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1.
Minerva Med ; 111(2): 153-165, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common type of lower respiratory tract infection and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adults worldwide. Sex and gender play an active role in the incidence and outcomes of major infectious diseases, including CAP. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched the following electronic databases from January 2001 to December 2018: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAIL, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central register of Controlled Trials), DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and ACP Journal Club database. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Several studies have reported higher male susceptibility to pulmonary infections and higher risk of death due to sepsis. Biological differences (e.g. hormonal cycles and cellular immune-mediated responses) together with cultural, behavioral and socio-economic differences are important determinants of the course and outcome of CAP. However, gender-related bias in the provision of care and use of hospital resources has been reported among women, resulting in delayed hospital admission and consequently necessary care. CONCLUSIONS: CAP is more severe in males than in females, leading to higher mortality in males, especially in older age. To identify gender differences in CAP can guide patient's prognostication and management.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Pneumonia/etiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/etiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/imunologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sexismo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(12): e19045, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a female endocrine disease with a high incidence. At present, drug treatment is still the main therapeutic strategy for PCOS. Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history in the treatment of menstrual disorders. Shouwu Jiangqi Decoction (SWJQD) is a traditional herbal medicine prescribed in a clinical setting as a remedy for PCOS. Acupuncture also plays an important role in regulating the menstrual cycle and treating PCOS. This study aims to examine the efficacy and safety of the combination of SWJQD and acupuncture in the treatment of PCOS. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial will be conducted with a total of 81 participants diagnosed with PCOS. The participants will be randomly divided into 3 treatment groups: group A will receive SWJQD combined with acupuncture; group B, SWJQD combined with sham acupuncture; and group C, metformin. Each treatment will last 3 months. The primary outcomes include the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index and the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. The secondary outcome measures include sex hormone levels, body mass index, ovulation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and complete genome sequencing data. Adverse events will be recorded during the intervention and follow-up. RESULTS: This study will investigate whether the combination of SWJQD and acupuncture can alleviate the clinical symptoms and improve insulin resistance in patients with PCOS. The results of this study are expected to provide clinical evidence for the application of the combination of SWJQD and acupuncture in patients with PCOS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR1900028106, ChiMCT1900002826 (registered on December 12, 2019).


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Terapia Combinada , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Humanos , Ovulação , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
3.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 78(4): 513-524, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107597

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are recognised reproductive and immune system toxicants in marine mammals mediated by endocrine-disrupting mechanisms. As with other predators, seals are exposed to elevated bioaccumulated concentrations of PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Cryopreserved plasma samples from adult ringed (Phoca hispida; n = 39) and grey (Halichoerus grypus; n = 38) seals, sampled between 1998 and 2002 from Baltic Sea, Svalbard, and Sable Island (Canada) were used to investigate relationships between PCB exposure and sex hormone concentrations (progesterone; P4, 17α-hydroxy progesterone; 17α-OH-P4, testosterone; T4, 17ß-estradiol; E2, estrone; E3). Immunoassay methods were used for quantification of analytes due to the limited sample volumes available. PCB concentrations were found to be significantly higher in Baltic seals than other sampling locations and were classed as "Exposed" seals while Svalbard and Sable Is seal were classed "Reference" seals (sexes and species separate). Mean hormone concentrations in Exposed seal were lower than Reference seals, and this was statistically significantly for 17α-OH-P4 (both sexes and both species), E2 (ringed and grey seal females), and E3 (grey seal females). Regression analyses (PCB v hormone concentrations) for each sex and species revealed significant correlations for P4 (Sable Is. female grey seals and female ringed seals), 17α-OH-P4 (Sable Is. male grey seals and Svalbard male ringed seals), T4 (Svalbard male ringed seals), E2 (female ringed seals), and E3 (female ringed seals and Baltic female grey seals). Although significant correlations are not evidence of cause and effect, the potential impact of hormone changes on endocrine homeostasis and reproductive health for seal populations warrants further investigation given that PCB concentrations found here are in the same range as those currently reported in seals from these populations.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Focas Verdadeiras/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Canadá , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Oceanos e Mares , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Água do Mar/química , Svalbard , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 1-10, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689472

