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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(4): 617-625, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524006

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis initiation/recovery after treatment and to identify predictive risk factors for noninitiation/recovery. Methods: A total of 127 consecutive suprasellar germ cell tumor (GCT) patients managed at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (2006-2019) were retrospectively analyzed. Prepubertal patients (followed up until 13 years of age for girls and 14 years of age for boys) and patients with HPG dysfunction (followed up for 2 years) were divided into the initiation/recovery and noninitiation/recovery groups. Results: Of the 127 suprasellar GCT patients, 75 met the follow-up criteria, 28 (37.3%) of whom experienced HPG axis initiation/recovery. Compared to the noninitiation/recovery group, the initiation/recovery group included more males and had shorter delayed diagnosis times, smaller tumor sizes, lower panhypopituitarism rates, thinner pituitary stalk widths, lower visual deficit rates, and higher serum testosterone and estradiol levels. The cutoff values of pituitary stalk width, tumor size, and delayed diagnosis time used to predict noninitiation/recovery were 6.9 mm, 6.9 mm and 1.7 years, respectively. Tumor size ≥6.9 mm (odds ratio (OR) = 7.5, 95% CI: 2.2-25.8, P = 0.001), panhypopituitarism (OR = 5.0, 95% CI: 1.4-17.6, P = 0.013), and delayed diagnosis time ≥1.7 years (OR = 5.7, 95% CI: 1.5-20.7, P = 0.009) were risk factors for noninitiation/recovery. Conclusions: Among suprasellar GCT patients, nearly one-third of prepubertal patients and patients with HPG dysfunction experience HPG axis initiation/recovery after treatment. Tumor size ≥6.9 mm, panhypopituitarism, and delayed diagnosis time ≥1.7 years were identified as predictive risk factors for noninitiation/recovery.


Assuntos
Gônadas/fisiologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/terapia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/reabilitação , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/reabilitação , Prognóstico , Puberdade/sangue , Puberdade/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/sangue
2.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 320(3): E496-E511, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427049

RESUMO

Tachykinin (TAC) signaling is an important element in the central control of reproduction. TAC family is mainly composed of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), and NKB, which bind preferentially to NK1, NK2, and NK3 receptors, respectively. While most studies have focused on the reproductive functions of NKB/NK3R, and to a lesser extent SP/NK1R, the relevance of NK2R, encoded by Tacr2, remains poorly characterized. Here, we address the physiological roles of NK2R in regulating the reproductive axis by characterizing a novel mouse line with congenital ablation of Tacr2. Activation of NK2R evoked acute luteinizing hormone (LH) responses in control mice, similar to those of agonists of NK1R and NK3R. Despite the absence of NK2R, Tacr2-/- mice displayed only partially reduced LH responses to an NK2R agonist, which, nonetheless, were abrogated after blockade of NK3R in Tacr2-/- males. While Tacr2-/- mice displayed normal pubertal timing, LH pulsatility was partially altered in Tacr2-/- females in adulthood, with suppression of basal LH levels, but no changes in the number of LH pulses. In addition, trends for increase in breeding intervals were detected in Tacr2-/- mice. However, null animals of both sexes were fertile, with no changes in estrous cyclicity or sex preference in social behavioral tests. In conclusion, stimulation of NK2R elicited LH responses in mice, while congenital ablation of Tacr2 partially suppressed basal and stimulated LH secretion, with moderate reproductive impact. Our data support a modest, albeit detectable, role of NK2R in the control of the gonadotropic axis, with partially overlapping and redundant functions with other tachykinin receptors.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We have explored here the impact of congenital ablation of the gene (Tacr2) encoding the tachykinin receptor, NK2R, in terms of neuroendocrine control of the reproductive axis, using a novel Tacr2 KO mouse line. Our data support a modest, albeit detectable, role of NK2R in the control of the gonadotropic axis, with partially overlapping and redundant functions with other tachykinin receptors.


