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1.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 72(1): 125-132, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099990

RESUMO

In recent years, it has been found that kisspeptin plays some key roles in the physiological processes of the brain, such as gender differentiation, positive and negative feedback of sex hormones, onset of puberty, and transduction of energy signals in the body, which suggests that kisspeptin may be a key molecule for the maturation and regulation of female reproductive function. In addition to the systemic roles of the kisspeptin, its local roles in reproductive organs are constantly being discovered. With the discovery that kisspeptin is involved in the pathological process of reproductive endocrine diseases such as isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure (POF) and pathological hyperprolactinemia, exogenous application of kisspeptin to solve reproductive problems has become a new hot topic. The review focuses on the research progress of kisspeptin in the female reproductive system, especially on its application in assisted reproduction.


Assuntos
Kisspeptinas/fisiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Hiperprolactinemia/fisiopatologia , Hipogonadismo/fisiopatologia , Kisspeptinas/farmacologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/fisiopatologia
2.
Med Hypotheses ; 131: 109308, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443779

RESUMO

Adiposity is a chronic disease and one of the major modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Its prevalence in the world could be considered epidemic with 80% of patients with T2DM being obese. Novel antidiabetic drugs, such as glucagone-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists have demonstrated benefitial effect on weight reduction. Nevertheless, in the last decades the need for new therapeutic strategies in the management of adiposity have emerged. Both adiposity and T2DM have negative effect on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Conversely, it has been known that sex hormone replacement therapy improves metabolic parameters in hypogonadal subjects. Recent research has found potential therapeutic effect of combination therapies with sex hormones and GLP-1 agonists in reducing body weight. Based on the aforementioned, we hypothesize that there is a possible synergistic effect of GLP-1 agonists and sex hormones on body mass reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes. The possible additional effect of sex hormones on weight loss could contribute to more effective treatment of T2DM and its complications.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/agonistas , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Perda de Peso , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Depressores do Apetite/farmacologia , Depressores do Apetite/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Glucagon/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/embriologia , Fatores de Risco , Taxa Secretória/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(4): 458-466, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460777

RESUMO

In this teaching laboratory, students design and perform an experiment to determine estrogen's role in imprinting the brain of neonatal rats to express either male or female sexual behavior. A discussion question is provided before the laboratory exercise in which each student is asked to search the literature and provide written answers to questions and to formulate an experiment to test the role of estrogen in imprinting the mating behavior of male and female rats. Students discuss their answers to the questions in laboratory with the instructor and design an experiment to test their hypothesis. In male rats, testosterone is converted by aromatase expressed by neurons in the brain to estrogen. Production of estrogen in the brain of neonatal rats imprints mating behavior in males, where a lack of estrogen action in the brain imprints female sexual behavior. The model involves administering exogenous testosterone to imprint male behavior in female pups or administration of an aromatase inhibitor (letrozole) or an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780) to imprint female sexual behavior in male pups. In the model, litters of neonatal pups are treated with either carrier (control), testosterone propionate, aromatase inhibitor (letrozole), or an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780) postnatally on days 1 and 3. Alteration of mating behavior is evaluated through the numbers of males and females that breed and establish pregnancy. This is a very simple protocol that provides an excellent experiment for student discussion on the effects of hormone action on imprinting brain sexual behavior.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Fisiologia/educação , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Ratos , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia
4.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(7): 1339-1356, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272577

