Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.859
Filtrar
1.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572821

RESUMO

Women have a number of specificities that differentiate them from men. In particular, the role of sex steroid hormones and the menstrual cycle (MC) significantly impact women's physiology. The literature has shown nonlinear relationships between MC, exercise, and nutritional intake. Notably, these relationships are bidirectional and less straightforward than one would suppose. For example, the theoretical implications of the MC's phases on exercise performance do not always translate into relevant practical effects. There is often a disconnect between internal measures (e.g., levels of hormone concentrations) and external performance. Furthermore, it is not entirely clear how nutritional intake varies across the MC's phases and whether these variations impact on exercise performance. Therefore, a thorough review of the existing knowledge could help in framing these complex relationships and potentially contribute to the optimization of exercise prescription and nutritional intake according to the naturally occurring phases of the MC. Throughout this review, an emerging trend is the lack of generalizability and the need to individualize interventions, since the consequences of the MC's phases and their relationships with exercise and nutritional intake seem to vary greatly from person to person. In this sense, average data are probably not relevant and could potentially be misleading.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110748, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152916

RESUMO

The severe form of COVID-19 has significant sex disparities, with high fatalities commonly reported among males than females. The incidence of COVID-19 has also been higher in males compared with their female counterparts. This trend could be attributed to a better responsive and robust immune system in females. Cytokine storm is one of the pathophysiological features of severe COVID-19, and it occurs as a result of over-activation of immune cells leading to severe inflammation and tissue damage. Nevertheless, it is well modulated in females compared to their male counterparts. Severe inflammation in males is reported to facilitate progression of mild to severe COVID-19. The sex hormones, estrogens and androgens which exist in varying functional levels respectively in females and males are cited as the underlying cause for the differential immune response to COVID-19. Evidence abounds that estrogen modulate the immune system to protect females from severe inflammation and for that matter severe COVID-19. On the contrary, androgen has been implicated in over-activation of immune cells, cytokine storm and the attendant severe inflammation, which perhaps predispose males to severe COVID-19. In this review efforts are made to expand understanding and explain the possible roles of the immune system, the sex hormones and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) systems in male bias to severe COVID-19. Also, this review explores possible therapeutic avenues including androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), estrogen-based therapy, and ACE inhibitors for consideration in the fight against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/fisiologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/fisiologia , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(3): E562-E567, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726128

RESUMO

Epidemiological data in COVID-19 mortality indicate that men are more prone to die of SARS-CoV-2 infection than women, but biological causes for this sexual dimorphism are unknown. We discuss the prospective behavioral and biological differences between the sexes that could be attributed to this sex-based differentiation. The female sex hormones and the immune stimulatory genes, including Toll-like receptors, interleukins, and micro-RNAs present on X-chromosome, may impart lesser infectivity and mortality of the SARS-CoV-2 in females over males. The sex hormone estrogen interacts with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, one of the most critical pathways in COVID-19 infectivity, and modulates the vasomotor homeostasis. Testosterone on the contrary enhances the levels of the two most critical molecules, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease serine-type 2 (TMPRSS2), transcriptionally and posttranslationally, thereby increasing viral load and delaying viral clearance in men as compared with women. We propose that modulating sex hormones, either by increasing estrogen or antiandrogen, may be a therapeutic option to reduce mortality from SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Caracteres Sexuais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estradiol/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/genética
5.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 374, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641750

RESUMO

The recent outbreak of infections and the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 represent one of the most severe threats to human health in more than a century. Emerging data from the United States and elsewhere suggest that the disease is more severe in men. Knowledge gained, and lessons learned, from studies of the biological interactions and molecular links that may explain the reasons for the greater severity of disease in men, and specifically in the age group at risk for prostate cancer, will lead to better management of COVID-19 in prostate cancer patients. Such information will be indispensable in the current and post-pandemic scenarios.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus/ultraestrutura , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Previsões , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Receptores Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Serina Endopeptidases/biossíntese , Serina Endopeptidases/fisiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Internalização do Vírus
6.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(1): R60-R68, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493037