Assuntos
Receptores da Neurocinina-2/genética , Reprodução/genética , Animais , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Obesos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Receptores da Neurocinina-2/deficiência , Reprodução/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcriptoma
3.
Menopause ; 28(3): 247-254, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The perimenopause is associated with increased hormone fluctuations and an elevated risk of depression. A number of predictors of depressive symptoms in the menopausal transition have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to investigate a set of biopsychosocial predictors of depressive symptoms in perimenopausal women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, investigating 114 perimenopausal women (according to the STRAW criteria) aged 40-56 years, was conducted within the scope of the Swiss Perimenopause Study. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify the most accurate model predicting perimenopausal depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the German version of the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Validated questionnaires were used to examine psychophysiological complaints, stress, self-esteem, self-compassion, body image, and social support. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) were assessed through saliva samples, and follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were determined through dried blood spot samples. Seven saliva samples per participant were used to investigate absolute levels and fluctuations of sex steroids. All other variables were measured once. RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses revealed that E2 fluctuations (ß=0.15, P = 0.015), history of depression (ß=0.14, P = 0.033), menopausal symptoms (ß=0.47, P < 0.0001), perceived stress (ß=0.17, P = 0.014), body image (ß= -0.25, P = 0.014) and self-esteem (ß=-0.35, P < 0.0001) were predictive of perimenopausal depressive symptoms (R2 = 0.60). P4 fluctuations and absolute levels of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormone were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: E2 fluctuations were shown to be predictive of depressive symptoms in the perimenopause. Moreover, the presence of burdensome complaints and chronic stress as well as a poor self-evaluation seem to promote depressive symptoms in perimenopausal women.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Perimenopausa/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perimenopausa/fisiologia , Progesterona/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Suíça/epidemiologia
4.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128309, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The general population is exposed to the group of endocrine disrupting chemicals persistent organic pollutants (POPs), that includes polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to evaluate the associations of serum levels of PCB, PCDD, and PCDF congeners with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in postmenopausal women not taking exogenous hormones. We hypothesized that associations of POPs with these gonadotropins could be modified by factors affecting endogenous hormones. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on data from 89 postmenopausal women using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). POPs were summarized based on classification schemes thought to reflect toxicological properties. Associations of POPs and gonadotropin hormones were modeled with multivariable regression models. When evidence of interaction was found, conditional effects were estimated. RESULTS: We found inverse associations of LH, but not FSH, with exposure to anti-estrogenic and/or dioxin-like POPs, but not with non dioxin-like PCBs. A doubling of dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) was associated with a decrease in LH of 11.9% (95% CI = -21.3%, -1.4%, p = 0.03). Inverse associations were enhanced by potential effect modifiers related to both direct and indirect estrogenicity, including obesity and the obesity-related condition inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: These investigations support a pattern of endocrine-disrupting effects by dioxin-like POPs among postmenopausal women, especially those with conditions related to peripheral estrogenicity.


Assuntos
Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, infertility, obesity, and insulin resistance, which results in increased concentrations of testosterone (T), which disturbs follicular growth and ovulation. This study aimed to assess PCOS women's clinical, endocrinological, and metabolic parameters concerning hyperandrogenism severity. RESULTS: 314 women (mean age 27.3 ± 4.6; mean body mass index (BMI) 25.7 ± 5.6) with PCOS, were divided into terciles according to T concentrations: <0.64 ng/mL (group 1), 0.64 to 0.84 ng/mL (Group 2) and >0.84 ng/mL (group 3). The mean concentration of T in all women was 0.59 ng/mL and correlated negatively with the number of menstrual cycles per year (MPY) (r = -0.36; p < 0.0001) and positively with Ferriman-Gallway score (FG) (r = 0.33; p < 0.0001), luteinizing hormone (LH) (r = 0.19; p < 0.0001) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (r = 0.52; p < 0.0001). Positive correlation between BMI and hirsutism (r = 0.16; p < 0.0001), total cholesterol (TC) (r = 0.18; p < 0.0001), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (r = 0.29; p < 0.0001), and triglycerides (TG) (r = 0.40; p < 0.0001) was demonstrated. The division into subgroups confirmed the lowest MPY, highest LH, and hirsutism in group 3. BMI, insulin sensitivity indices, and lipid profile parameters were not different between the three T subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: We found no correlation between testosterone levels and insulin sensitivity or dyslipidemia in women with PCOS. Metabolic abnormalities may contribute more significantly than hyperandrogenemia to PCOS development.