RESUMO

The role that sex plays in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease remains a subject of controversy. The lack of clarity in this important area reflects complex interactions between biological factors and cultural and socioeconomic influences that impact the relationship between sex and renal disease. Certainly, additional observational studies are indicated; however, innovative approaches are required to isolate biological processes from cultural influences. Despite these limitations, available data suggest that the progression of renal disease is slower in women than in men and that this sexual dimorphism is primarily due to direct actions of sex hormones on cellular metabolism. The extent to which differences in lifestyle factors between the sexes influence sexual dimorphism in the progression of chronic kidney disease remains to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Caracteres Sexuais , Humanos
5.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(6): 443-448, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The current study is focused on assessing the factors of attractiveness of opposite-sex individuals based on evaluating photographs of their faces. BACKGROUND: When assessing the attractiveness, factors of both, the assessed individual and the assessor play a role. The relationship of the preference for partners based on their physical appearance with the markers of prenatal testosterone is not fully understood. METHODS: Sex hormone levels were measured in saliva, while age, social status, income and occupation were recorded. A total of 30 women and 35 men were enrolled. RESULTS: The identified factors determining the attractiveness of menare their age and prenatal testosterone level (second-to-fourth digit ratio - 2D:4D). The attractiveness of men is more influenced by the factors of evaluating women, namely the rating assigned to the men positively correlates with age, 2D:4D, and salivary estradiol of the evaluating women. The attractiveness of women correlated negatively with age and positively with prenatal exposure to androgens (2D:4D).The women with lower estradiol were rated higher by men who themselves had low estradiol levels. The attractiveness did not correlate with current testosterone. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to the knowledge on the role of sex hormones in human sexuality and partner choice. Further studies should include genetic factors of testosterone metabolism. (Tab. 4, Ref. 23).


Assuntos
Beleza , Face , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Caracteres Sexuais , Condições Sociais , Estradiol , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Dedos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Sexualidade , Testosterona
6.
Fukushima J Med Sci ; 65(2): 30-36, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189789

RESUMO

Although eye diseases are considered to be relatively less affected by patient sex, it is noteworthy that the presence of hormone receptors have been confirmed in various ocular tissues, which were considered to have few sex-based differences. Female hormone levels are known to change because of menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause. When female hormone levels markedly fluctuate in such situations, the disease state may change.The fluctuations in the levels of sex hormones affect the corneal thickness conditions of uveitis.Estrogen may be a possible therapeutic option for glaucoma because it protects the eyes from damage caused by glaucoma and reduces intraocular pressure;it is particularly promising in the treatment of postmenopausal women with glaucoma.Estrogen is considered to have a prophylactic effect against eye diseases. However, there is a report that female sex is an independent risk factor for the progression of diabetic retinopathy, so it may not always exert a prophylactic effect. Thus, caution should be exercised.Based on recent progression of studies on this field, the importance of treatment according to gender has been recognized in the treatment of eye diseases.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/terapia , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/terapia , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Feminino , Glaucoma/etiologia , Glaucoma/terapia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores Estrogênicos/fisiologia , Receptores de Progesterona/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Uveíte/etiologia , Uveíte/terapia
7.
Bull Cancer ; 106(7-8): 635-646, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227175

RESUMO

In the past decades, obesity and overweight prevalence has been rising worldwide, in both men and women. In France, the prevalence of overweight in adults was 49% in 2015 (54% among men and 44% among women), including 17% of obese adults. According to the last evaluation performed by IARC in 2017, overweight and obesity are established risk factors for 13 cancer sites with risk estimates per 5kg/m2 varying largely depending on the cancer site. In 2015 in France, 5.4% of cancer cases could be attributed to excess weight, corresponding to 18,600 cases, including 3400 colon cancers, 2600 kidney cancers, 4500 breast cancers and 2500 endometrial cancers. Obesity is also related to worse prognosis for some cancers, in particular breast and colon cancers. Obesity in children and adolescents, also rising in many countries, has also been associated to an increase in adult cancer risk. A major cause of obesity is a disequilibrium in energy balance favoured by a diet rich in processed food, red meat, trans and saturated fatty acids, sweetened foods and beverages and poor in fruits and vegetables, legumes and whole grains. Main national and international recommendations to reduce the prevalence of obesity are to have a balanced diet and regular physical activity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Cocarcinogênese , Comorbidade , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício , Feminino , Saúde Global , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Inflamação , Insulina/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/fisiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Especificidade de Órgãos , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
Croat Med J ; 60(2): 141-149, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044585