RESUMO

Chlorocholine chloride (CCC), a plant growth retardant, may act as an endocrine disruptor. Our previous study showed that pubertal CCC exposure in rats might decrease testosterone (T) synthesis. This study observed the changes in pubertal development and reproduction of male rats exposed to CCC and its underlying mechanisms. Rats were exposed to CCC (0, 75, 137.5 and 200 mg/kg bw/day) from postnatal day 23 to 60. The results showed that CCC treatment delayed the onset of puberty and reduced the relative organ weight of prostate. Seminiferous tubules with deciduous spermatogenic cells were observed in the 200 mg/kg bw/day group. Sexual behavior was inhibited in the 137.5 and 200 mg/kg bw/day groups. Sperm motility, litter size and normalized anogenital distance (AGD) of male pups were decreased in the 137.5 and 200 mg/kg bw/day groups. Serum kisspeptin level and serum and testicular levels of T were reduced in all CCC treated groups. Crucial hormones in hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis were reduced subsequently after CCC treatment. Collectively, our results demonstrated that CCC might disturb HPT axis through suppressing the secretion of kisspeptin and subsequently lead to delayed puberty onset and impaired reproductive functions.


Assuntos
Clormequat/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Genitália/anatomia & histologia , Genitália/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Túbulos Seminíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue
5.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(2): 161-171, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence regarding the role of endogenous sex hormones in endometrial cancer etiology remains inconsistent. The objective of this study was to investigate if circulating levels of endogenous estrone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, and androstenedione are associated with endometrial cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of 522 incident endometrial cancer cases and 976 population controls, in Alberta, Canada from 2002 to 2006. Study participants completed in-person interviews and provided fasting blood samples. Sex hormone levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Higher levels of androstenedione were associated with increased endometrial cancer risk (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.04-2.02). Endometrial cancer risk in pre- and peri-menopausal women was reduced for the highest versus lowest quartiles of estrone (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22-0.88) and estradiol (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14-0.65), but in post-menopausal women, the endometrial cancer risk was increased for the highest versus lowest quartile of androstenedione (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.25-2.65). In addition, endometrial cancer risk in normal/underweight women was decreased for the highest versus lowest quartile of serum SHBG (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.19-0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, positive associations were found for androstenedione concentrations, while sub-group analyses revealed = inverse associations with estrogens and SHBG. Results of this study provide empirical evidence for the role of circulating sex hormones in endometrial cancer etiology and highlight the importance of modifiable factors that contribute to changes in sex hormone concentration levels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Idoso , Alberta/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683520

RESUMO

Increased reproductive success is among the most commonly proposed adaptive functions of romantic love. Here, we tested if hormonal changes associated with falling in love may co-vary with hormonal profiles that predict increased fecundity in women. We compared blood serum levels of estradiol (E2, E2/T), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), free testosterone (fT), and cortisol (CT), measured in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in single women (N = 69) and in women at the beginning of a romantic heterosexual relationship who reported being in love with their partner (N = 47). Participants were healthy, regularly cycling women aged 24 to 33 who did not use hormonal contraception. We found that women in love had higher levels of gonadotropins (FSH, LH) and lower testosterone levels compared to single women who were not in love. These groups of women did not, however, differ in terms of estradiol, prolactin, or cortisol levels.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Amor , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Reprodução , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 20(11): 877-890, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595724

RESUMO

Glycerol monolaurate (GML) has been widely used as an effective antibacterial emulsifier in the food industry. A total of 360 44-week-old Hy-Line brown laying hens were randomly distributed into four groups each with six replicates of 15 birds, and fed with corn-soybean-meal-based diets supplemented with 0, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 g/kg GML, respectively. Our results showed that 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 g/kg GML treatments significantly decreased feed conversion ratios (FCRs) by 2.65%, 7.08%, and 3.54%, respectively, and significantly increased the laying rates and average egg weights. For egg quality, GML drastically increased albumen height and Haugh units, and enhanced yolk color. Notably, GML increased the concentrations of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and reduced the concentration of total saturated fatty acids in the yolk. The albumen composition was also significantly modified, with an increase of 1.02% in total protein content, and increased contents of His (4.55%) and Glu (2.02%) under the 0.30 g/kg GML treatment. Additionally, GML treatments had positive effects on the lipid metabolism of laying hens, including lowering the serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels and reducing fat deposition in abdominal adipose tissue. Intestinal morphology was also improved by GML treatment, with increased villus length and villus height to crypt depth ratio. Our data demonstrated that GML supplementation of laying hens could have beneficial effects on both their productivity and physiological properties, which indicates the potential application of GML as a functional feed additive and gives us a new insight into this traditional food additive.


