and MNAM on the treatment of PCOS. Additionally, the alleviative effects of our therapeutic factors may be partially mediated by the AMPK-dependent manner due to the contribution of the AMPK in the expression of CYP17A1, visfatin, resistin, and GLUT4. Although more studies are required to unravel the exact mode of actions of MNAM and NAM in the PCOS, the findings of the current study shed light on an urgent need for discovering novel therapeutic pharmaceuticals regarding the treatment of PCOS.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Hiperandrogenismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Resistina/genética , Resistina/metabolismo , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
11.
Metabolism ; 107: 154241, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperandrogenism is one of the major characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormal miR-125b-5p expression has been documented in multiple diseases, but whether miR-125b-5p is associated with aberrant steroidogenesis in preantral follicles remains unknown. METHODS: Steriod hormone concentrations and miR-125b-5p expression were measured in clinical serum samples from PCOS patients. Using a mouse preantral follicle culture model and a letrozole-induced PCOS mouse model, we investigated the mechanism underlying miR-125b-5p regulation of androgen and oestrogen secretion. RESULTS: The decreased miR-125b-5p expression was observed in the sera from hyperandrogenic PCOS (HA-PCOS) patients. In mouse preantral follicles, inhibiting miR-125b-5p increased the expression of androgen synthesis-related genes and stimulated the secretion of testosterone, while simultaneously downregulating oestrogen synthesis-related genes and decreasing oestradiol release. Ectopically expressed miR-125b-5p reversed the effects on steroidogenesis-related gene expression and hormone release. Mechanistic studies identified Pak3 as a direct target of miR-125b-5p. Furthermore, inhibiting miR-125b-5p facilitated the activation of ERK1/2 in mouse preantral follicles, while inhibiting Pak3 abrogated this activating effect. These results were recapitulated in letrozole-induced PCOS mouse ovaries. Of note, inhibiting PAK3 antagonised the positive effect of miR-125b-5p siRNA on the expressions of androgen synthesis-related enzymes and testosterone secretion. Luteinizing hormone (LH) inhibited miR-125b-5p expression, and stimulated Pak3 expression. CONCLUSION: High serum LH concentrations in PCOS patients repress miR-125b-5p expression, which further increases Pak3 expression, leading to activation of ERK1/2 signalling, thus stimulating the expression of androgen synthesis-related enzymes and testosterone secretion in HA-PCOS.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Esteroides/biossíntese , Androgênios/biossíntese , Androgênios/genética , Animais , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/biossíntese , Estrogênios/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Hiperandrogenismo/induzido quimicamente , Hiperandrogenismo/metabolismo , Letrozol , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Quinases Ativadas por p21/genética , Quinases Ativadas por p21/metabolismo
12.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 318(6): E901-E919, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286880

RESUMO

Lack of GABAB receptors in GABAB1 knockout mice decreases neonatal ARC kisspeptin 1 (Kiss1) expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) in females, which show impaired reproduction as adults. Our aim was to selectively impair GABAB signaling during a short postnatal period to evaluate its impact on the reproductive system. Neonatal male and female mice were injected with the GABAB antagonist CGP 55845 (CGP, 1 mg/kg body wt sc) or saline from postnatal day 2 (PND2) to PND6, three times per day (8 AM, 1 PM, and 6 PM). One group was killed on PND6 for collection of blood samples (hormones by radioimmunoassay), brains for gene expression in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus-periventricular nucleus continuum (AVPV/PeN), and ARC micropunches [quantitative PCR (qPCR)] and gonads for qPCR, hormone contents, and histology. A second group of mice was injected with CGP (1 mg/kg body wt sc) or saline from PND2 to PND6, three times per day (8 AM, 1 PM, and 6 PM), and left to grow to adulthood. We measured body weight during development and parameters of sexual differentiation, puberty onset, and estrous cycles. Adult mice were killed, and trunk blood (hormones), brains for qPCR, and gonads for qPCR and hormone contents were obtained. Our most important findings on PND6 include the CGP-induced decrease in ARC Kiss1 and increase in neurokinin B (Tac2) in both sexes; the decrease in AVPV/PeN tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) only in females; the increase in gonad estradiol content in both sexes; and the increase in primordial follicles and decrease in primary and secondary follicles. Neonatally CGP-treated adults showed decreased ARC Kiss1 and ARC gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh1) and increased ARC glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (Gad1) only in males; increased ARC GABAB receptor subunit 1 (Gabbr1) in both sexes; and decreased AVPV/PeN Th only in females. We demonstrate that ARC Kiss1 expression is chronically downregulated in males and that the normal sex difference in AVPV/PeN Th expression is abolished. In conclusion, neonatal GABAergic input through GABAB receptors shapes gene expression of factors critical to reproduction.