RESUMO

Perhaps due to different roles they have had in social groups during evolution, men and women differ in their verbal abilities. These differences are also (if not even more) present in children, both in the course of typical and pathological development. Beside the fact that girls have a well-documented advantage in early language development, almost all developmental disorders primarily affecting communication, speech, and language skills are more frequent in boys. The sex-related difference in the prevalence of these disorders is especially pronounced in autism spectrum disorder (1 girl for each 4-5 boys is affected). The aim of this review is to present the sex differences in typical communication and language development and in the prevalence of communication-related neurodevelopmental disorders. Also, a special focus is put on data from the field of neuroscience that might provide insight into the neurobiological mechanisms that can add to the understanding of this phenomenon. We argue that the functional organization of the female brain gives women an inherent advantage in the acquisition of communication and language system over men.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Criança , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Prevalência
9.
Endocr Rev ; 40(4): 1152-1162, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074764

RESUMO

Sex steroid estrogens, androgens, and progesterone, produced by the gonads, which have long been considered as endocrine glands, are implicated in sexual differentiation, puberty, and reproduction. However, the impact of sex hormones goes beyond these effects through their role on energy metabolism. Indeed, sex hormones are important physiological regulators of glucose homeostasis and, in particular, of the enteroinsular axis. In this review, we describe the roles of estrogens, androgens, and progesterone on glucose homeostasis through their effects on pancreatic α- and ß-cells, as well as on enteroendocrine L-cells, and their implications in hormonal biosynthesis and secretion. The analysis of their mechanisms of action with the dissection of the receptors implicated in the several protective effects could provide some new aspects of the fine-tuning of hormonal secretion under the influence of the sex. This knowledge paves the way to the understanding of transgender physiology and new potential therapeutics in the field of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Androgênios/fisiologia , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Glucagon/metabolismo , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Progesterona/fisiologia , Ratos
10.
Horm Behav ; 113: 38-46, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047887

RESUMO

Gonadal steroids play an integral role in male sexual behavior, and in most rodent models, this relationship is tightly coupled. However, many other species, including humans, continue to demonstrate male sex behavior in the absence of gonadal steroids, and the mechanisms that regulate steroid-independent male sex behavior are not well understood. Approximately 30% of castrated male B6D2F1 hybrid mice display male sex behavior many months after castration, allowing for the investigation of individual variation in steroidal regulation of male sex behavior. During both the perinatal and peripubertal periods of development, the organizational effects of gonadal steroids on sexual differentiation of the neural circuits controlling male sex behavior are well-documented. Several factors can alter the normal range of gonadal steroids or their receptors which may lead to the disruption of the normal processes of masculinization and defeminization. It is unknown whether the organizational effects of gonadal hormones during puberty are necessary for steroid-independent male sex behavior. However, gonadal steroids during puberty were not necessary for either testosterone or estradiol to activate male sex behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, activation of male sex behavior was initiated sooner in hybrid male mice castrated prior to puberty that were administered estradiol in adulthood compared to those that were provided testosterone. The underlying mechanisms by which gonadal hormones, during both the perinatal and peripubertal developmental periods of sexual differentiation, organize the normal maturation of neural circuitry that regulates steroid-independent male sex behavior in adult castrated B6D2F1 male mice warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Animais , Estradiol/farmacologia , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Orquiectomia , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/farmacologia , Esteroides/fisiologia , Testosterona/farmacologia , Testosterona/fisiologia
11.
Neurología (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(4): 259-269, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180816