Assuntos
Intestinos/citologia , Lauratos/administração & dosagem , Monoglicerídeos/administração & dosagem , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo , Albuminas/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo/química , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo
8.
Trials ; 20(1): 564, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine diseases for women. Acupuncture is widely used for the infertile female because of it is non-invasive and has fewer side effects, but the powerful evidence for the clinic is still insufficient. Our study intends to explore the effect of manual acupuncture (MA) in the infertile female with PCOS. METHODS: This study is a randomized, sham-controlled, patient-and assessor-blinded trial and aims to evaluate the effect of MA in women with PCOS and infertility. We will recruit 86 women aged 20-40 years with a diagnosis of infertility with PCOS. Participants will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to the MA group and the sham acupuncture (SA) group. Both groups will receive real herbal medicine treatment as a basic treatment twice a day for three menstrual cycles, the MA group receive real acupuncture treatment and the SA group received placebo acupuncture treatment (non-penetrating). All patients will receive acupuncture treatment twice per week for three menstrual cycles. The primary outcome is pregnancy rate and secondary outcomes include ovulation rate, sex hormones, insulin resistance index (IRI), PCOS symptoms, and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndrome scores. Outcome measures will be collected at baseline, each menstrual cycle, the end of treatments, and six months after the last acupuncture treatment. The present protocol followed the SPIRIT guidelines and fulfilled the SPIRIT checklist. DISCUSSION: This study will be conducted to compare the efficacy of MA versus SA. This trial will help to evaluate whether MA is effective in increasing pregnancy and ovulation rates of the infertile female with polycystic ovary syndrome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1800014997 . Registered on 27 February 2018.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Resistência à Insulina , Ovulação , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
9.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(5): 609-616, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523837

RESUMO

Anti-cancer treatment in children can deteriorate gonadal function and affect future fertility. We analyzed the hormonal markers of gonadal function in adolescent leukemia survivors, treated in childhood with different levels of aggressiveness. We analyzed hormone levels in 69 adolescents and young adults, leukemia survivors stratified into standard (SR), intermediate (IR), and high (HR) risk groups, and in 80 healthy controls (38 men) at a similar age. We assessed follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and inhibin B in the whole group, testosterone in males, and E2 and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in females. Males classified into HR group presented, in comparison to control, higher levels of FSH, LH, lower inhibin B, and normal testosterone, whereas in SR and IR group, the hormonal values were comparable to the control. In females, in all risk groups, the levels of FSH, LH, E2, and inhibin B were comparable with the control, but the mean AMH levels were slightly lowered. We did not observe the effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation (12 or 18 Gy) or the time of treatment (before vs. during puberty) on hormone levels. In females, a positive correlation was found between the time interval after the end of treatment and AMH levels. Male leukemia survivors having undergone more intensive chemotherapy show the symptoms of disturbed spermatogenesis and need to be followed-up in the future. Women, irrespective of the risk group, can develop the signs of preterm ovarian insufficiency. They should be informed about the impact of the treatment on gonadal function.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Fertilidade , Seguimentos , Gônadas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia
10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 216: 105290, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518775