Assuntos
Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Hipotálamo Anterior/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-B/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de GABA-B/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato Descarboxilase/genética , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo Anterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Kisspeptinas/genética , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Ácidos Fosfínicos/farmacologia , Propanolaminas/farmacologia , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Puberdade/efeitos dos fármacos , Puberdade/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-B/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Taquicininas/genética , Taquicininas/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
13.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 708-718, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029156

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) sources and rosemary leaves powder (RLP) on the semen quality, fatty acid analysis, and some reproductive hormones of senescent broiler breeder roosters. Thirty-five 45-wk-old Ross breeder roosters were randomly divided into 7 groups (5 birds/group), and received following treatments including control group (basal diet), fish oil (2%), corn oil (2%), an equal (50:50%) proportion of fish oil and corn oil (50:50%), fish oil (2%) with 5 g/kg capsulated RLP, corn oil (2%) with 5 g/kg capsulated RLP, and an equal (50:50) proportion of fish oil and corn oil (50:50%) with 5 g/kg capsulated RLP of diet for 60 D, during which time their seminal characteristics were evaluated every 20 D. At the end of the trial (on day 60), semen samples were tested for determination of sperm fatty acid analysis, lipid peroxidation, and some reproductive hormones. Results showed that feeding fish oil and fish/corn oil with RLP was associated with an increase in docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) and docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4n-6) in sperm. The fish oil diet increased the proportion of n-3 fatty acids in sperm, and as a consequence, the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio also decreased (P < 0.05). RLP (5 g/kg) to the fish and fish/corn-oil (50:50%)-based diet resulted in improvement in sperm concentration, total motility (%), sperm progressive motility (%), membrane integrity, and viability in terms 0 to 60 day trial (P < 0.05). Diets and age interacted to positively affect sperm concentration and sperm membrane integrity. Also this herbal antioxidant decreased the seminal content of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly (P < 0.05). Testosterone and LH serum levels of reproductive hormones were significantly higher in fish and fish/corn-oil with RPL (50:50%)-based diet than other groups (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that RLP as an antioxidant could remarkably improve the effects of n-3 and n-3/n-6 PUFA on sperm characteristics, seminal MDA, and hormones levels in aged breeder roosters. The susceptibility of semen to lipid peroxidation was increased in chickens fed without RLP. Future studies are needed to disclose the causal mechanisms involved.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Rosmarinus/química , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Luteinizante/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/química , Pós/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Testosterona/metabolismo
14.
J Fish Biol ; 96(3): 747-754, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003470

RESUMO

The opioid peptides are involved in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions in vertebrates. Nonetheless, the influence of an opioid peptide, dynorphin A (DYN), on reproduction in fish is understudied. The aim of this work was to study the influence of DYN on the pituitary-ovary axis in Oreochromis mossambicus. Daily injections (ip) of 250 µg DYN kg-1 body weight for 22 days during the ovarian cycle caused a reduction in the intensity and the per cent area of luteinizing hormone (LH) immunoreactive content in the proximal pars distalis region of the pituitary gland compared with an intense immunostaining in time-matched controls. In the ovary, DYN treatment caused a decrease in the number of stage I (previtellogenic) follicles compared with time-matched controls. No difference was observed in the number of stage IV (vitellogenic) follicles among different experimental groups, whereas the numbers of stage II and stage III follicles (previtellogenic) were higher in DYN-treated fish than in time-matched controls. Nonetheless, there was a reduction in the number of stage V (preovulatory) follicles in DYN-treated fish compared with time-matched controls. Taken together, these results indicate that DYN exerts an inhibitory effect on follicular recruitment at the late vitellogenic stage, through the suppression of LH secretion in fish.


