Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.008
Filtrar
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067001

RESUMO

Investigations into the mechanisms regulating obesity are frantic and novel translational approaches are needed. The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid species representing a promising model to study metabolic regulation in a species undergoing cycles of seasonal obesity and fasting. To understand the molecular mechanisms of metabolic regulation in seasonal adaptation, we analyzed key central nervous system and peripheral signals regulating food intake and metabolism from raccoon dogs after autumnal fattening and winter fasting. Expressions of neuropeptide Y (NPY), orexin-2 receptor (OX2R), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and leptin receptor (ObRb) were analyzed as examples of orexigenic and anorexigenic signals using qRT-PCR from raccoon dog hypothalamus samples. Plasma metabolic profiles were measured with 1H NMR-spectroscopy and LC-MS. Circulating hormones and cytokines were determined with canine specific antibody assays. Surprisingly, NPY and POMC were not affected by the winter fasting nor autumn fattening and the metabolic profiles showed a remarkable equilibrium, indicating conserved homeostasis. However, OX2R and ObRb expression changes suggested seasonal regulation. Circulating cytokine levels were not increased, demonstrating that the autumn fattening did not induce subacute inflammation. Thus, the raccoon dog developed seasonal regulatory mechanisms to accommodate the autumnal fattening and prolonged fasting making the species unique in coping with the extreme environmental challenges.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Jejum/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Cães Guaxinins/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Tecido Adiposo/irrigação sanguínea , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Hormônios/sangue , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Limite de Detecção , Análise Multivariada , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Cães Guaxinins/sangue , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo
2.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803566

RESUMO

(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the symptoms of low energy availability (LEA) and risk of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) symptoms in para-athletes using a multi-parameter approach. (2) Methods: National level para-athletes (n = 9 males, n = 9 females) completed 7-day food and activity logs to quantify energy availability (EA), the LEA in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans to assess bone mineral density (BMD), and hormonal blood spot testing. (3) Results: Based on EA calculations, no athlete was at risk for LEA (females < 30 kcal·kg-1 FFM·day-1; and males < 25 kcal·kg-1 FFM·day-1; thresholds for able-bodied (AB) subjects). Overall, 78% of females were "at risk" for LEA using the LEAF-Q, and 67% reported birth control use, with three of these participants reporting menstrual dysfunction. BMD was clinically low in the hip (<-2 z-score) for 56% of female and 25% of male athletes (4) Conclusions: Based on calculated EA, the risk for RED-S appears to be low, but hormonal outcomes suggest that RED-S risk is high in this para-athlete population. This considerable discrepancy in various EA and RED-S assessment tools suggests the need for further investigation to determine the true prevalence of RED-S in para-athlete populations.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Deficiência Energética Relativa no Esporte/etiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Antropometria , Densidade Óssea , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros de Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Paratletas , Fatores de Risco , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922631

RESUMO

Glycerol monocaprylate (GMC) is a glycerol derivative of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and is widely used as a preservative in food processing. However, GMC and its hydrolytic acid (octylic acid) have antibacterial properties that may affect the physiology and intestinal microecology of the human body. Therefore, in this study, the effects of two different dosages of GMC (150 and 1600 mg kg-1) on glucose, lipid metabolism, inflammation, and intestinal microecology of normal diet-fed C57BL/6 mice were comprehensively investigated. The obtained results showed that the level of triglycerides (TGs) in the low-dose group down-regulated significantly, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) significantly increased, while the pro-inflammatory cytokines monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 1beta (IL-1ß) in the high-dose group were significantly decreased. Importantly, GMC promoted the α-diversity of gut microbiota in normal-diet-fed mice, regardless of dosages. Additionally, it was found that the low-dose treatment of GMC significantly increased the abundance of Lactobacillus, while the high-dose treatment of GMC significantly increased the abundance of SCFA-producers such as Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcus. Moreover, the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) was significantly increased by GMC supplementation. Thus, our research provides a novel insight into the effects of GMC on gut microbiota and physiological characteristics.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicerol/farmacologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Metabolismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Hormônios/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
4.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 900: 174062, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798596