RESUMO

Antecedentes: La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad en cuyo curso influyen el género, los factores hormonales y el embarazo. Objetivos: Realizar un análisis de la influencia de esos factores para aportar información sobre los mecanismos etiopatogénicos involucrados en la enfermedad. Métodos: Revisión exhaustiva de publicaciones científicas (búsqueda en la base de datos PubMed utilizando los términos: esclerosis múltiple, EM, EAE, embarazo, factores hormonales, tratamiento y términos relacionados), de los avances presentados en una reunión organizada por el Comité Europeo para el Tratamiento e Investigación de Esclerosis Múltiple (ECTRIMS), celebrado en marzo de 2013 en Londres, así como de las recomendaciones de reconocidos expertos internacionales. Resultados y conclusiones: Se ofrecen recomendaciones para el asesoramiento y la gestión de personas con EM antes de la concepción, durante el embarazo y después del parto. Se comentan también los conocimientos actuales sobre el efecto del tratamiento en la madre, el feto y el recién nacido. Realizamos recomendaciones para investigaciones futuras a fin de subsanar deficiencias de conocimiento y aclarar incoherencias de los datos actualmente disponibles


Background: The course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by sex, pregnancy and hormonal factors. Aims: To analyse the influence of the above factors in order to clarify the aetiopathogenic mechanisms involved in the disease. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive review of scientific publications in the PubMed database using a keyword search for 'multiple sclerosis', 'MS', 'EAE', 'pregnancy', 'hormonal factors', 'treatment', and related terms. We reviewed the advances presented at the meeting held by the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) in March 2013 in London, as well as recommendations by international experts. Results and conclusions: We provide recommendations for counselling and treating women with MS prior to and during pregnancy and after delivery. Current findings on the effects of treatment on the mother, fetus, and newborn are also presented. We issue recommendations for future research in order to address knowledge gaps and clarify any inconsistencies in currently available data


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Aleitamento Materno
12.
Clin Liver Dis ; 23(2): 233-246, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947874

RESUMO

The endocrine system is a complex interconnected system of organs that control corporeal processes and function. Primary endocrine organs are involved in hormonal production and secretion but rely on a bevy of signals from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and secondary endocrine organs, such as the liver. In turn, proper hepatic function is maintained through hormonal signaling. Thus, the endocrine system and liver are codependent, and diseases affecting either organs can lead to alterations in function within their counterparts. This article explores the hepato-endocrine relationship, including the effects on endocrine diseases on the liver.


Assuntos
Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/complicações , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Hipotireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Glândula Pineal
13.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(5): 874-881, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986812

RESUMO

In this review, we highlight the underlying mechanisms responsible for the sex differences in the exercise pressor reflex (EPR), and, importantly, the impact of sex hormones and menopausal status. The EPR is attenuated in premenopausal women compared with age-matched men. Specifically, activation of the metaboreflex (a component of the EPR) results in attenuated increases in blood pressure and sympathetic vasomotor outflow compared with age-matched men. In addition, premenopausal women exhibit less transduction of sympathetic outflow to the peripheral vasculature than men. In stark contrast, postmenopausal women exhibit an augmented EPR arising from exaggerated metaboreflex-induced autonomic and cardiovascular reflexes. We propose that metaboreflex-induced autonomic and cardiovascular changes associated with menopause majorly contribute to the elevated blood pressure response during dynamic exercise in postmenopausal women. In addition, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which sex hormones in premenopausal women may impact the EPR as well as metaboreflex.


Assuntos
Exercício , Menopausa , Ciclo Menstrual , Reflexo , Fatores Sexuais , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Pressão Sanguínea , Sistema Cardiovascular , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema Nervoso Simpático
14.
Biol Sex Differ ; 10(1): 12, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819248

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating chronic illness that is two times more prevalent in women than in men. The mechanisms associated with the increased female susceptibility to depression remain poorly characterized. Aberrant neuronal oscillatory activity within the putative depression network is an emerging mechanism underlying MDD. However, innate sex differences in network activity and its contribution to depression vulnerability have not been well described. In this review, current evidence of sex differences in neuronal oscillatory activity, including the influence of sex hormones and female cycling, will first be described followed by evidence of disrupted neuronal circuit function in MDD and the effects of antidepressant treatment. Lastly, current knowledge of sex differences in MDD-associated aberrant circuit function and oscillatory activity will be highlighted, with an emphasis on the role of sex steroids and female cycling. Collectively, it is clear that there are significant gaps in the literature regarding innate and pathologically associated sex differences in network activity and that the elucidation of these differences is invaluable to our understanding of sex-specific vulnerabilities and therapies for MDD.


