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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 5965721, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396302

RESUMO

Objective: The status of metabolites of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in patients with chronic wounds in the course of cardiometabolic diseases is largely unknown. Yet arginine supplementation and citrulline supplementation as novel therapeutic modalities aimed at increasing NO are tested. Material and Methods: Targeted metabolomics approach (LC-MS/MS) was applied to determine the concentrations of L-arginine, L-citrulline, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginines (ADMA and SDMA), and arginine/ADMA and arginine/SDMA ratios as surrogate markers of NO and arginine availability in ulnar and femoral veins, representing systemic and local levels of metabolites, in patients with chronic wounds in the course of cardiometabolic diseases (n = 59) as compared to patients without chronic wounds but with similar cardiometabolic burden (n = 55) and healthy individuals (n = 88). Results: Patients with chronic wounds had significantly lower systemic L-citrulline and higher ADMA and SDMA concentrations and lower L-arginine/ADMA and L-arginine/SDMA as compared to healthy controls. The presence of chronic wounds in patients with cardiometabolic diseases was associated with decreased L-arginine but with increased L-citrulline, ADMA, and SDMA concentrations and decreased L-arginine/ADMA and L-arginine/SDMA. Serum obtained from the ulnar and femoral veins of patients with chronic wounds differed by L-arginine concentrations and L-arginine/SDMA ratio, both lower in the femoral vein. Wound etiology affected L-citrulline and SDMA concentrations, lower and higher, respectively, in patients with venous stasis, and the L-arginine/SDMA ratio-lower in venous stasis. The wound type affected L-arginine/ADMA and citrulline-lower in patients with ulcerations or gangrene. IL-6 was an independent predictor of L-arginine/ADMA, VEGF-A of ADMA, G-CSF of L-arginine/SDMA, and GM-CSF of L-citrulline and SDMA. Conclusion: Chronic wounds in the course of cardiometabolic diseases are associated with reduced NO and arginine availability due to ADMA and SDMA accumulation rather than arginine deficiency, not supporting its supplementation. Wound character seems to affect NO bioavailability and wound etiology-arginine bioavailability. Arginine concentration and its availability are more markedly reduced at the local level than the systemic level.


Assuntos
Arginina/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Extremidade Inferior/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Idoso , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocinas/análise , Citrulina/análise , Citocinas/análise , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/metabolismo
2.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(3): 162-164, jul. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006497

RESUMO

La acromegalia, originada por un exceso de producción de Hormona de crecimiento (Gh), se caracteriza por crecimiento somático exagerado, alto riesgo cardio-metabólico, así como reducción de la expectativa de vida. Tiene una incidencia de 3-4 casos por millón de habitantes. El diagnóstico se retrasa hasta 10 años aumentando la morbi-mortalidad. Las alternativas terapéuticas incluyen medicamentos y cirugía, que van encaminados a reducir los efectos de masa tumoral, normalizar los parámetros bioquímicos y resolver las manifestaciones clínicas. En casos muy infrecuentes, el tumor hipofisario que la origina se asocia a silla turca vacía.


Acromegaly, caused by an excess production of growth hormone (Gh), it is characterized by exaggerated somatic growth, high cardio-metabolic risk, as well as reduction of life expectancy. It has an incidence of 3-4 cases per million population. The diagnosis is delayed up to 10 years increasing morbidity and mortality. The therapeutic alternatives include medications and surgery, which are aimed at reduce the effects of tumor mass, normalize biochemical parameters and resolve clinical manifestations. In very infrequent cases, the pituitary tumor that originates it is associated with empty sella syndrome. Key words: Acromegaly, Empty sella syndrome, Pituitary tumor.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Acromegalia/complicações , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Sela Vazia/complicações , Sela Túrcica/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(6)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216765