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder worldwide. Recently, quercetin has been extensively investigated as a therapeutic option in patients with PCOS. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying quercetin's positive effects by modulating key components of energy homeostasis and adipose tissue hormones in rats with letrozole-induced PCOS. Eighteen female Wistar rats were divided into three groups including control group (received carboxy methylcellulose (CMC 0.5%)), letrozole-induced PCOS ± quercetin group (received 1 mg/kg letrozole in CMC 0.5%), and letrozole-induced PCOS +/+ quercetin group (received same dose of letrozole + 100 mg/kg quercetin in CMC 0.5%). The estrous cycle, biochemical and hormonal parameters, as well as insulin resistance (IR) were evaluated in all groups. Western blotting was used to assess the expression levels of sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1), 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and adiponectin in target tissues of rats. The expression levels of visfatin and resistin were also evaluated through Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Treatment with quercetin improved the PCOS related disturbances in estrous cycle, lipid profile, serum levels of testosterone, estradiol and progesterone, and IR. Besides, the expression levels of AMPK and SIRT-1 in ovarian tissue were upregulated in the rats which received quercetin. Quercetin also reversed the PCOS-induced alteration in adipose tissue levels of adiponectin, visfatin, and resistin. Modulation of energy homeostasis through key components involved in this axis, as well as regulation of hormones releasing from adipose tissue may be the main underlying mechanisms for positive effects of quercetin in PCOS.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Sirtuína 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hormônios/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Letrozol , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Resistina/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802633

RESUMO

The current study was designed to investigate the protective role of diosmin against cyclophosphamide-induced premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). Female Swiss albino rats received a single intraperitoneal dose of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) followed by 8 mg/kg/day for the next 15 consecutive days either alone or in combination with oral diosmin at 50 or 100 mg/kg. Histopathological examination of ovarian tissues, hormonal assays for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), assessment of the oxidative stress status, as well as measurement of the relative expression of miRNA-145 and its target genes [vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) and regulator of cell cycle (RGC32)] were performed. Diosmin treatment ameliorated the levels of E2, AMH, and oxidative stress markers. Additionally, both low and high diosmin doses significantly reduced the histopathological alterations and nearly preserved the normal ovarian reserve. MiRNA-145 expression was upregulated after treatment with diosmin high dose. miRNA-145 target genes were over-expressed after both low and high diosmin administration. Based on our findings, diosmin has a dose-dependent protective effect against cyclophosphamide-induced ovarian toxicity in rats.


Assuntos
Diosmina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Ciclofosfamida , Diosmina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios/sangue , Malondialdeído/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/sangue , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/patologia , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Ratos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
6.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918820