RESUMO

In the central nervous system (CNS), nuclei of the brain stem play a critical role in the integration of peripheral sensory information and the regulation of autonomic output in mammalian physiology. The nucleus tractus solitarius of the brain stem acts as a relay center that receives peripheral sensory input from vagal afferents of the nodose ganglia, integrates information from within the brain stem and higher central centers, and then transmits autonomic efferent output through downstream premotor nuclei, such as the nucleus ambiguus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and the rostral ventral lateral medulla. Although there is mounting evidence that sex and sex hormones modulate autonomic physiology at the level of the CNS, the mechanisms and neurocircuitry involved in producing these functional consequences are poorly understood. Of particular interest in this review is the role of estrogen, progesterone, and 5α-reductase-dependent neurosteroid metabolites of progesterone (e.g., allopregnanolone) in the modulation of neurotransmission within brain-stem autonomic neurocircuits. This review will discuss our understanding of the actions and mechanisms of estrogen, progesterone, and neurosteroids at the cellular level of brain-stem nuclei. Understanding the complex interaction between sex hormones and neural signaling plasticity of the autonomic nervous system is essential to elucidating the role of sex in overall physiology and disease.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Tronco Encefálico/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(3): 343-355, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508310

RESUMO

Objective: Retrospective studies suggest that women have more active brown adipose tissue (BAT) than men, but little is known of the effect of fluctuating sex steroids across the menstrual cycle on thermogenesis in women. Design: To characterise the effects of sex and sex steroids on BAT activity we recruited healthy weight men (n = 14) and women at two stages of the menstrual cycle (luteal, n = 9; follicular, n = 11). Methods: Infrared thermography measured supraclavicular temperature to index BAT thermogenesis in response to both cold (immersion of one hand in water at 15°C) and meal (Ensure, 10 kcal/kg body weight) stimuli. Results: Adaptive BAT temperature responses were greater (P < 0.05) in women than men, irrespective of stage of menstrual cycle. Whereas during cold exposure, the increase in BAT temperature was abrogated (P < 0.05) in women during follicular phase compared to men and women during luteal phase. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, 17ß-estradiol, testosterone and cortisol were measured. Regression analyses demonstrated that baseline BAT temperature was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with progesterone levels, but was inversely associated (P < 0.05) with cortisol concentration. Both cold- and meal-induced changes in BAT temperature mildly correlated (P = 0.07; P < 0.05) with 17ß-estradiol levels, but not with testosterone concentrations. Conclusions: Baseline supraclavicular temperature is elevated in women during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which correlated with elevated progesterone concentrations. Women exhibited greater thermogenic responses than men, irrespective of the state of the menstrual cycle, which was associated with plasma levels of 17ß-estradiol. We conclude that sex steroids may regulate BAT thermogenesis in healthy adults.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Termogênese/fisiologia , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Fase Folicular/fisiologia , Humanos , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Masculino , Refeições , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 176(5): 301-315, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147204

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with no known cure. Approximately 90% of ALS cases are sporadic, suggesting there are multiple contributing factors that influence the disease risk, onset, and progression. Diet and sex are two factors that have been reported to alter ALS risk, onset and progression in humans and in animal models, providing potential modifiers of disease. Several epidemiological studies have identified diets that positively affect ALS patients, including various high-calorie fat or sugar-based diets, while animal models have been developed to test how these diets are working on a molecular level. These diets may offset the metabolic alterations that occur in ALS, such as hypermetabolism, lowered body mass index(BMI), and hyperlipidemia. Sex-dependent differences have also come forth from large-scale epidemiological studies as well as mouse-model studies. In addition, sex hormones have been shown to affect disease risk or progression. Herein, studies on the effects of diet and sex on ALS risk, onset, and progression will be reviewed. Understanding these diet- and sex-dependent outcomes may lead to optimized patient-specific therapies for ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etiologia , Dieta , Caracteres Sexuais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos
9.
J Endocrinol ; 245(2): 301-314, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171179