Assuntos
Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Dislipidemias , Feminino , Hirsutismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(5): 529-536, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071222

RESUMO

Objective: Transgender individuals sometimes report a lack of physical change during hormone treatment, such as alterations in muscle tone or fat distribution. Identifying characteristics of this subgroup could be a step toward individualizing hormone therapy in transgender individuals. Therefore, we study the variation of changes in body composition and characteristics associated with a lack of change. Design and methods: Body composition measures were recorded in 323 transmen and 288 transwomen at every visit from the start of hormone therapy to a maximum of 24 months follow-up. Absence of change was defined as transmen with a decrease in lean body mass or transwomen with a decrease in fat percentage. Results: A lack of change at 24 months was observed in 19 of 94 (20.2%) transmen and in 9 of 96 (9.4%) transwomen. The risk of not achieving change in body composition was related to lower testosterone levels and less suppression of LH in transmen (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.94 per SD increase in testosterone and OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.01-1.83 per SD increase in LH). Conclusions: There is a large variation in body composition changes during hormone therapy, with a substantial proportion of individuals with no measurable effects. In transmen, serum testosterone and LH were associated with a lack of change, but serum hormone levels were not associated with body composition changes in transwomen. The results provide a rationale for individualizing hormone therapy in transmen, by considering individual effects rather than solely relying on a standardized dosage of hormone therapy.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Composição Corporal , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Acetato de Ciproterona/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Impedância Elétrica , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão , Procedimentos de Readequação Sexual/métodos , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Testosterona/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881904

RESUMO

The immune responses exhibited by females are distinct from those of males. Females are known to generate, among others, higher levels of antibodies, greater interferon responses, and increased levels of inflammatory mediators in response to pathogens. Mounting evidence suggests that gonadal hormones play a key role in these differences. To better understand the effect of cycling hormones on the immune response, we sought to investigate the relationship between gonadal hormone fluctuations during the ovarian cycle and the levels of interleukin 1ß and IL-1RA, both in circulation and in PBMCs in response to TLR4 stimulation, in healthy premenopausal females. To do this we measured the gonadal hormones 17ß-estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone, and the cytokines IL-1ß and IL-1RA in nine cycling females at several time points throughout one complete cycle. We evaluated 35 follicular, 17 ovulatory, and 44 luteal time points in our cohort and found a clear increase in serum levels of anti-inflammatory IL-1RA in the luteal phase, as compared to the follicular phase, and a positive correlation between both 17ß-estradiol and progesterone and IL-RA. There was no difference in the serum levels of IL-1ß and no difference in IL-1 ß or IL-1RA produced in response to LPS by PBMCs isolated from different phases. Division of the cycle into sub-phases revealed an increase in the level of IL-1RA by ovulation that persisted through the luteal phase. These data suggest that significant changes in the immune response occur throughout the ovarian cycle in healthy females.


Assuntos
Fase Folicular/imunologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/sangue , Fase Luteal/imunologia , Adulto , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Progesterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21538, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increase in the incidence of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) over the years, the ovarian function has become one of the integral aspects of research in reproductive medicine today. POI seriously affects the physical and mental health of women, especially reproductive health. Studies show both complementary and alternative therapies to be effective in treating POIs. However, consistency in conclusions is still far-fetched. In light of this, we will carry out a study to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of complementary and alternative therapies for POIs. We therefore develop a study protocol for a proposed network meta-analysis (NMA) and systematic review on POI. METHODS: The following electronic bibliographic database will be searched: VIP database, Wanfang database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science from inception till 31 December 2019. A search at the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform will also be done. Subsequently, the searched data will undergo independent screening, retrieving, and risk of bias assessment by 2 reviewers. Analysis will be performed on included studies using the NMA technique. Next, the primary outcomes will be compared using ADDIS 1.16.5 and Stata 15.0. RESULTS: The safety and effectiveness of alternative and complementary therapies used in the treatment of POI will be compared and evaluated. CONCLUSION: This work will provide high-quality evidence for clinicians in the field to build on for best practices in effective interventions (complementary and alternative therapies) for POI. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This NMA is a secondary research which based on some previously published data. Therefore, the ethical approval was not necessary. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020163873.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/métodos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/terapia , Adulto , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Terapias Complementares/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Metanálise em Rede , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
9.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 213-221, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693021