RESUMO

Quercetin has been shown to have anti-obesity effects, but it is unknown whether these effects can be transmitted from mothers to their progeny. In this study, we investigated whether maternal quercetin consumption during pregnancy has a protective effect on high-fat diet-induced hyper lipid levels and overweight in progeny. Female mice consumed a control diet or a diet containing 1.0% quercetin during breeding. The male progeny were then divided into four groups that were (1) sacrificed at postnatal day 3; (2) born to dams fed the control diet and also fed the control diet (C-C), (3) born to dams fed the control diet and then fed a 30% high-fat diet (C-HF), or (4) born to dams fed the Q-diet and then fed the HF diet (Q-HF). Maternal consumption of quercetin did not affect body weight or blood lipid parameters in either dams or neonates at postnatal day 3. After 13 weeks, the Q-HF group exhibited greater body and liver weights, and higher blood cholesterol levels than the C-HF group. However, the total cholesterol/ high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol ratios in the Q-HF and C-C groups remained similar. In conclusion, maternal quercetin consumption does not appear to protect the next generation from high-fat diet-induced hyper cholesterol level in the blood and liver, and consequently overweight, but may help regulate the total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hormônios/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
7.
Maturitas ; 145: 49-55, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) affects the body through pathways that exhibit positive as well as negative health effects such as immunoregulation and vitamin D production. Different vitamin D metabolites are associated with higher or lower concentrations of estrogens and may thus alter the female sex hormone balance. OBJECTIVE: To study whether exposure to UVR, as a modifiable lifestyle factor, is associated with levels of sex hormones (17ß-estradiol, estrone, estrone 3-sulfate, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), gonadotropins (follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone) as well as sex hormone binding globulin in postmenopausal women, and thus investigate whether managing UVR exposure can influence the hormone balance, with potential benefits for the biological aging process. METHODS: The study included 580 postmenopausal women from six European countries, participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (2010-2014). Average UVR exposure during the month before blood sampling was estimated based on personal sun behavior and ambient levels. Hormone concentrations were measured in serum using state-of-the-art methods. Subsequently we applied linear mixed-effects models, including center as random intercept, hormone concentrations (one at a time) as outcome and UVR, age, skin type, body mass index, vitamin D from dietary sources, smoking, age at completed full-time education and season of blood sampling as fixed-effect predictors. RESULTS: One interquartile range increase in UVR exposure was associated with decreased levels of 17ß-estradiol (-15.6 pmol/L, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI): -27.69, -3.51) and estrone (-13.36 pmol/L, 95 % CI: -26.04, -0.68) and increased levels of follicle stimulating hormone (9.34IU/L, 95 % CI: 2.91, 15.77) and luteinizing hormone (13.86 IU/daL, 95 % CI: 2.48, 25.25). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to UVR is associated with decreased estrogens and increased gonadotropins in postmenopausal women, a status associated with osteoporosis, lung function decline and other adverse health effects. This study indicates that managing UVR exposure has potential to influence the hormone balance and counteract adverse health conditions after menopause.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Hormônios/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Raios Ultravioleta , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1064, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594056

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by an oligo-anovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovarian morphology combined with major metabolic disturbances. However, despite the high prevalence and the human and economic consequences of this syndrome, its etiology remains unknown. In this study, we show that female Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a type 2 diabetes mellitus model, encapsulate naturally all the reproductive and metabolic hallmarks of lean women with PCOS at puberty and in adulthood. The analysis of their gestation and of their fetuses demonstrates that this PCOS-like phenotype is developmentally programmed. GK rats also develop features of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Lastly, a comparison between GK rats and a cohort of women with PCOS reveals a similar reproductive signature. Thus, this spontaneous rodent model of PCOS represents an original tool for the identification of the mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis and for the development of novel strategies for its treatment.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia , Adiposidade , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal , Análise Discriminante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislipidemias/patologia , Sistema Endócrino/patologia , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Gonadotropinas/farmacologia , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Secreção de Insulina , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Análise Multivariada , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar , Reprodução , Maturidade Sexual
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 467-473, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518098

RESUMO

Targeted green light photostimulation during the last stage of broiler incubation increases expression of the somatotropic axis. The purpose of this study was to further shorten the in ovo green light photostimulation and determine the critical age for photostimulation in broilers embryos, as a future strategy for broiler incubation. Fertile broilers eggs (n = 420) were divided into 5 treatment groups. The first group was incubated under standard conditions (in the dark) as the negative control group. The second was incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode lamps with an intensity of 0.1 W/m2 at shell level from embryonic day (ED) 0 of incubation until hatch, as a positive control. The third, fourth, and fifth groups were incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light from ED 15, 16, and 18 of incubation, respectively, until hatch. All treatment groups showed elevated somatotropic axis expression compared with the negative control, with the group incubated under monochromatic green light from ED 18 until hatch showing results closest to the positive control. This suggests that broiler embryos can be exposed to in ovo green light photostimulation from a late stage of incubation (when transferring the eggs to the hatchery) and exhibit essentially the same outcome as obtained by photostimulation during the entire incubation period.