Assuntos
Dinorfinas/farmacologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipófise/efeitos dos fármacos , Tilápia/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitelogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 200: 105627, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070756

RESUMO

The South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, is the only mammal described so far that shows expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs) in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. This animal therefore constitutes an exceptional model for the study of the effect of steroid hormones on the modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. By using both in vivo and ex vivo approaches, we have found that pharmacological doses of progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) produced an inhibition in the expression of hypothalamic GnRH, while physiological doses produced a differential effect on the pulsatile release frequency or genomic expression of GnRH. Our ex vivo experiment indicates that a short-term effect of E2 modulates the frequency of GnRH release pattern that would be associated with membrane ERs. On the other hand, our in vivo approach suggests that a long-term effect of E2, acting through the classical nuclear ERs-PRs pathway, would produce the modification of GnRH mRNA expression during the GnRH pre-ovulatory surge. Particularly, P4 induced a rise in GnRH mRNA expression and protein release with a decrease in its release frequency. These results suggest different levels of action of steroid hormones on GnRH modulation. We conclude that the fine action of E2 and P4 constitute the key factor to enable the hypothalamic activity during the pregnancy of this mammal.


Assuntos
Estradiol/farmacologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/farmacologia , Animais , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Ovário , Progesterona/sangue , Roedores
16.
J Vis Exp ; (155)2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065170

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) helps to control angiogenesis and vascular permeability in the kidney. Renal disorders, such as diabetic nephropathy, are associated with VEGF dysregulation in the kidney. The factors that govern VEGF under physiologic conditions in the kidney are not well-understood. Luteinizing hormone (LH), a pro-angiogenic hormone, helps regulate physiologic VEGF expression in reproductive organs. Given that LH receptors are found in the kidney, we, at Zietchick Research Institute, hypothesized here that LH also helps regulate VEGF expression in the kidney as well. To provide evidence, we aimed to show that LH levels are able to predict VEGF levels in the mammalian kidney. Most VEGF-related investigations involving the kidney have used lower order mammals as models (i.e., rodents and rabbits). To translate this work to the human body, it was decided to examine the relationship between VEGF and LH in higher order mammals (i.e., bovine and porcine models). This protocol uses the total protein lysate from the kidney cortex. Keys to this method's success include procurement of kidneys from slaughterhouse animals immediately after death as well as normalization of analyte levels (in the kidney extract) by total protein. This study successfully demonstrates a significant linear relationship between LH and VEGF in both bovine and porcine kidneys. The results are reproducible in two different species. The study provides supporting evidence that the use of kidney extracts from cows and pigs are an excellent, economical, and abundant resource for the study of renal physiology, particularly for examining the correlation between VEGF and other analytes.


Assuntos
Córtex Renal/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos
17.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 199: 105589, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953167

RESUMO

Production of testosterone is under tight control by human chorion gonadotropin (hCG) during fetal life and luteinizing hormone (LH) in adulthood. Several animal and human studies have linked vitamin D status with sex steroid production although it is not clear whether there exist a direct or indirect involvement in androgen production. Few studies have investigated this crosslink in young healthy men and putative direct or synergistic effect of activated vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) and LH/hCG on sex steroid production in vitro. Here, we present cross-sectional data from 300 young men and 41 hCG-stimulated men with impaired Leydig cell function combined with data from an ex vivo culture of human testicular tissue exposed to 1,25(OH)2D3 alone or in combination with hCG. Serum 25-OHD was positively associated with SHBG (ß:0.002; p = 0.023) and testosterone/estradiol-ratio (ß:0.001; p = 0.039), and inversely associated with free testosterone (%) (free testosterone/total testosterone) (ß:-0.002; p = 0.016) in young men. Vitamin D deficient men had higher total and free estradiol concentrations than men with higher vitamin D status (19% and 18%, respectively; p < 0.01). Interestingly, men with impaired Leydig cell function and vitamin D deficiency had a significantly lower hCG-mediated increase in total and free testosterone compared with vitamin D sufficient men (p < 0.05). Accordingly, testicular tissue exposed to 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 had a 15% higher testosterone release into the media compared with vehicle treated specimens (p = 0.030). In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is associated with lower testosterone/estradiol ratio in young men and lower Leydig cell sensitivity after hCG-stimulation in men with impaired gonadal function. The significant effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on testosterone production in a human testis model supports that the stimulatory effect at least in part may be direct. Larger placebo-controlled studies are needed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation can influence testosterone production.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/genética , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/biossíntese , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Adulto , Androgênios/biossíntese , Androgênios/genética , Animais , Gonadotropina Coriônica/genética , Estradiol/genética , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/biossíntese , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/patologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/genética , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/genética , Vitamina D/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/patologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Endocrinol ; 245(1): 21-37, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977313