RESUMO

Phthalate esters (PAEs), which are notable plasticizers, can be prolific contaminants in aquatic environments, and have been shown to induce reproductive toxicity. However, the studies concerning their toxicity towards aquatic species are based on individual chemicals, and the combined toxicity of PAEs to aquatic organisms remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the potential toxicity mechanisms associated with combined exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) in adult female zebrafish ovaries. Zebrafish were exposed to DBP, DiBP and their mixtures for 30 days, and their effects on ovarian histology, plasma sex hormones and ovarian transcriptomics were investigated. Plasma estradiol (E2) levels were significantly decreased by 38.9% in the DBP-1133 exposure group and 41.0% in the DiBP-1038 exposure group. The percentage of late/mature oocytes was also significantly decreased by 17.3% under DBP-1133 exposure and 16.2% under DiBP-1038 exposure, while that under combined exposure was not significantly affected. Nevertheless, transcriptome sequencing revealed 2564 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in zebrafish ovaries after exposure to the mixtures. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were involved in the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, GnRH, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, oocyte meiosis and steroid hormone biosynthesis signaling pathways. These results revealed that combined exposure exerts potential reproductive toxicity at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato/análogos & derivados , Dibutilftalato/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ovário/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/sangue
11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 160: 181-186, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519253

RESUMO

Fertility control is considered as the second-generation pest rodent management strategy. Most previous studies have focused on the dosage-dependent effects of quinestrol and levonorgestrel compounds (EP-1) at a ratio of 1:2, but the ratio-dependent effects of EP-1 have not been fully investigated, especially in male rodents. To test the ratio-dependent antifertility effects of EP-1 with different ratios (1:2, 1:1, and 2:1) on male Swiss outbred strain of laboratory mice, forty male mice were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 10). Mice in the three treatment groups were provided one of the three EP-1 mixture compounds for 3 successive days via gavage at a dosage of 50 mg/kg(body weight), and then all mice were sacrificed 15 days after the gavage treatment. Reproductive organ weights, sperm density and motility, levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in serum and/or testis, and androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor ß (ERß), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), and aromatase in testis were determined. Each of the ratios of quinestrol and levonorgestrel significantly decreased the density and motility of sperm and induced atrophy of the epididymis and seminal vesicle. The combination of compounds also significantly reduced serum T and LH levels, increased testicular T levels and decreased testicular estradiol ERß and aromatase levels. EP-1 delivered at a ratio of 1:1 induced the most significant effects on the reproductive parameters assessed and shows the potential for use in fertility control of male rodents.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/farmacologia , Levanogestrel/farmacologia , Quinestrol/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aromatase/metabolismo , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/enzimologia , Testículo/metabolismo
12.
Environ Res ; 177: 108630, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421446

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that several metals are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In utero development and adolescence are critical windows of susceptibility to EDC exposure. With the exception of a few heavy metals, few human studies have evaluated the impact of metal exposure on pubertal development. Our aim was to investigate measures of in utero and peripubertal metal exposure in relation to reproductive hormone levels and sexual maturation and progression among girls from the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohorts. We measured urinary concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in samples collected from women during their third trimester of pregnancy and from their female children at 8-13 years (n = 132). We measured serum testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), inhibin B, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) at age 8-13, and assessed Tanner stages for sexual maturation (breast, pubic hair development, and menarche status), at two time points (8-13, 14-18 years). We used linear regression to independently examine in utero and peripubertal metal concentrations as predictors of peripubertal hormones. In a longitudinal analysis using generalized estimation equations, we evaluated Tanner stage and menarche progression in relation to individual in utero and peripubertal metal concentrations. We found that higher in utero Zn was associated with increased inhibin B. Several metals at 8-13 years were associated with higher DHEA-S and estradiol, while Ni was positively but Cu was negatively associated with testosterone. In utero Ni, Al, and Cd were associated with slower progression of breast development after adjustment for child age and BMI z-score. For example, an IQR increase in in utero Al exposure was associated with 0.82 times lower odds of progressing to a higher Tanner stage for breast development per year (95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Peripubertal concentrations of Ba and Al were also associated with being at a higher pubic hair Tanner stage and menarche at 8-13, but lower odds of progressing to the next stage at 14-18 years. We used Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to model the joint effect of multiple metals while accounting for correlated exposures, as well as potential non-linear relationships between metals and outcomes of interest, which yielded results similar to individual analyses. These findings suggest that female reproductive development may be vulnerable to the effects of metal exposure, and using both Tanner stages and hormone levels may provide clues about underlying mechanisms in two sensitive periods of development.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Maturidade Sexual , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Cidades , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inibinas/sangue , Metais Pesados/urina , México , Gravidez , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue
13.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(6): 1963-1980, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399918