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Boxing is a popular combat sport that requires high intensity and cooperation. However, there are limited data about the influence of boxing matches on blood parameters. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the match-induced changes in the metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory status in male elite boxers. Materials and methods: High-level 20 male boxers with more than 5 years experience in boxing voluntarily participated in this study. Venous blood samples of the boxers, before and after combat, were taken for determination of the plasma parameters. Results: Our results indicated that a 9-min boxing match caused significant increases in plasma energy fuels (glucose and lactate), metabolic hormones (insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and growth hormone), inflammatory markers (interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)), muscle damage indicators (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), and oxidative stress marker (SOD). A decrease in total oxidant status (TOS) was also considered. However, there were no significant alterations in the plasma levels of androgenic hormone (free and total testosterone), anabolic hormone (IGF-1), lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)), kidney function markers (creatinine and urea), and minerals (iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg)). Conclusion: Elevations in the level of energy fuels and metabolic hormones of the boxers could be taken as a reflection of high-energy turnover during combat performance. The increases in inflammatory and tissue damage indicators may possibly be an indication of traumatic injury. Understanding the biochemical changes that occur during boxing match could be valuable to optimize the performance improvement of the athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas , Boxe/fisiologia , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/análise , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/análise , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/análise , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Glucose/análise , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Insulina/análise , Insulina/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Ácido Láctico/análise , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Tailândia
4.
Endocr Rev ; 40(4): 1163-1185, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180479

RESUMO

GH is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency as a performance-enhancing anabolic agent. Doping with GH likely began in the early 1980s and became more prevalent with the advent of recombinant technology well before any scientific evidence of benefit. The expectation that GH improves physical function stems from its anabolic and lipolytic properties. Athletic performance depends on muscle strength and the energy required to power muscle function. In recreational athletes, GH selectively improves anaerobic sprint capacity but has not been proven to significantly enhance muscle strength, power, or maximum rate of oxygen consumption. GH is secreted as a family of isoform peptides in a pulsatile manner reflecting intermittent secretion and rapid clearance. Its anabolic actions are largely mediated by IGF-I, which stimulates whole-body protein synthesis, including skeletal muscle and collagen proteins. Two methods have been validated for detecting GH abuse in athletes. The first (the isoform method) is based on distinguishing pure recombinant 22-kDa GH from the heterogeneous isoforms secreted from the pituitary. The second (the marker method) is based on measuring blood levels of GH-responsive proteins, specifically IGF-I and the N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (P-III-NP). Only a handful of athletes have been caught since the implementation of GH doping tests in 2004. The low rate likely reflects the limitation of in-competition testing using current methods. Improved detection rates may be achieved by more out-of-competition testing, introducing athletes' biological passports, and the development of novel methods. Governance, operational, technical, and political factors influence the effectiveness of an anti-doping program.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Hormônio do Crescimento/farmacologia , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Humanos
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7213913, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080828

RESUMO

Fenugreek is known since ancient times as a traditional herbal medicine of its multiple beneficial effects. Fenugreek's most studied and employed effect is its hypoglycemic property, but it can also be useful for the treatment of certain thyroid disorders or for the treatment of anorexia. The regulation of glucose homeostasis is a complex mechanism, dependent on the interaction of different types of hormones and neurotransmitters or other compounds. For the study of how diosgenin and fenugreek seeds modify insulin sensitivity, we used a rat insulin resistance model induced by high-fat diet. Diosgenin in three different doses (1mg/bwkg, 10mg/bwkg, and 50 mg/bwkg, respectively) and fenugreek seed (0.2 g/bwkg) were administered orally for 6 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was determined by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp method. Our research group found that although glucose infusion rate was not significantly modified in either group, the increased insulin sensitivity index and high metabolic clearance rate of insulin found in the 1 mg/kg diosgenin and the fenugreek seed treated group suggested an improved peripheral insulin sensitivity. Results from the 10 mg/kg diosgenin group, however, suggest a marked insulin resistance. Fenugreek seed therapy results on the investigated anabolic hormones support the theory that, besides insulin and gastrointestinal peptides, the hypothalamic-hypopituitary axis regulated hormones synchronized action with IGF-1 also play an important role in the maintaining of normal glucose levels. Both diosgenin and fenugreek seeds are capable of interacting with substrates of the above-mentioned regulatory mechanisms, inducing serious hormonal disorders. Moreover, fenugreek seeds showed the ability to reduce the thyroid hormone levels at the periphery and to modify the T4/T3 ratio. It means that in healthy people this effect could be considered a severe side effect; however, in hypothyroidism this effect represents a possibility of alternative natural therapy.