RESUMO

The CYP2D subfamily catalyses the metabolism of about 25% of prescribed drugs, including the majority of antidepressants and antipsychotics. At present, the mechanism of hepatic CYP2D regulation remains largely unknown. This study investigated the role of sex steroid hormones in CYP2D regulation. For this purpose, Cyp2d22 expression was assessed in the distinct phases of the estrous cycle of normocyclic C57BL/6J (WT) female mice. Cyp2d22 was also evaluated in ovariectomised WT and CYP2D6-humanized (hCYP2D6) mice that received hormonal supplementation with either 17ß-estradiol (E2) and/or progesterone. Comparisons were also made to male mice. The data revealed that hepatic Cyp2d22 mRNA, protein and activity levels were higher at estrous compared to the other phases of the estrous cycle and that ovariectomy repressed Cyp2d22 expression in WT mice. Tamoxifen, an anti-estrogenic compound, also repressed hepatic Cyp2d22 via activation of GH/STAT5b and PI3k/AKT signaling pathways. Both hormones prevented the ovariectomy-mediated Cyp2d22 repression. In case of progesterone, this may be mediated by inhibition of the PI3k/AKT/FOX01 pathway. Notably, Cyp2d22 mRNA levels in WT males were similar to those in ovariectomised mice and were markedly lower compared to females at estrous, a differentiation potentially regulated by the GH/STAT5b pathway. Sex steroid hormone-related alterations in Cyp2d22 mRNA expression were highly correlated with Hnf1a mRNA. Interestingly, fluctuations in Cyp2d22 in hippocampus and cerebellum followed those in liver. In contrast to WT mice, ovariectomy induced hepatic CYP2D6 expression in hCYP2D6 mice, whereas E2 and/or progesterone prevented this induction. Apparently, sex steroid hormones display a significant gender- and species-specific role in the regulation of CYP2D.


Assuntos
Família 2 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Animais , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/metabolismo , Estradiol/administração & dosagem , Ciclo Estral/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovariectomia , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
10.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 72(1): 125-132, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099990

RESUMO

In recent years, it has been found that kisspeptin plays some key roles in the physiological processes of the brain, such as gender differentiation, positive and negative feedback of sex hormones, onset of puberty, and transduction of energy signals in the body, which suggests that kisspeptin may be a key molecule for the maturation and regulation of female reproductive function. In addition to the systemic roles of the kisspeptin, its local roles in reproductive organs are constantly being discovered. With the discovery that kisspeptin is involved in the pathological process of reproductive endocrine diseases such as isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure (POF) and pathological hyperprolactinemia, exogenous application of kisspeptin to solve reproductive problems has become a new hot topic. The review focuses on the research progress of kisspeptin in the female reproductive system, especially on its application in assisted reproduction.


Assuntos
Kisspeptinas/fisiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Hiperprolactinemia/fisiopatologia , Hipogonadismo/fisiopatologia , Kisspeptinas/farmacologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/fisiopatologia
11.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(2): 144-160, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057504

RESUMO

In a woman's life, asthma can affect her in a variety of ways, with the onset of premenstrual asthma currently under-diagnosed. It is estimated that about 20% of women with asthma have premenstrual asthma, which is more common in patients with severe asthma. Women with asthma are at high risk of exacerbations and of severe asthma. Asthma is the most common chronic disease during pregnancy with potential maternal and foetal complications. Asthma medications are safe for the foetus and it is essential to continue pre-existing treatment and adapt it to the progress of asthma during the pregnancy. Sex steroids modulate the structure and function of bronchial and immune cells. Understanding their role in asthma pathogenesis is complicated by the ambivalent effects of bronchodilating and pro-inflammatory oestrogens as well as the diversity of response to their association with progesterone. Menopausal asthma is a clinical entity and is part of one of the phenotypes of severe non-allergic and low steroid-sensitive asthma. Targeted assessment of the domestic and professional environment allows optimization of asthma management.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Asma/terapia , Medicina de Precisão/tendências , Pneumologia/tendências , Idade de Início , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Menopausa/fisiologia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Gravidez , Pneumologia/métodos , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Neurosci ; 40(1): 22-36, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896561