RESUMO

Scatophagus argus is a new emerging aquaculture fish in East and Southeast Asia. To date, research on reproductive development and regulation in S. argus is lacking. Additionally, genetic and genomic information about reproduction, such as gonadal transcriptome data, is also lacking. Herein, we report the first gonadal transcriptomes of S. argus and identify genes potentially involved in reproduction and gonadal development. A total of 136,561 unigenes were obtained by sequencing of testes (n = 3) and ovaries (n = 3) at stage III. Genes upregulated in males and females known to be involved in gonadal development and gametogenesis were identified, including male-biased dmrt1, amh, gsdf, wt1a, sox9b, and nanos2, and female-biased foxl2, gdf9, bmp15, sox3, zar1, and figla. Serum estradiol-17ß and 11-ketotestosterone levels were biased in female and male fish, respectively. Sexual dimorphism of serum steroid hormone levels were interpreted after expression analysis of 20 steroidogenesis-related genes, including cyp19a1a and cyp11b2. This gonadal transcript dataset will help investigate functional genes related to reproduction in S. argus.


Assuntos
Peixes/genética , Gônadas/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Transcriptoma , Animais , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Masculino
14.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(10): 3407-3413, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387112

RESUMO

Purpose: Chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC) is characterized by fluid accumulation between photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium of which the cause is unknown. Associations with steroid use, stress, pregnancy, and the male sex suggest a role for the steroid hormone system in the disease. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the steroid hormone system in active cCSC. Methods: Serum hormone levels of 17 steroid hormones were measured in 46 male Caucasian patients with active cCSC and 46 male Caucasian age-matched controls using the AbsoluteIDQ stero17 kit. Results: Elevated levels of androsterone, estrone, etiocholanolone, and androstenedione were observed in cCSC patients compared with controls. Median hormone levels in cCSC patients versus controls, respectively, were as follows: androsterone, 0.84 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR] = 0.61-1.06) versus 0.69 ng/mL (IQR = 0.48-0.96, P = 0.031); estrone, 0.12 ng/mL (IQR = 0.10-0.15) versus 0.10 ng/mL (IQR = 0.08-0.11; P = 0.0048); etiocholanolone, 0.19 ng/mL (IQR = 0.15-0.29) versus 0.13 ng/mL (IQR = 0.099-0.20, P = 0.0061). Mean levels of androstenedione were 3.10 ng/ml (SD = 1.03) versus 2.55 ng/mL (SD = 0.95), in cCSC patients versus controls, respectively. Additionally, Spearman's correlations between aldosterone and 11-deoxycortisol, androsterone, DHEA, DHEAS, and E1 differed between cCSC patients and controls, as well as between andosterone and E1, and between DHT and 17OHP. Conclusions: We present a comprehensive overview of the status of the steroid hormone system in active cCSC. Levels of four hormones were elevated in cCSC patients compared with controls, and the relationships between steroid hormones was altered, indicating that the balance in the steroid hormone system is altered in cCSC patients.


Assuntos
Coriorretinopatia Serosa Central/sangue , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Coriorretinopatia Serosa Central/diagnóstico , Doença Crônica , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(9): 673-679, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461819

RESUMO

Objective: To examine associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with sex hormone levels and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: A total of 697 male subjects were obtained from the thyroid disorders, lodine status and diabetes: a national epidemiological survey-2014 (TIDE) research--Henan sub-center survey through multistage stratified cluster random sampling from December 2015 to March 2016. The associations between 25(OH)D and sex hormones or cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed by linear regression analyses. Results: The age of the subjects was (46.6±15.9) years (19-85 years). Proportions of vitamin D deficient, vitamin D intermediate and vitamin D optimal were 9.3%, 13.1% and 77.6%, respectively. More subjects with vitamin D deficient were in urban area than in rural area (13.3% vs. 5.7%, P=0.001). After fully adjusting for age, residence area, economic status, education, body mass index, waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), hypertension, diabetes, triglyceride, high-density lipoproteincholesterol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and uric acid, linear regression analyses showed that every 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D levels increased lg FT(FT=free testosterone) by 0.013ng/L (ß=0.013, P=0.036), lg DHT (DHT=dihydrotestosterone) by 0.030 ng/L (ß=0.030, P=0.019), and lg AD (AD=androstenedione) by 0.019 µg/L (ß=0.019, P=0.008). After fully adjusting for age, residence area, economic status and education, every 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D levels lowered glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by 0.051% (ß=-0.051, P=0.027). Conclusions: Higher 25(OH)D concentrations in men were associated with higher FT, DHT, AD and lower HbA1c levels.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
16.
Niger J Physiol Sci ; 34(1): 83-90, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449276