Assuntos
Embrião de Galinha/efeitos da radiação , Somatotrofos/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião de Galinha/química , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Hormônio Liberador de Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Hormônios/análise , Hormônios/sangue , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Luz , Fígado/química , Óvulo/efeitos da radiação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Somatotrofos/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 82, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411066

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of plantain herb (Plantago lanceolata L.) supplementation on growth, plasma metabolites, liver enzymatic activity, hormonal status, gastrointestinal parasites, and carcass characteristics of lambs. A total of 24 lambs, aged 6 months weighing 8.0 ± 0.5 kg were randomly allocated to one of two dietary treatments: (1) CL diet-roadside grass and concentrate mixture; (2) PL diet-CL diet + 5% fresh plantain supplementation on a DM basis. The PL diet group exhibited 23% higher (P = 0.01) average daily gain and 15% improved (P = 0.03) feed conversion efficiency. Circulating cholesterol concentrations were suppressed by 9% (P = 0.03), and liver enzyme activity was improved by 5-25% (P < 0.05) in the lamb fed PL diet, compared with CL diet only. The inclusion of plantain in the diet was highly effective at suppressing the parasites, Paramphistomum spp. (P = 0.003) and coccidial parasites (P = 0.04), but not stomach worms. Moreover, plantain supplementation increased growth hormone and insulin concentrations in plasma level, whereas decreased carcass fat by 32.7%. Therefore, supplementation of the lambs' diet with plantain showed some beneficial effects on productivity and parasitic infection, while it led to a leaner carcass.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Carne/análise , Plantago/química , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Hormônios/sangue , Fígado/enzimologia , Plasma/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico/sangue , Carneiro Doméstico/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348799

RESUMO

Several essential trace minerals play an important role in the endocrine system; however, toxic trace minerals have a disruptive effect. The aim of this research was to determine basal concentrations and the possible correlations between trace minerals in plasma and several plasma hormones in runners. Sixty high-level male endurance runners (21 ± 3 years; 1.77 ± 0.05 m; 64.97 ± 7.36 kg) participated in the present study. Plasma hormones were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and plasma trace minerals were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Correlations and simple linear regression were used to assess the association between trace minerals and hormones. Plasma testosterone concentrations were inversely correlated with manganese (r = -0.543; ß = -0.410; p < 0.01), selenium (r = -0.292; ß = -0.024; p < 0.05), vanadium (r = -0.406; ß = -1.278; p < 0.01), arsenic (r = -0.336; ß = -0.142; p < 0.05), and lead (r = -0.385; ß = -0.418; p < 0.01). Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were positively correlated with arsenic (r = 0.298; ß = 0.327; p < 0.05) and cesium (r = 0.305; ß = 2.272; p < 0.05), and negatively correlated with vanadium (r = -0.303; ß = -2.467; p < 0.05). Moreover, cortisol concentrations showed significant positive correlations with cadmium (r = 0.291; ß = 209.01; p < 0.05). Finally, insulin concentrations were inversely related to vanadium (r = -0.359; ß = -3.982; p < 0.05). In conclusion, endurance runners living in areas with high environmental levels of toxic minerals should check their concentrations of anabolic hormones.


Assuntos
Hormônios , Minerais , Oligoelementos , Arsênio/sangue , Cádmio/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Manganês/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas , Minerais/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21979, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899038