RESUMO

In many species, vocal communication is essential for coordinating social behaviors including courtship, mating, parenting, rivalry, and alarm signaling. Effective communication requires accurate production, detection, and classification of signals, as well as selection of socially appropriate responses. Understanding how signals are generated and how acoustic signals are perceived is key to understanding the neurobiology of social behaviors. Here we review our long-standing research program focused on Xenopus, a frog genus which has provided valuable insights into the mechanisms and evolution of vertebrate social behaviors. In Xenopus laevis, vocal signals differ between the sexes, through development, and across the genus, reflecting evolutionary divergence in sensory and motor circuits that can be interrogated mechanistically. Using two ex vivo preparations, the isolated brain and vocal organ, we have identified essential components of the vocal production system: the sexually differentiated larynx at the periphery, and the hindbrain vocal central pattern generator (CPG) centrally, that produce sex- and species-characteristic sound pulse frequencies and temporal patterns, respectively. Within the hindbrain, we have described how intrinsic membrane properties of neurons in the vocal CPG generate species-specific vocal patterns, how vocal nuclei are connected to generate vocal patterns, as well as the roles of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in activating the circuit. For sensorimotor integration, we identified a key forebrain node that links auditory and vocal production circuits to match socially appropriate vocal responses to acoustic features of male and female calls. The availability of a well supported phylogeny as well as reference genomes from several species now support analysis of the genetic architecture and the evolutionary divergence of neural circuits for vocal communication. Xenopus thus provides a vertebrate model in which to study vocal communication at many levels, from physiology, to behavior, and from development to evolution. As one of the most comprehensively studied phylogenetic groups within vertebrate vocal communication systems, Xenopus provides insights that can inform social communication across phyla.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Rombencéfalo/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Xenopus laevis/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Cartilagem Aritenoide/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Geradores de Padrão Central/fisiologia , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Músculos Laríngeos/fisiologia , Nervos Laríngeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Bulbo/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Physiol Res ; 69(1): 21-31, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852195

RESUMO

The annual incidence of cardiovascular diseases is age-dependently increasing both in men and women, however, the prevalence is higher in men until midlife. The higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in men than in women of similar age, and the menopause-associated increase in cardiovascular disease in women, has led to speculation that gender-related differences in sex hormones might have a key role in the development and evolution of cardiovascular disease. There are several suggested pathways in which gender and sex hormones can affect human cardiovascular system to produce original sexually different pathophysiology between women and men. Sex steroid hormones and their receptors are critical determinants of cardiovascular gender differences. Also arterial blood pressure is typically lower in women than in men what could be explained particularly by greater synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in women. Female cardiomyocytes have a greater survival advantage when challenged with oxidative stress, suggesting that female hormones may play an important role in antioxidative protection of myocardium. It was also demonstrated in animal models that combination of XX chromosomes versus an XY chromosomes enhances sex differences in higher HDL cholesterol. Women were found to have reduced sympathetic activity (reflected by lower total peripheral resistance) and pulmonary artery pressure and enhanced parasympathetic activity relative to men. Similarly, men were found to have higher plasma norepinephrine levels than women. Regarding differences between the sexes in electrophysiology of the heart, two principle mechanisms have been proposed to explain them: hormonal effects on the expression or function of ion channels or, conversely, differences in autonomic tone. To improve diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, greater focus on understanding the molecular and cellular physiology of the sex steroid hormones and their receptors in the cardiovascular system will be required.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiologia , Humanos
14.
Horm Behav ; 119: 104649, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821792