RESUMO

Follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) produced by the gonadotropes play a major role in control of reproduction. Contrary to mammals and birds, Lh and Fsh are mostly produced by two separate cell types in teleost. Here, we investigated gonadotrope plasticity, using transgenic lines of medaka (Oryzias latipes) where DsRed2 and hrGfpII are under the control of the fshb and lhb promotors respectively. We found that Fsh cells appear in the pituitary at 8 dpf, while Lh cells were previously shown to appear at 14 dpf. Similar to Lh cells, Fsh cells show hyperplasia from juvenile to adult stages. Hyperplasia is stimulated by estradiol. Both Fsh and Lh cells show hypertrophy during puberty with similar morphology. They also share similar behavior, using their cellular extensions to make networks. We observed bi-hormonal gonadotropes in juveniles and adults but not in larvae where only mono-hormonal cells are observed, suggesting the existence of phenotypic conversion between Fsh and Lh in later stages. This is demonstrated in cell culture, where some Fsh cells start to produce Lhß, a phenomenon enhanced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh) stimulation. We have previously shown that medaka Fsh cells lack Gnrh receptors, but here we show that with time in culture, some Fsh cells start responding to Gnrh, while fshb mRNA levels are significantly reduced, both suggestive of phenotypic change. All together, these results reveal high plasticity of gonadotropes due to both estradiol-sensitive proliferation and Gnrh promoted phenotypic conversion, and moreover, show that gonadotropes lose part of their identity when kept in cell culture.


Assuntos
Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Gonadotrofos/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Oryzias/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Células Cultivadas , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/genética , Expressão Gênica , Gonadotrofos/citologia , Gonadotrofos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/genética , Masculino , Oryzias/genética , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/genética
19.
Evol Psychol ; 18(1): 1474704919897913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971000

RESUMO

Recent discussions have highlighted the importance of fertility measurements for the study of peri-ovulatory shifts in women's mating psychology and mating-related behaviors. Participants in such studies typically attend at least two test sessions, one of which is, at least in theory, scheduled to occur during the high-fertility, peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle. A crucial part of this debate is whether luteinizing hormone (LH) tests alone are sufficient to accurately assign test sessions to the peri-ovulatory phase. This article adds to this ongoing debate by presenting analyses of a detailed database of daily estradiol levels and LH tests for 102 menstrual cycles. Based on more than 4,000 hormonal measurements, it is clear that individual differences in length of the cycle, length of the luteal phase and, perhaps most importantly, the discrepancy between the timing of the LH surge and the drop in estradiol that follows it are pronounced. Less than 40% of analyzed cycles followed the textbook pattern commonly assumed to occur in fertility-based research, in which the LH surge is assumed to occur not more than 48 hr before the estradiol drop. These results suggest that LH tests alone are not sufficient to assign test sessions to the peri-ovulatory phase and that analyses of sex hormones are essential to identify whether the participant was tested during the peri-ovulatory phase.


Assuntos
Estradiol/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Ciclo Menstrual/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 48(3): 1058-1070, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367915

RESUMO

Loss of ovarian function (e.g., due to menopause) leads to profound physiological effects in women including changes in sexual function and osteoporosis. Hormone therapies are a known solution, but their use has significantly decreased due to concerns over cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. We recently reported a tissue-engineering strategy for cell hormone therapy (cHT) in which granulosa cells and theca cells are encapsulated to mimic native ovarian follicles. cHT improved physiological outcomes and safety compared to pharmacological hormone therapies in a rat ovariectomy model. However, cHT did not achieve estrogen levels as high as ovary-intact animals. In this report, we examined if hormone secretion from cHT constructs is impacted by incorporation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) since these cells contain regulatory factors such as aromatase necessary for estrogen production. Incorporation of BMSCs led to enhanced estrogen secretion in vitro. Moreover, cHT constructs with BMSCs achieved estrogen secretion levels significantly greater than constructs without BMSCs in ovariectomized rats from 70 to 90 days after implantation, while also regulating pituitary hormones. cHT constructs with BMSC ameliorated estrogen deficiency-induced uterine atrophy without hyperplasia. The results indicate that inclusion of BMSC in cHT strategies can improve performance.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células Tecais/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Aromatase/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Progesterona/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Útero/anatomia & histologia
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