RESUMO

Di-n-hexyl phthalate (DNHP) is commonly used as a plasticizer. However, whether DNHP influences Leydig cell development during puberty remains unexplored. In this study, DNHP (0, 10, 100, and 1000 mg/kg) was administered via gavage to 35-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats for 21 days. Serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, Leydig cell number, the expression of Leydig and Sertoli cell genes and proteins were investigated. DNHP significantly increased serum testosterone levels at 10 mg/kg but lowered its level at 1000 mg/kg. DNHP significantly increased luteinizing hormone levels at 1000 mg/kg without affecting follicle-stimulating hormone levels. DNHP increased Leydig cell number at all doses but down-regulated the expression of Lhcgr, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b3, and Hsd11b1 in Leydig cell per se at 1000 mg/kg. DNHP elevated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and GSK-3ß at 10 mg/kg but decreased SIRT1 and PGC-1α levels at 1000 mg/kg. In conclusion, DNHP exposure causes Leydig cell hyperplasia possibly via stimulating phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and GSK-3ß signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Animais , Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/ultraestrutura , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Maturidade Sexual , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue
10.
Rev Int Androl ; 18(3): 117-123, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this revision is to summarize the current existing evidence of the potential adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the male reproductive system and provide the recommendations of the Asociación Española de Andrología, Medicina Sexual y Reproductiva (ASESA) concerning the implications of COVID-19 infection in the management of male infertilty patients and testicular endocrine dysfunction. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search of the databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Medline, Cochrane and MedRxiv, was carried out. RESULTS: The presence of orchitis as a potential complication of the infection by SARS-CoV-2 has not yet been confirmed. One study reported that 19% of males with COVID-19 infection had scrotal symptoms suggestive of viral orchitis which could not be confirmed. It is possible that the virus, rather than infecting the testes directly, may induce a secondary autoimmune response leading to autoimmune orchitis. COVID-19 has been associated with coagulation disorders and thus the orchitis could be the result of segmental vasculitis. Existing data concerning the presence of the virus in semen are contradictory. Only one study reported the presence of RNA in 15.8% of patients with COVID-19. However, the presence of nucleic acid or antigen in semen is not synonyms of viral replication capacity and infectivity. It has been reported an increase in serum levels of LH in males with COVID-19 and a significant reduction in the T/LH and FSH/LH ratios, consistent with subclinical hypogonadism. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of recent reports related to the potential effects of COVID-19 infection on the male reproductive system are based on poorly designed, small sample size studies that provide inconclusive, contradictory results. Since there still exists a theoretical possibility of testicular damage and male infertilty as a result of the infection by COVID-19, males of reproductive age should be evaluated for gonadal function and semen analysis. With regard to the sexual transmission of the virus, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend asymptomatic couples to abstein from having sex in order to protect themselves from being infected by the virus. Additional studies are needed to understand the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 on male reproductive function, including male fertility potential and endocrine testicular function.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Sexual , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/sangue , Hipogonadismo/etiologia , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Leucócitos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Orquite/etiologia , Orquite/virologia , Próstata/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sêmen/virologia , Preservação do Sêmen , Espanha , Testículo/imunologia , Testículo/patologia , Testículo/virologia , Testosterona/sangue , Vasculite/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(8): 1458-1466, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513025