RESUMO

The majority of HIV+ patients present with neuroendocrine dysfunction and ~50% experience co-morbid neurological symptoms including motor, affective, and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed neuroHIV. In preclinical models, the neurotoxic HIV-1 regulatory protein, trans-activator of transcription (Tat), promotes neuroHIV pathology that can be exacerbated by opioids. We and others find gonadal steroids, estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P4), to rescue Tat-mediated pathology. However, the combined effects of Tat and opioids on neuroendocrine function and the subsequent ameliorative capacity of gonadal steroids are unknown. We found that conditional HIV-1 Tat expression in naturally-cycling transgenic mice dose-dependently potentiated oxycodone-mediated psychomotor behavior. Tat increased depression-like behavior in a tail-suspension test among proestrous mice, but decreased it among diestrous mice (who already demonstrated greater depression-like behavior); oxycodone reversed these effects. Combined Tat and oxycodone produced apparent behavioral disinhibition of anxiety-like responding which was greater on diestrus than on proestrus. These mice made more central entries in an open field, but spent less time there and demonstrated greater circulating corticosterone. Tat increased the E2:P4 ratio of circulating steroids on diestrus and acute oxycodone attenuated this effect, but repeated oxycodone exacerbated it. Corticotropin-releasing factor was increased by Tat expression, acute oxycodone exposure, and was greater on diestrus compared to proestrus. In human neuroblastoma cells, Tat exerted neurotoxicity that was ameliorated by E2 (1 or 10 nM) or P4 (100, but not 10 nM) independent of oxycodone. Oxycodone decreased gene expression of estrogen and κ-opioid receptors. Thus, neuroendocrine function may be an important target for HIV-1 Tat/opioid interactions.


Assuntos
Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Oxicodona/efeitos adversos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Gônadas/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Transtornos do Humor/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Humor/patologia , Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/genética , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/fisiopatologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/psicologia , Oxicodona/administração & dosagem , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Transtornos Psicomotores/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Psicomotores/patologia , Transtornos Psicomotores/fisiopatologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/administração & dosagem , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
15.
Hum Fertil (Camb) ; 23(1): 5-16, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129823

RESUMO

Zinc (Zn) is necessary for the normal function of the male reproductive system and spermatozoa. Although influences of zinc deficiency on impaired spermatogenesis and male infertility have been widely considered, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of these abnormalities are not well understood. General abnormalities, including hypogonadism, Leydig cells damage, deficiency of sex hormone production and impaired spermatogenesis, as well as inflammation, antioxidant depletion, sperm death and male infertility can be observed during zinc deficiency. However, it is not obvious which pathways are relevant to the pathogenesis of zinc deficiency. Oxidative stress (OS) induced by reactive oxygen species is likely as the main mechanism of zinc deficiency which is associated with sperm DNA fragmentation, decrease in sperm membrane integrity, apoptosis, depletion of antioxidants, and consequently poor sperm quality and male infertility. Therefore, identification of these pathways will give valuable information regarding the mechanisms of zinc deficiency on the male reproductive system and the potential way for developing a better clinical approach. In this review, we aim to discuss the proposed cellular and molecular mechanisms of zinc deficiency on the male reproductive system, the importance of OS and mechanisms by which zinc deficiency induces OS and depletion of other antioxidants.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Zinco/deficiência , Antioxidantes/análise , Apoptose , Fragmentação do DNA , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Sêmen/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/química , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/fisiologia , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/fisiologia
16.
Oral Dis ; 26(2): 270-284, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse whether sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) improves periodontal parameters and dental implants osseointegration in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic databases and hand searches were performed from June to August 2018 in SciELO, LILACS and PubMed/MEDLINE. Human observational and interventional studies that evaluated the following parameters were included: clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP), radiographic bone loss (RBL) or osseointegration. RESULTS: Initial search retrieved 1,282 non-duplicated articles. Fifteen studies were selected after inclusion criteria were applied. All studies were performed in postmenopausal women. Mean differences for PPD reduction ranged from 0.02 to 0.2 mm in HRT-positive patients; mean CAL gain -0.18 to 0.54 mm; mean RBL reduction -0.87 to 0.15 mm; and mean BOP reduction 9%-30.3%. Failure rate of dental implants increased -5.5% to 11.21% when HRT was used. CONCLUSIONS: Very low but consistent evidence suggests a reduction in BOP and no impact on RBL in postmenopausal women receiving HRT. There are inconsistent reports that suggest that HRT in postmenopausal women: (a) improves or does not impact PPD reduction and CAL gain; and (b) does not impact or increase implant loss. In summary, there is no evidence to support HRT prescription for either men or women for periodontal/implant placement purposes.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Osseointegração , Perda do Osso Alveolar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Perda da Inserção Periodontal/epidemiologia , Índice Periodontal , Pós-Menopausa
17.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817534