Assuntos
Diosgenina/farmacologia , Medicina Herbária , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Trigonella/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Diosgenina/administração & dosagem , Diosgenina/uso terapêutico , Glucose , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Insulina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Hormônios Tireóideos
6.
Talanta ; 199: 643-651, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952309

RESUMO

The study of disulfide linkage is a crucial part of the quality assessment of biopharmaceutical products because disulfide bonds stabilize the tertiary structure of proteins and maintain protein functions. Therefore, a suitable method is highly required for disulfide linkage assignment when nested disulfide bonds formed with closely spaced cysteine residues. A novel approach for disulfide linkage assignment of disulfide-rich peptides and proteins via electrochemical reduction on a lead electrode with mass spectrometry is presented in this paper. The method features partial electrochemical reduction and alkylation of peptides followed by alkylated peptide sequencing based on tandem mass spectrometry. Lead was chosen for the first time as an electrode material for disulfide bond reduction, because it has the advantages of maintenance free (only infrequent polishing needed), easy operation in DC mode, and reusability. Without any special sample preparation and any chemical reduction agents, disulfide bond in peptides can be cleaved rapidly. The new method was successfully tested with two peptides and one protein containing nested disulfide bonds.


Assuntos
Apamina/análise , Dissulfetos/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Chumbo/química , Octreotida/análise , Eletrodos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Oxirredução , Proteínas Recombinantes/análise
7.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 20, 2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899019

RESUMO

Acromegaly is characterized by increased release of growth hormone and, consequently, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF1), most often by a pituitary adenoma. Prolonged exposure to excess hormone leads to progressive somatic disfigurement and a wide range of systemic manifestations that are associated with increased mortality. Although considered a rare disease, recent studies have reported an increased incidence of acromegaly owing to better disease awareness, improved diagnostic tools and perhaps a real increase in prevalence. Acromegaly treatment approaches, which include surgery, radiotherapy and medical therapy, have changed considerably over time owing to improved surgical procedures, development of new radiotherapy techniques and availability of new medical therapies. The optimal use of these treatments will reduce mortality in patients with acromegaly to levels in the general population. Medical therapy is currently an important treatment option and can even be the first-line treatment in patients with acromegaly who will not benefit from or are not suitable for first-line neurosurgical treatment. Pharmacological treatments include somatostatin receptor ligands (such as octreotide, lanreotide and pasireotide), dopamine agonists and the growth hormone receptor antagonist pegvisomant. In this Primer, we review the main aspects of acromegaly, including scientific advances that underlie expanding knowledge of disease pathogenesis, improvements in disease management and new medical therapies that are available and in development to improve disease control.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Acromegalia/genética , Acromegalia/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Fadiga/etiologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/análogos & derivados , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hiperidrose/etiologia , Incidência , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Radioterapia/métodos
9.
Med Sci Monit ; 24: 7944-7951, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The aim was to develop and assess a general pituitary hormone score to evaluate the function of the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) in patients following resection of pituitary adenomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty-six patients with pituitary null cell macroadenoma (1-3 cm diameter) (N=38) and pituitary null cell giant adenoma (≥3 cm diameter) (N=28) had preoperative and postoperative data including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and measurement of six pituitary hormones levels, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The postoperative general pituitary hormone score, for 57 patients who underwent subtotal resection (>60%) and nine patients who underwent partial resection (≤60%), was 1-5 for each hormone level (score range, 6-30). RESULTS ACTH, GH, TSH, PRL, FSH, and LH levels in 38 patients with pituitary null cell macroadenoma were not statistically different from the 28 patients with pituitary null cell giant adenoma; the general pituitary hormone score in the former group was significantly increased compared with the latter group (P<0.05). ACTH, GH, TSH, PRL, FSH, and LH levels in the 57 patients with subtotal tumor resection were not significantly different from the nine patients with partial tumor resection; the general pituitary hormone score in the former group was significantly reduced compared with the latter group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS A general pituitary hormone score was developed that might be relevant to the evaluation of pituitary function following surgical resection of pituitary null cell macroadenoma and giant adenoma.