Assuntos
Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 44(7): 1258-1264, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836380

RESUMO

Perception of emotional valence and emotional memory performance vary across the menstrual cycle. However, the consequences of altered ovarian hormone levels due to the intake of hormonal contraceptives on these emotional and cognitive processes remain to be established. In the present study, which included 2169 healthy young females, we show that hormonal contraceptives (HC) users rated emotional pictures as more emotional than HC-non-users and outperformed non-users in terms of better memory recall of emotional pictures. The observed association between HC-status and memory performance was partially mediated by the perception of emotional picture valence, indicating that increased valence ratings of emotional pictures in HC-users led to their better emotional memory performance. These findings extend the knowledge about the relation of HC-intake with emotional valence perception and emotional memory performance. Further, the findings might stimulate further research investigating the interrelation of enhanced memory for emotional events and the increased risk for anxiety-related psychiatric disorders in women.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Emoções/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Rememoração Mental/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Luminosa , Percepção Visual/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Fish Biol ; 94(3): 446-457, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701549

RESUMO

The ovarian fluid properties of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus were studied in overripe and non-overripe ovulated female sticklebacks and in females that were implanted with Silastic capsules containing testosterone (T), oestradiol (E2), 17,20ß-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (17,20ß-P) or progesterone (P4) into the abdominal cavity. Overripe females had less ovarian fluid than non-overripe females, but with higher dry mass, higher protein concentration and lower viscosity. T and 17,20ß-P increased the amount of ovarian fluid and the fluid protein concentration was increased by 17,20ß-P. 1-D sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that ovarian fluid contains several proteins, with high individual variability but with no consistent differences between groups. Some of the ovarian fluid proteins appeared to correspond to proteins from the eggs. The results suggest that secretion of ovarian fluid may be influenced by steroid hormones and that changes in its properties are related to the overripening of ovulated eggs. In at least some respects it appears that the changes in the ovarian fluid is a result, rather than the cause of overripening.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Smegmamorpha/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Ovulação , Testosterona
17.
Horm Behav ; 111: 87-95, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713101

RESUMO

Stroke risk and poor stroke outcomes in postmenopausal women have usually beeen attributed to decreased levels of estrogen. However, two lines of evidence suggest that this hormone may not be solely responsible for elevated stroke risk in this population. First, the increased risk for CVD and stroke occurs much earlier than menopause at a time when estrogen levels are not yet reduced. Second, estrogen therapy has not successfully reduced stroke risk in all studies. Other sex hormones may therefore also contribute to stroke risk. Prior to menopause, levels of the gonadotrophin Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) are elevated while levels of the gonadal peptide inhibin are lowered, indicating an overall decrease in ovarian reserve. Similarly, reduced estrogen levels at menopause significantly increase the ratio of androgens to estrogens. In view of the evidence that androgens may be unfavorable for CVD and stroke, this elevated ratio of testosterone to estrogen may also contribute to the postmenopause-associated stroke risk. This review synthesizes evidence from different clinical populations including natural menopause, surgical menopause, women on chemotherapy, and preclinical stroke models to dissect the role of ovarian hormones and stroke risk and outcomes.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Estrogênios , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Humanos , Menopausa/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Testosterona/sangue
18.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 316(3): H522-H526, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632767