RESUMO

The present study examines the possible ameliorative effects of the hydromethanolic extract of Citrullus lanatus rind (HECL) on some reproductive function and oxidative indices of the testes in male Wistar rats following administration of nicotine. Twenty male rats were assigned into four groups: Group A to D of five rats each. Group A served as control and received 2ml/kg body weight of 10% extract vehicle; Group B received 1mg/kg body weight of nicotine; Group C were co-administered 1mg/kg body weight nicotine and 500 mg/kg body weight of HECL and Group D received only 500mg/kg body weight of HECL. The drugs and extracts were administered orally to the rats for 42days; blood samples were collected by direct cardiac puncture for determination of serum concentrations of testosterone, Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone. The testes were also harvested for determination of semen parameters: motility, morphology, viability and count and testicular tissue processed for superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde concentration. Compared to Group A control rats, administration of HECL significantly increased sperm count and reproductive hormone concentrations amongst Group B rats (p<0.05). Treatment with nicotine caused a significant reduction in the levels of all reproductive hormones with significant diminution of some sperm parameters: motility, morphology and viability; and decrease in superoxide dismutase and increase in malondialdehyde concentration amongst Group B rats compared to Group A control rats (p<0.05). Co-administration of HECL with nicotine to Group C rats apparently reversed the effects of nicotine resulting in significant increases in sperm count and the reproductive hormones concentration as compared to Group A control rats (p<0.05). Amongst Group D rats, the extract also caused a significant increase in superoxide dismutase concentration and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde concentration compared with the Group A control rats (p<0.05). The findings suggest that the hydromethanolic extract of Citrullus lanatus rind possibly ameliorates the deleterious effects of nicotine on some reproductive indices in male Wistar rats.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Nicotina/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Metanol/farmacologia , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Nicotínicos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sêmen/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Niger J Physiol Sci ; 34(1): 91-98, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449277

RESUMO

The negative influence of cigarette smoking on developing fetus is well documented but reports of prenatal cigarette smoking on male reproductive hormones are controversial. However, shortened anogenital distance (AGD) has been established to be an indicator of potential male infertility. We therefore investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to passive cigarette smoke on AGD, reproductive hormones and oxidative stress biomarkers of Wistar rats. Female rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=5) and cohabited with male. Group 1 was exposed to smoke from an idling cigarette from day 1 of gestation till parturition, while Group 2 served as control (no-exposure). Morphometric variables of the litters were recorded on postnatal day 1 (PND1) and at 6th week postnatal life. The male offspring were then sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were analysed using ELISA. Serum levels of Catalase, sodium dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid profile and liver function biomarkers were examined spectrophotometrically.  On PND1, crown rump length and total body length of rats prenatally exposed to cigarette smoke were significantly shorter. Significantly shorter AGD and crown rump length were also observed at 6th week. Testosterone, LH and FSH were not significantly affected.  Cigarette smoke exposure significantly decreased Catalase and SOD while MDA increased. Liver function biomarkers, HDL and LDL were not affected but serum levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride significantly increased. The observed decline in AGD and precipitation of oxidative stress by intrauterine cigarette smoke exposure may predispose to male infertility at adulthood.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Reprodução/fisiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/antagonistas & inibidores , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 283: 113227, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348956