Assuntos
Adeno-Hipófise/fisiopatologia , Hormônios Hipofisários/análise , Adenoma/patologia , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/análise , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , China , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/análise , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/análise , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Prolactina/análise , Prolactina/sangue , Tireotropina/análise , Tireotropina/sangue
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 650, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The GH-2000 biomarker test has been introduced by the World Anti-Doping Agency as a method of detecting growth hormone misuse in professional sport. The test involves the measurement insulin-like growth factor-I and the amino-terminal pro-peptide of type III collagen (P-III-NP) which increase in a dose-dependent manner in response to GH. These measurements are combined in sex specific formulae that include an age adjustment. The original age adjustment overcorrects the effect of age in male athletes and could potentially place older men at a disadvantage. The purpose of this note is to investigate the performance of a previously suggested correction term in two new and larger data sets. RESULTS: The GH-2000 score was calculated for 7307 samples obtained from 15 accredited WADA laboratories in 2017 and 3916 samples measured at Drug Control Centre, King's College London, UK between 2013 and 2017. The GH-2000 scores were investigated for positive age effects using standard regression modelling. As previously, all analyses confirmed a positive age effect. Applying the earlier suggested correction term of 0.032 × age showed a significant over-correction leading to a negative association of the GH-2000 score with age. We now suggest a smaller age correction of 0.020 × age, which corresponds to the smallest effect found in the earlier studies.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes , Hormônio do Crescimento/uso terapêutico , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/análise , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Masculino , Pró-Colágeno , Valores de Referência
11.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 62(13): e1800219, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738112

RESUMO

SCOPE: Dietary fat composition can modulate gene expression in peripheral tissues in obesity. Observations of the dysregulation of growth hormone (GH) in obesity indicate that these effects extend to the hypothalamic-pituitary (H-P) axis. The authors thus determine whether specific high fat (HF) diets influence the levels of Gh and other key gene transcripts in the H-P axis. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice are fed a lean control diet or a HF diet in the absence or presence of OA, EPA, or DHA ethyl esters. Comparative studies are conducted with menhaden fish oil. The HF diet lowered pituitary Gh mRNA and protein levels, and cell culture studies reveal that elevated insulin and glucose can reduce Gh transcripts. Supplementation of the HF diet with OA, EPA, DHA, or menhaden fish oil do not improve pituitary Gh levels. The HF diet also impaired the levels of additional genes in the pituitary and hypothalamus, which are selectively rescued with EPA or DHA ethyl esters. The effects of EPA and DHA are more robust relative to fish oil. CONCLUSION: A HF diet can affect H-P axis transcription, which can be mitigated in some genes by EPA and DHA, but not fish oil in most cases.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Insulina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(7): e9880, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29443755