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a multifactorial disorder characterized by irregular menstrual problems, hyperandrogenism, and presence of polycystic ovaries. Till date, molecular mechanism underlying PCOS remains elusive. Recently mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) variants have been identified to be novel players in the pathogenesis of PCOS. At present, rare variants, besides common variants, are also the focus of research as it is believed to make essential contribution to the risk of complex diseases. However, rare and low hetroplasmic variants in mitochondrial D-loop are still not investigated in PCOS women. Furthermore, variants in light-strand origin of DNA replication (OriL) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have not been explored in PCOS. Hence, in this study, we investigated rare to common mitochondrial D-loop and OriL region variants obtained using mtDNA next-generation sequencing in women with PCOS. Furthermore, we also assessed mtDNA copy number, a biomarker of mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) in women with PCOS, as the variants in mtDNA are known to be associated with low mtDNA copy number in PCOS women. A total of 67 D-loop variants including 6 novel variants were identified in 30 PCOS women. Among 67 variants, 29 variants were reported in PCOS women. A single variant, 5746A was found in OriL region in two PCOS women. Both transition and transversion variants were found but transition variants occur at very high frequency compared with transversions (82.35% vs. 17.64%, respectively). As transition variants in mtDNA are known to arise because of polymerase γ errors, occurrence of high transition rates indicates that most mutation arises because of defect in replication errors that causes mtDNA damage leading to MD. Furthermore, mtDNA copy number was found to be low in women with PCOS compared with healthy control women suggesting that MD may be the contributing factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Replicação do DNA/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia , Testosterona/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 32(2): 255-258, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most commonly occurring endocrinopathy in females of reproductive age group. It is characterized by a wide range of signs and symptoms resulting from hormonal derangements leading to reduced fertility. METHODS: This was a crosssectional (comparative) study. We took 40 cases of polycystic ovary syndrome and 40 controls of infertility without polycystic ovary syndrome depending on the presence of clinical features and ultrasound scans. Blood samples were collected and assayed for luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. Data was analyzed with SPSS-19. RESULTS: Luteinizing hormone to follicle stimulating hormone ratio was raised in 3 out of 35 patients (8%) in cases and in 2 out of 39 patients (5%) in controls. There was no statistically significant difference in the luteinizing hormone levels and the follicle stimulating hormone levels and the luteinizing hormone to follicle stimulating hormone ratio of the two groups as indicated by a p-value> 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Luteinizing hormone to follicle stimulating hormone ratio was not found to be raised in majority of the polycystic ovary syndrome patients included in this study.


Assuntos
Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/sangue , Infertilidade Feminina/complicações , Infertilidade Feminina/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia
13.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 48(285): 152, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564037

RESUMO

Overweight or obesity is diagnosed in approximately 60-80% of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Since obesity exacerbates the hormonal and clinical features of PCOS, and women suffering from PCOS have a high risk of obesity, we suggest that hormonal imbalance resulting in certain body features can be linked to the pathogenesis of PCOS. AIM: The aim of the study was to define the features of the reproductive hormone metabolism in women with infertility due to PCOS depending on the constitutional body types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study involved 100 women aged 25-39 years with infertility due to PCOS (experimental group) and 30 women of the same age with infertility due to tubal-peritoneal causes (control group). Infertility due to PCOS was diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. Waist-hip ratio (WHR) was used to characterize the distribution of adipose tissue in overweight and obese patients. Hormone levels in blood serum were determined by ELISA using the «Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, Inc.¼ test systems (USA). RESULTS: We found hormonal imbalance in women with infertility caused by PCOS: increased levels of anti-Müllerian and luteinizing hormones, estradiol and testosterone, and decreased FSH levels. Body fat distribution conformed to the gluteofemoral (gynoid) type in 6.00% of the women and abdominal (android) type in 52.00%. Analysis of the relationship between the concentration of reproductive hormones and waist-hip ratio showed a weak inverse relationship between WHR with FSH levels, as well as a direct correlation with the levels of testosterone. CONCLUSIONS: In women with infertility caused by PCOS and android type of obesity, all these changes are significant compared to the women with normal body weight. Thus, obesity exacerbates the hormonal imbalance in women with infertility caused by PCOS.


Assuntos
Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Infertilidade , Hormônio Luteinizante , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Somatotipos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Testosterona , Relação Cintura-Quadril
14.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 134, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the age-dependent changes in circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in healthy Arabic-speaking Lebanese women, and to correlate changes in serum AMH levels with serum FSH and LH values, and LH/FSH ratio. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, involving 1190 healthy females, age 17-54 years, with regular menses and both ovaries. Serum AMH levels (ng/ml) were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: There was an inverse proportion of AMH and subject's age, which declined from median 6.71 (2.91) ng/ml in young subjects, to 0.68 (0.45) ng/ml in subjects older than 50 years. Average yearly decrease in median AMH levels was 0.27 ng/ml/year through age 35, but then diminished to 0.12 ng/ml/year afterwards. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of age as determinant of AMH levels. In contrast to AMH, FSH levels increased progressively from 5.89 (0.11-62.10) ng/ml in young subjects, to 38.43 (3.99-88.30) ng/ml in subjects older than 50 years. On the other hand, age-dependent changes in LH/FSH ratio paralleled those of AMH. Linear regression modeling testing the independent effect of AMH on FSH and LH, adjusted for age, showed that AMH was significant predictor of FSH and LH/FSH ratio, but not LH. This did not contribute significantly to baseline LH and FSH prediction. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating AMH levels are inversely related to age as also shown elsewhere, and are predictors of LH/FSH ratio and FSH but not LH levels in eumenorrheic females.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pediatrics ; 145(Suppl 2): S210-S218, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358213