RESUMO

Abstract: Pro-inflammatory hormones and cytokines (leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6) rise in obesity. Elevated levels of hormones and cytokines are linked with several comorbidities such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. The checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) plays an important role in obesity and cancer proliferation. L-thyroxine (T4) and steroid hormones up-regulate PD-L1 accumulation and promote inflammation in cancer cells and diabetics. On the other hand, resveratrol and other herbal medicines suppress PD-L1 accumulation and reduce diabetic effects. In addition, they induce anti-cancer proliferation in various types of cancer cells via different mechanisms. In the current review, we discuss new findings and visions into the antagonizing effects of hormones on herbal medicine-induced anti-cancer properties.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Antígeno B7-H1/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fitoterapia , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Tiroxina/fisiologia
18.
J Therm Biol ; 85: 102400, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657741

RESUMO

A number of strategies have emerged that appear to relate to the evolution of mechanisms for sexual determination in vertebrates, among which are genetic sex determination caused by sex chromosomes and environmental sex determination, where environmental factors influence the phenotype of the sex of an individual. Within the reptile group, some orders such as: Chelonia, Crocodylia, Squamata and Rhynchocephalia, manifest one of the most intriguing and exciting environmental sexual determination mechanisms that exists, comprising temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), where the temperature of incubation that the embryo experiences during its development is fundamental to establishing the sex of the individual. This makes them an excellent model for the study of sexual determination at the molecular, cellular and physiological level, as well as in terms of their implications at an evolutionary and ecological level. There are different hypotheses concerning how this process is triggered and this review aims to describe any new contributions to particular TSD hypotheses, analyzing them from the "eco-evo-devo" perspective.


Assuntos
Répteis/fisiologia , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Temperatura , Animais , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Gônadas/fisiologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Fenótipo , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética
19.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 23(8): 753-757, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activity of daily living declines in female elderly, which not only increases hospitalization and mortality rates, but also aggravates individual and societal burden. Large samples are needed to elucidate the relationships of plasma sex hormone levels with activity of daily living in Chinese female centenarians to better understand the effects of hormone-replacing therapy. OBJECTIVE: As the first time in the world, the current study was designed to investigate the relationships of plasma sex hormone levels with activity of daily living in Chinese female centenarians. PARTICIPANTS: China Hainan Centenarian Cohort Study was carried out in 18 cities and counties of Hainan Province. MAIN MEASURES: Home interview, physical examination and blood analysis were carried out in 583 female centenarians following standard procedures. Barthel Index was used to assess the activity of daily living. KEY RESULTS: Median age of all female centenarians was 102 years, with the range from 100 to 115 years. Median values of Barthel Index were 85(60-90). In multivariate linear regression analyses, Barthel Index values were inversely associated with plasma luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-simulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, progesterone and estradiol levels (P<0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: Plasma sex hormone levels, including LH, FSH, testosterone, progesterone and estradiol, had significant relationships with activity of daily living in Chinese female centenarians.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 109: 104416, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472433

RESUMO

Women are at least twice as susceptible to developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to men. Although most research seeking to explain this discrepancy has focussed on the role of oestradiol during fear extinction learning, the role of progesterone has been overlooked, despite relatively consistent findings being reported concerning the role of progesterone during consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. In this review article, we outline literature supporting the role of progesterone on memory formation, with particular emphasis on potential memory-enhancing properties of progesterone when subjects are placed under stress. It is possible that progesterone directly and indirectly exerts memory-enhancing effects at the time of trauma, which is an effect that may not be necessarily captured during non-stressful paradigms. We propose a model whereby progesterone's steroidogenic relationship to cortisol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in combination with elevated oestradiol may enhance emotional memory consolidation during trauma and therefore present a specific vulnerability to PTSD formation in women, particularly during the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/psicologia , Progesterona/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...