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Argininemia is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of the urea cycle. Because of its atypical symptoms in early age, diagnosis can be delayed until the typical chronic manifestations - including spastic diplegia, deterioration in cognitive function, and epilepsy - appear in later childhood. PATIENT CONCERNS: A Chinese boy initially presented with severe stunting and partial growth hormone deficiency (PGHD) at 3 years old and was initially treated with growth hormone replacement therapy. Seven years later (at 10 years old), he presented with spastic diplegia, cognitive function lesions, epilepsy, and peripheral neuropathy. DIAGNOSES: Ultimately, the patient was diagnosed with argininemia with homozygous mutation (c.32T>C) of the ARG1 gene at 10 years old. Blood tests showed mildly elevated blood ammonia and creatine kinase, and persistently elevated bilirubin. INTERVENTIONS: Protein intake was limited to 0.8 g/kg/day, citrulline (150-200 mg [kg d]) was prescribed. OUTCOMES: The patient's mental state and vomiting had improved after 3 months treatment. At 10 years and 9 month old, his height and weight had reached 121cm and 22kg, respectively, but his spastic diplegia symptoms had not improved. LESSONS: This case demonstrates that stunting and PGHD that does not respond to growth hormone replacement therapy might hint at inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). IEM should also be considered in patients with persistently elevated bilirubin with or without abnormal liver transaminase, as well as elevated blood ammonia and creatine kinase, in the absence of hepatic disease.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento , Hiperargininemia , Arginase/genética , Bilirrubina/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Hormônio do Crescimento/deficiência , Hormônio do Crescimento/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Humanos , Hiperargininemia/diagnóstico , Hiperargininemia/genética , Hiperargininemia/fisiopatologia , Hiperargininemia/terapia , Masculino , Mutação
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 73-81, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-888071

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pST injections on metabolism, testicular size, and sperm characteristics in young boars. Sixty 22-day old piglets were divided into two groups: pST (n=30) and Control (n=30). The pST group was submitted to pST injections (90µg/kg body weight) every three days up to 330 days of age. Blood collections were performed weekly. Testicular weight was measures at 22, 82, 142, 202 and 365 days of age. Libido and fresh semen characteristics were evaluated between 150 and 210 days of age. Semen characteristics were also evaluated during a 72h storage period (15ºC). Testosterone, albumin, and phosphorus blood concentrations were higher in the pST group (P<0.05). The pST group had a higher IGF-I concentration in seminal plasma (P=0.05) and higher testicular weight (P<0.001) compared to the Control group. The pST group had higher ejaculate volume (P<0.001), total sperm count (P=0.047) and number of inseminating doses/ejaculate (P=0.047). During the 72h storage period, the pST group had a lower number of morphological alterations (P<0.001) compared to the Control group. In sum, pST injection in young boars increased testosterone concentration, testicular size, and sperm quality.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito da administração de pST sobre o metabolismo, o tamanho testicular e a qualidade espermática de cachaços jovens. Foram usados leitões com 22 dias de idade, divididos em dois grupos: pST (n=30) e controle (n=30). O grupo pST foi submetido a injeções de pST (90µg/kg de peso vivo) a cada três dias até 330 dias de idade. Peso testicular foi avaliado aos 22, 82, 142, 202 e 365 dias de idade. Libido e qualidade do sêmen fresco foram avaliados entre 150 e 210 dias de idade. Qualidade espermática foi avaliada durante refrigeração (15ºC) por um período de 72 horas. Concentrações sanguíneas de testosterona, albumina e fósforo foram maiores no grupo pST (P<0,05). O grupo pST apresentou maior concentração de IGF-I no plasma seminal (P=0,05) e maior peso testicular, quando comparado ao grupo controle (P<0,001). O grupo pST apresentou maior volume espermático (P<0,001), concentração espermática (P=0,047) e número de doses espermáticas por ejaculado (P=0,047). Durante o período de 72 horas de refrigeração, o grupo pST teve menor número de patologias espermáticas (P<0,001). Assim, conclui-se que a administração de pST aumenta a concentração sanguínea de testosterona, o tamanho testicular e a qualidade espermática de cachaços jovens.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Suínos/embriologia , Suínos/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Testículo , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária
14.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 464: 65-74, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606865