RESUMO

Water temperature is a critical external factor influencing gonadal development in fish. This research aimed to study the impact of elevated temperature on testicular germ cell survival and reproductive capacity of Nile tilapia. Male Nile tilapia were exposed to high temperatures of either 36 (HT1) or 37 °C (HT2) for 3000 degree-days (DD) and thereafter returned to the control temperature of 27 °C (CT) for 2200 DD. The deleterious effects on testicular germ and somatic cells were observed histologically, characterised by vacuolisation, atrophy and the loss of spermatogenic cells in testes with a more severe impact of HT2 compared to HT1. Interestingly, serum 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) levels tended to be higher during the heat treatments than CT. Expression levels of germline-specific genes piwil1, piwil2 and nanos2 and Bcl-2 family genes, bcl-xLb and baxa were significantly reduced during the heat treatment compared to CT, more so in the HT2, while the levels of nanos3 and gfra1 transcripts were only significantly reduced in HT2, implying a significant loss of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) and spermatogonia in HT2. The effect of HT2 is further evidenced by the significantly reduced sperm density and fertilisation rate compared to CT and HT1 at the end of the recovery period but complete sterility was not induced by HT2. Overall, the present study showed significant effects of HT2 on germ cell survival with histological changes in testes, reduced milt quality, increased 11-KT, and decreased expression of germline-specific genes, SSC marker genes and Bcl-2 family genes in testes which could therefore be potential target genes for sterilisation by genome editing.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/citologia , Temperatura , Testículo/citologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclídeos/sangue , Ciclídeos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Masculino , Espermatozoides/ultraestrutura , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Testosterona/sangue
19.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 282: 113213, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260662

RESUMO

Populations of wide ranging ectotherms often exhibit variation in traits that are influenced by local environmental conditions. Although the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, is well studied in pine flatwoods habitats across their range, little attention has been given to coastal populations existing in the southern extreme portion of the range. We examined the reproductive physiology of a coastal dune population in southwest Florida to determine if reproductive cycles vary across populations. Here we present the first year-round sex hormone profiles for a wild population of gopher tortoises. Male testosterone concentrations varied across the year (F11,54 = 2.52, P = 0.015) with elevated values from September to December and minimal levels from April to July, with the exception of a secondary peak during the month of June. Female testosterone and estradiol concentrations varied across the sampling period (T: F11,66 = 8.54, P < 0.001, E: F11,66 = 4.57, P < 0.001) with highest values from August to February, and lowest levels from May to July. Female progesterone concentrations varied over the year (F11,64 = 3.29, P = 0.002) and increased in late fall with a peak in March. These data suggest this population has an extended breeding season from fall through spring with mating likely occurring from September through March, and nesting in winter through spring. This pattern is similar to reproductive patterns described for tropical and sub-tropical chelonians but differs from that of gopher tortoise populations in northern portions of the range where hibernation may last for five months and a single clutch of eggs are deposited in late spring.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Tartarugas/sangue , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Animais , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Florida , Masculino , Progesterona/sangue , Reprodução/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Testosterona/sangue
20.
Med J Aust ; 211(3): 127-133, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271465

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rising demand for gender-affirming hormone therapy mandates a need for more formalised care of transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals in Australia. Estimates suggest that 0.1-2.0% of the population are TGD, yet medical education in transgender health is lacking. We aim to provide general practitioners, physicians and other medical professionals with specific Australian recommendations for the hormonal and related management of adult TGD individuals. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: Hormonal therapy is effective at aligning physical characteristics with gender identity and in addition to respectful care, may improve mental health symptoms. Masculinising hormone therapy options include transdermal or intramuscular testosterone at standard doses. Feminising hormone therapy options include transdermal or oral estradiol. Additional anti-androgen therapy with cyproterone acetate or spironolactone is typically required. Treatment should be adjusted to clinical response. For biochemical monitoring, target estradiol and testosterone levels in the reference range of the affirmed gender. Monitoring is suggested for adverse effects of hormone therapy. Preferred names in use and pronouns should be used during consultations and reflected in medical records. While being TGD is not a mental health disorder, individualised mental health support to monitor mood during medical transition is recommended. CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT AS RESULT OF THIS POSITION STATEMENT: Gender-affirming hormone therapy is effective and, in the short term, relatively safe with appropriate monitoring. Further research is needed to guide clinical care and understand long term effects of hormonal therapies. We provide the first guidelines for medical practitioners to aid the provision of gender-affirming care for Australian adult TGD individuals.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Sociedades Médicas
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