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female reproductive disorder that often manifests during adolescence and is associated with disruptions in health-related quality of life. Prompt evaluation and clinical support after diagnosis may prevent associated complications and optimize overall health management. This article incorporates the most recent evidence and consensus guidelines to provide an updated review of the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management strategies for adolescents with this complex condition. We will review the recent international guidelines on PCOS; because the diagnosis of PCOS remains controversial, management of this condition is inconsistent. In 2019, PCOS remains a common, yet neglected, condition, in part, because of the lack of agreement around both diagnosis and management.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Androgênios/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/psicologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Fatores de Risco
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e19934, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358364

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to assess whether the preoperative clinical indicators have an impact on sperm retrieval rate (SRR) in men with idiopathic nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA).We retrospectively studied 241 consecutive men with NOA who underwent microdissection testicular sperm extraction from 2016 to 2019 in the Reproductive Medicine Center, including 154 patients diagnosed with idiopathic NOA. They were grouped according to preoperative indicators, including average testicular volume, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, Testosterone (T), and pathology, respectively.The overall SRR was 20.0% (31/155). Men with testicular volume of ≤5 mL had significant higher SRR than men with testes 5 to 10 and ≥10 mL (35.6% vs 12.3%, P = .002; 35.6% vs 16.2, P = .049, respectively). The SRR in men with FSH ≥ 24.8 mIU/mL was significant higher, compared with FSH level of 12.4 to 24.8 mIU/mL (32.6% vs 15.8%, P = .033). Men with Sertoli cell-only had significantly lower SRR than other pathological type (8.1%). Men with an FSH ≥ 24.8 mIU/mL in testicular volume ≤5 mL group had a significantly higher SRR than FSH level of 12.4 to 24.8 mIU/mL in testicular volume of ≤5 to 10 mL group (44.0% vs 11.4%, P = .002). Men with a luteinizing hormone level of 8.6 to 17.2 mIU/mL in testicular volume of 5 to 10 mL group had a poor prognosis, with an SRR of only 6.5%.Severely reduced testicular volume (≤5 mL) and severely increased FSH level (≥24.8 mIU/mL) had the better sperm retrieval outcome, which can be used as independent predictors in men with idiopathic NOA. And a combination of testicular volume and the hormone seemed to be useful in further increase predictive value.


Assuntos
Azoospermia/fisiopatologia , Microdissecção/estatística & dados numéricos , Recuperação Espermática/estatística & dados numéricos , Testículo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Azoospermia/sangue , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Microdissecção/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): 107-117, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422605