RESUMO

Hormones with anabolic properties such as growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), and insulin are commonly abused among professional and recreational athletes to enhance physical ability. Performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) such as these are also commonly used by recreational athletes to improve body aesthetics. The perception of increased muscle mass due to supraphysiologic hormone supplementation, or doping, is widespread among PED users despite a paucity of evidence-based data in humans. Even still, athletes will continue to abuse PEDs in hopes of replicating anecdotal results. It is important to educate the general public and potential treating physicians of the risks of PED use, including the dangers of polypharmacy and substance dependence. It will also be important for the research community to address the common challenges associated with studying PED use such as the ethical considerations of PED administration, the general reticence of the PED-using community to volunteer information, and the constant need to improve or create new detection methods as athletes continually attempt to circumvent current methods. This review highlights the anabolic mechanisms and suggestive data implicating GH, IGF-I, and insulin for use as PEDs, the specific detection methods with cutoff ranges that may be utilized to diagnose abuse of each substance, and their respective side effects.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/análise , Anabolizantes/farmacologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Hormônio do Crescimento/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Insulina/análise , Insulina/farmacologia , Anabolizantes/efeitos adversos , Hormônio do Crescimento/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/efeitos adversos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/análise , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(3): 957-964, maio-jun. 2018. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-911949

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da somatotropina recombinante bovina (rbST) sobre a produção e os constituintes do leite de búfalas entre 63 e 154 dias em lactação. Foram utilizadas 22 búfalas, distribuídas em dois grupos experimentais: grupo rbST - aplicação de 500 mg de rbST a cada 14 dias; grupo controle - sem aplicação de rbST. A cada sete dias, foi aferida a produção de leite de todas as búfalas e coletada uma amostra para análise físico-química. As variáveis produtivas e as oriundas de análises laboratoriais foram avaliadas como medidas repetidas no tempo, utilizando-se o comando Repeated gerado pelo procedimento GLM do SAS. A média dos parâmetros estudados para os grupos rbST e controle foram, respectivamente: produção de leite - 6,54 vs. 6,68 kg; gordura - 6,31 vs. 6,34%; proteína 3,86 vs. 3,81%; lactose - 4,96 vs. 5,02%; sólidos totais - 16,05 vs. 16,03%; extrato seco desengordurado - 9,75 vs. 9,74%; contagem de células somáticas - 329,90 vs. 171,68 (x 1000/mL); e elecondutividade - 2,87 vs. 2,81mS/cm. A utilização de 500mg de rbST administrados quinzenalmente, entre 63 e 154 dias em lactação não alterou a produção de leite, a proporção dos constituintes e a CCS do leite de búfalas leiteiras.(AU)