RESUMO

This review summarizes a presentation given during the "Countermeasures to Cardiovascular Aging Symposium" that was part of the American Physiological Society Conference on Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends held in Westminster, CO, in August 2017. Endothelial dysfunction, a characteristic of vascular aging, is a major risk factor for age-associated cardiovascular diseases. In women, the decline in endothelial function is attenuated until menopause, whereafter the rate of decline accelerates to match that seen in men. Sex differences in the decline in endothelial function have been attributed to changes in sex hormones with aging. Women have a progressive impairment in endothelial function across the stages of the menopause transition, related in part to declining estradiol levels. In contrast to women, little is known about the impact of declining testosterone levels on endothelial function in men. Some evidence suggests greater endothelial dysfunction in men with low testosterone compared with men with higher testosterone. The underlying causes of endothelial dysfunction with sex hormone deficiency are unknown but may be related to endothelial nitric oxide synthase dysfunction and oxidative stress. Lifestyle behaviors, including habitual endurance exercise, attenuates and reverses the age-associated decline in endothelial function in older men. However, in older women, these exercise adaptations are diminished or absent, possibly related to estrogen deficiency. Understanding how declines in sex hormones contribute to the vascular aging process in both women and men will inform effective sex-specific intervention strategies to preserve vascular health and prevent cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Doenças Vasculares
19.
Horm Behav ; 108: 50-61, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597139

RESUMO

Males and females can respond differentially to the same environmental stimuli and experimental conditions. Chronic sleep loss is a frequent and growing problem in many modern societies and has a broad variety of negative outcomes for health and well-being. While much has been done to explore the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on cognition in both human and animal studies over the last few decades, very little attention has been paid to the part played by sex differences and gonadal steroids in respect of changes in cognitive functions caused by sleep loss. The effects of gonadal hormones on sleep regulation and cognitive performances are well established. Reduced gonadal function in menopausal women and elderly men is associated with sleep disturbances and cognitive decline as well as dementia, which suggests that sex steroids play a key role in modulating these conditions. Finding out whether there are sex differences in respect of the effect of insufficient sleep on cognition, and how neuroendocrine mediators influence cognitive impairment induced by SD could provide valuable insights into the best therapies for each sex. In this review, we aim to highlight the involvement of sex differences and gonadal hormone status on the severity of cognitive deficits induced by sleep deficiency in both human and animal studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Hormônios Gonadais/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/complicações , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônios Gonadais/farmacologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/farmacologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Menopausa/fisiologia , Menopausa/psicologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiopatologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Privação do Sono/metabolismo
20.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 160: 118-131, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574082

RESUMO

Age and sex are two of the three major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (ApoE-e4 allele is the third), with women having a twofold greater risk for Alzheimer's disease after the age of 75 years. Sex differences have been shown across a wide range of cognitive skills in young and older adults, and evidence supports a role for sex steroids, especially estradiol, in protecting against the development of cognitive decline in women. Sleep may also be a protective factor against age-related cognitive decline, since specific electrophysiological sleep events (e.g. sleep spindle/slow oscillation coupling) are critical for offline memory consolidation. Furthermore, studies in young women have shown fluctuations in sleep events and sleep-dependent memory consolidation during different phases of the menstrual cycle that are associated with the levels of sex steroids. An under-appreciated possibility is that there may be an important interaction between these two protective factors (sex steroids and sleep) that may play a role in daily fluctuations in cognitive processing, in particular memory, across a woman's lifespan. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of sex steroid-dependent influences on sleep and cognition across the lifespan in women, with special emphasis on sleep-dependent memory processing. We further indicate gaps in knowledge that require further experimental examination in order to fully appreciate the complex and changing landscape of sex steroids and cognition. Lastly, we propose a series of testable predictions for how sex steroids impact sleep events and sleep-dependent cognition across the three major reproductive stages in women (reproductive years, menopause transition, and post-menopause).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Menopausa/metabolismo , Ciclo Menstrual/metabolismo
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