RESUMO

Objective: Non-palpable testes remain a diagnostic challenge, often involving exploratory laparoscopy. We evaluated the diagnostic value of a wide range of reproductive hormones in order to distinguish between bilateral cryptorchidism and bilateral anorchia. Design: In this retrospective study, we identified and included 36 boys with non-palpable testes (20 with cryptorchidism, 3 with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), and 13 with anorchia) at first examination during childhood. Methods: Information on karyotype, phenotype, surgical results from laparoscopy, and biochemistry was retrieved from patient files. We compared serum concentrations of AMH, inhibin B, FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, and hCG stimulation testing in cryptorchid and anorchid boys to serum concentrations in a large, age-matched control group. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to determine the cut-off values of each reproductive hormone as a predictor of the presence of functional testicular tissue. Results: Concentrations of AMH in 0-1 year olds: ≥155 pmol/L and >1-15 year olds: ≥19 pmol/L, inhibin B (≥22 pg/mL and ≥4 pg/mL), FSH (≤28.9 IU/L and ≤20.3 IU/L) and hCG-induced testosterone (>1-15 year olds: ≥2 nmol/L) were significantly sensitive and specific markers in predicting the presence of functional testicular tissue in boys with non-palpable testes. In infancy, anorchid infants had significantly elevated gonadotropin levels, while CHH had low levels. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that laparoscopy may not be necessary in all boys with non-palpable testes if reproductive hormones unequivocally confirm the presence of functional testicular tissue. However, proving the absence may still be a diagnostic challenge.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo/diagnóstico , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XY/diagnóstico , Hormônios Gonadais/sangue , Hipogonadismo/diagnóstico , Testículo/anormalidades , Adolescente , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gonadotropina Coriônica/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Estradiol/sangue , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/congênito , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inibinas/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/sangue
18.
Clin J Sport Med ; 30(3): 245-250, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether secondary amenorrhea during teenage years influences bone mineral density (BMD) in female athletes in their 20s. DESIGN: Original research. SETTING: Japan Institute of Sports Sciences. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred ten elite female athletes older than 20 years were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Information on the participants' past (ie, during their teenage years) and current menstrual cycle, training time, history of stress fractures, and blood tests for hormones received was obtained. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine was evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; low BMD was defined as a Z-score ≤-1. We investigated the correlation factors for low BMD in athletes in their 20s by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 39 (18.6%) female athletes had low BMD. Secondary amenorrhea in their teens [odds ratio (OR), 7.11, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.38-21.24; P < 0.001] and present body mass index (BMI) (OR, 0.56, 95% CI, 0.42-0.73; P < 0.001) were independent correlation factors for low BMD in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. The average Z-score for those with secondary amenorrhea in their teens and 20s, secondary amenorrhea in their 20s only, and regular menstruation was -1.56 ± 1.00, -0.45 ± 1.21, and 0.82 ± 1.11 g/cm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary amenorrhea for at least 1 year during teenage years in female athletes and BMI at present was strongly associated with low BMD in their 20s.


Assuntos
Amenorreia/fisiopatologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Amenorreia/prevenção & controle , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Hum Genet ; 65(8): 683-691, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341457

RESUMO

Semen quality is affected by environmental factors, endocrine function abnormalities, and genetic factors. A GWAS recently identified ERBB4 at 2q34 as a genetic locus associated with sperm motility. However, GWASs for human semen volume and sperm concentration have not been conducted. In addition, testis size also reportedly correlates with semen quality, and it is important to identify genes that affect testis size. Reproductive hormones also play an important role in spermatogenesis. To date, genetic loci associated with plasma testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels have been identified using GWASs. However, GWASs have not identified any relevant loci for plasma inhibin B levels. We conducted a two-stage GWAS using 811 Japanese men in a discovery stage followed by a replication stage using an additional 721 Japanese men. The results of the discovery and replication stages were combined into a meta-analysis. After setting a suggestive significance threshold for P values < 5 × 10-6 in the discovery stage, we identified ten regions with SNPs (semen volume: one, sperm concentration: three, testes size: two, and inhibin B: four). We selected only the most significant SNP in each region for replication genotyping. Combined discovery and replication results in the meta-analysis showed that the locus 12q21.31 associated with plasma inhibin B levels (rs11116724) had the most significant association (P = 5.7 × 10-8). The LRRIQ1 and TSPAN19 genes are located in the 12q21.31 region. This study provides new susceptibility variants that contribute to plasma inhibin B levels.


Assuntos
Inibinas/sangue , Sêmen/metabolismo , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testosterona/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/genética , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/genética , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise do Sêmen , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/genética , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Testosterona/sangue
20.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(9): 952-960, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293792

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), one of the most well-known nanomaterials, are regularly utilized in everyday consumer products. The present study aimed to investigate the testicular toxicity and oxidative stress by AgNPs and the therapeutic role of the rocket seeds (Eruca sativa) in treatments. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four equivalent groups (group 1, control; group 2, rocket seeds extract [RS]; group 3, AgNPs; group 4, AgNPs+RS). Our results showed that AgNPs induced a significant decrease in serum total testosterone, FSH (follicle-animating hormone), prolactin and LH (luteinizing hormone), testicular glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). In contrast, a significant increase in testicular DNA, injury, testicular thiobarbituric acid, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) expressions after treatments with AgNPs when contrasted with the control group. Treatments of AgNPs with rocket seeds extract (AgNPs+RS) improved testicular functions and structure. Rocket seeds extract might offer benefits against the toxic nature of AgNPs.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prata/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testículo/enzimologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue
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