This study aimed to evaluate the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on milk yield and the proportion of buffalo milk components during lactation. Twenty-two buffaloes randomly distributed in two experimental groups were used: Group rbST - application of 500mg rbST every 14 days, between 63 and 154 days in milk (DIM); Control Group - without treatment. Weekly, the milk yield of buffaloes was measured and a sample was collected for physicochemical analysis. The response variables were evaluated as repeated measures, using the Repeated procedure through the GLM procedure of SAS. Means of each variable after rbST and Control were: Milk yield - 6,54 vs. 6,68 kg; Fat - 6,31 vs. 6,34%; Protein - 3,86 vs. 3,81%; Lactose - 4,96 vs. 5,02%; Milk solids - 16,05 vs. 16,03%; Defatted dry matter - 9,75 vs. 9,74%; Somatic Cells Count - 329,90 vs. 171,68 (x 1000/mL); and electrical conductivity- 2,87 vs. 2,81mS/cm. The use of 500mg of rbST administered every two weeks, between 63 and 154 DIM did not affect milk yield, proportion of milk constituents and SCC of dairy buffaloes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Leite/química
16.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 44(2): 792-803, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aberrant expression of miRNA has been found in many tumor tissues to regulate the tumorigenesis by binding to the 3`- untranslated region (3`-UTR) of the target genes. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of miR-148b, miR-152/ALCAM axis in human pituitary adenomas (PAs). METHODS: First, we detected the expression level of miR-148b-3p and miR-152 in human PAs samples by using qRT-PCR. Then we studied the role of miR-148b-3p, miR-152 on human PAs cell proliferation, invasion and apoptosis by using MTS assay, Transwell invasion assay and Annexin V/PI Staining Test. To study the relationship between miR-148b-3p, miR-152 and activated leukocyte antigen molecule (ALCAM), we overexpressed miR-148-3p or miR-152 by transfecting specific mimics. Lucifearase reporter assay was then performed to confirm the target. Next, we studied the biological functions of ALCAM in human PAs cells. Finally, the role of miR-148b-3p, miR-152/ALCAM axis in PAs cells was studied. RESULTS: The expression level of miR-148-3p and miR-152 in invasive PAs samples was lower than those in noninvasive samples. Overexpression of miR-148b-3p, miR-152 could repress proliferation and invasion, and promote apoptosis. Moreover, miR-148b-3p and miR-152 could repress activated leukocyte antigen molecule (ALCAM) expression. Knockdown of ALCAM could repress proliferation and invasion and promote apoptosis. By contrary, overexpression of ALCAM promoted proliferation and invasion. Further, the rescue experiments indicated that overexpression of ALCAM significantly restored the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion influenced by miR-148b-3p and miR-152. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that miR-148b-3p, miR-152 may serve as suppressors in PAs through downregulating ALCAM expression. miR-148b, miR-152/ ALCAM axis may be a new therapeutic target in the future.


Assuntos
Molécula de Adesão de Leucócito Ativado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Molécula de Adesão de Leucócito Ativado/química , Molécula de Adesão de Leucócito Ativado/genética , Animais , Antagomirs/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Prolactina/análise , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ratos , Alinhamento de Sequência
17.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 69(5): 541-556, 2017 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29063103

RESUMO

Growth hormone (GH), as a vital hormone, has to experience a series of processes to fulfill its function including secretion, entering the circulation to reach target tissues (pre-receptor process), binding on the GH receptor (GHR) and triggering signaling inside cells (post-GHR process). Insulin can directly or indirectly influence part of these processes. GH secretion from pituitary somatotropes is regulated by GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS) from hypothalamus. Insulin may exert positive or negative effects on the neurons expressing GHRH and SS and somatotropes under healthy and pathological conditions including obesity and diabetes. Glucose and lipid levels in circulation and dietary habits may influence the effect of insulin on GH secretion. Insulin may also affect GHR sensitivity and the level of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), thus influence the level of GH. The GH signaling is also important for GH to play its role. GH signaling involves GHR/JAK2/STATs, GHR/JAK2/SHC/MAPK and GH/insulin receptor substrate (IRS)/PI3K/Akt pathways. These pathways may be shared by insulin, which is the basis for the interaction between insulin and GH, and insulin may attenuate or facilitate the GH signal by influencing molecules in the pathways. Many factors are related to the effect of insulin, among them the most important ones are duration of action and amount of insulin. The tendency of insulin-reduced GH signaling becomes obvious with increased dose and acting time of insulin. The participation of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), the interaction between JAK2 and IRS, and GHR sensitivity should also be considered when discovering GH signal. The involvement of SS in response to insulin is not clear yet. The details of how GH secretion, level and signaling change in response to time and dose of insulin treatment warrant further studies.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Insulina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Hormônio do Crescimento/fisiologia , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/fisiologia , Receptores da Somatotropina/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
18.
Life Sci ; 191: 17-23, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993146

RESUMO

L-Arginine has emerged as an important supplement for athletes and non-athletes in order to improve performance. Arginine has been extensively used as substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, leading to increased vasodilatation and hormonal secretion. However, the chronic consumption of arginine has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether chronic arginine supplementation associated with exercise training would have a beneficial impact on insulin sensitivity. We, therefore, treated Wistar rats for 4weeks with arginine, associated or not with exercise training (treadmill). We assessed the somatotropic activation, by evaluating growth hormone (GH) gene expression and protein content in the pituitary, as well is GH concentration in the serum. Additionally, we evaluate whole-body insulin sensitivity, by performing an insulin tolerance test. Skeletal muscle morpho-physiological parameters were also assessed. Insulin sensitivity was impaired in the arginine-treated rats. However, exercise training reversed the negative effects of arginine. Arginine and exercise training increased somatotropic axis function, muscle mass and body weight gain. The combination arginine and exercise training further decreased total fat mass. Our results confirm that chronic arginine supplementation leads to insulin resistance, which can be reversed in the association with exercise training. We provide further evidence that exercise training is an important tool to improve whole-body metabolism.


Assuntos
Arginina/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Esforço Físico , Ratos Wistar
19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10969, 2017 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887532

RESUMO

The development of sensitive platforms for the detection of biomolecules recognition is an extremely important problem in clinical diagnostics. In microcantilever (MC) transducers, surface-stress is induced upon bimolecular interaction which is translated into MC deflection. This paper presents a cost-effective and ultra-sensitive MC-based biosensing platform. To address these goals, the need for costly high-resolution read-out system has been eliminated by reducing the cantilever compliance through developing a polymer-based cantilever. Furthermore a microfluidic system has been integrated with the MC in order to enhance sensitivity and response time and to reduce analytes consumption. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are synthesized on the surface of suspended microfluidics as the selective layer for biomolecule immobilization. The biosensing results show significant improvement in the sensitivity of the proposed platform compared with available silicon MC biosensor. A detection limit of 2 ng/ml (100pM) is obtained for the detection of bovine growth hormones. The results validated successful application of suspended polymeric microfluidics (SPMF) as the next generation of biosensing platforms which could enable femtomolar (fM) biomolecular recognition detection.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Transdutores/normas , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/normas , Bovinos , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Microfluídica/métodos , Microfluídica/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(6)2017 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28538694

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that ghrelin exhibits a protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. The aim of the present study was to examine whether administration of ghrelin affects the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and to determine what is the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in this effect. In sham-operated or hypophysectomized male Wistar rats, colitis was induced by enema with 1 mL of 3% solution of acetic acid. Saline or ghrelin (given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose) was administered intraperitoneally twice a day. Seven days after colitis induction, rats were anesthetized and the severity of the colitis was assessed. Treatment with ghrelin reduced the area of colonic mucosa damage in pituitary-intact rat. This effect was associated with increase in serum levels of GH and IGF-1. Moreover, administration of ghrelin improved blood flow in colonic mucosa and mucosal cell proliferation, as well as reduced mucosal concentration of proinflammatory interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and activity of myeloperoxidase. Hypophysectomy reduced serum levels of GH and IGF-1 and increased the area of colonic damage in rats with colitis. These effects were associated with additional reduction in mucosal blood follow and DNA synthesis when compared to pituitary-intact rats. Mucosal concentration of IL-1ß and mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase were maximally increased. Moreover, in hypophysectomized rats, administration of ghrelin failed to affect serum levels of GH or IGF-1, as well as the healing rate of colitis, mucosal cell proliferation, and mucosal concentration of IL-1ß, or activity of myeloperoxidase. We conclude that administration of ghrelin accelerates the healing of the acetic acid-induced colitis. Therapeutic effect of ghrelin in experimental colitis is mainly mediated by the release of endogenous growth hormone and IGF-1.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Grelina/uso terapêutico , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Ácido Acético , Animais , Colite/sangue , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/patologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Grelina/farmacologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Ratos Wistar
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