RESUMO

Aim of the present study was to explore the evaluative effectiveness of age, ovarian volume (OV), antral follicle count (AFC), serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), AFC/Age ratio, AMH/Age ratio, FSH/luteinizing hormone (LH) ratio, and ovarian response prediction index (ORPI) to determine which could more advantageously assess ovarian reserve and response.This research enrolled 319 consecutive infertile women who had undergone in vitro fertilization-ET/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ET/ICSI) treatments. Abovementioned variables were measured and calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to analyze the predictive accuracy of variables and to calculate cut-off values and corresponding sensitivity and specificity.Our study revealed that the significant variables for evaluating a decline in ovarian reserve include age, OV, FSH, AFC/Age ratio, AMH/Age ratio, and ORPI. Moreover, the area under the curve (AUC) of AFC/Age ratio was higher than other 5 variables (AUC = 1.000), and the cut-off value of AFC/Age ratio was 0.111 (sensitivity 100.00%, specificity 100.00%). The significant variables forecasting excessive ovarian response were age, AFC, AMH, FSH, AFC/Age ratio, AMH/Age ratio, FSH/LH ratio, and ORPI, and the significant variables forecasting poor ovarian response were AMH, LH, OV, AFC/Age ratio, AMH/Age ratio, and FSH/LH ratio. When ORPI was used to predict excessive response, the cut-off value of ORPI was 0.880 (sensitivity 84.72%, specificity 67.32%) and ORPI presented better effectiveness. When used to predict poor response, the evaluative effectiveness of 6 variables was almost similar, although the AUC of AFC/Age ratio presented the largest value.Regarding the infertile women, AFC/Age ratio performed better than did the other variables in evaluating ovarian reserve, and it offered excellent effectiveness in predicting poor ovarian response, however, ORPI presented better effectiveness in predicting excessive ovarian response.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Feminina/diagnóstico , Folículo Ovariano , Reserva Ovariana , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238522, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946478

RESUMO

The effects of feeding frequency on postprandial response of circulating appetite-regulating hormones, insulin, glucose and amino acids, and on physical activity, energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient were studied in healthy adult cats. Two experiments were designed as a 2 x 3 replicated incomplete Latin square design. Eight cats, with an average body weight (BW) of 4.34 kg ± 0.04 and body condition score (BCS) of 5.4 ± 1.4 (9 point scale), were fed isocaloric amounts of a commercial adult maintenance canned cat food either once (0800 h) or four times daily (0800 h, 1130 h, 1500 h, 1830 h). Study 1 consisted of three 21-d periods. On day 14, two fasted and 11 postprandial blood samples were collected over 24 hours to measure plasma concentrations of ghrelin, GLP-1, GIP, leptin, PYY, insulin and amino acids, and whole blood glucose. Physical activity was monitored from day 15 to 21 of each period. In Study 2 indirect calorimetry was performed on the last day of each period. Body weight was measured weekly and feed intake recorded daily in both experiments. No effect of feeding regimen on BW was detected. Cats eating four times daily had lesser plasma concentrations of GIP and GLP-1 (P<0.05) and tended to have lesser plasma PYY concentrations (P<0.1). Plasma leptin and whole blood glucose concentrations did not differ between regimens (P>0.1). Cats fed once daily had a greater postprandial plasma amino acid response, and greater plasma ghrelin and insulin concentrations (P<0.05). Physical activity was greater in cats fed four times (P<0.05), though energy expenditure was similar between treatments at fasting and in postprandial phases. Finally, cats eating one meal had a lower fasting respiratory quotient (P<0.05). Overall, these data indicate that feeding once a day may be a beneficial feeding management strategy for indoor cats to promote satiation and lean body mass.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Regulação do Apetite , Gatos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Hormônios/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/sangue , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Apetite , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Gatos/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Grelina/metabolismo , Hormônios/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Fotoperíodo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Respiração
14.
Life Sci ; 258: 118192, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781062

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to identify possible health - promoting effects of wogonin (Wog) on testicular dysfunction in rats caused by cadmium. Pre-treatment of cadmium chloride (Cd: 5 mg/kg b.wt.) administered rats with wogonin (10 mg/kg b.wt) resulted in significant improvement in Cd-induced decrease in body and organ (testes and epididymides) weights. Wogonin treatment significantly improved Cd-induced reduction in sperm quality and quantity, steroidogenic gene (SFI, StAR, CYP11A1, 3ß-HSD, CYP17A1 and 17ß-HSD) and protein (SF1, StAR and CYP17A1) expressions and serum testosterone levels. Wogonin treatment provided significant protection to Cd-induced aggression in testicular oxidative (elevated levels of MDA) and anti-oxidative (diminished activities of SOD, CAT and GPx) status. Wog significantly up-regulated mRNA levels of Nrf2, NQO1 and HO-1 and down-regulation of Keap1 in cadmium treated testes. Wogonin administration significantly suppressed Cd-stimulated increase in inflammatory reactions (increase in NF-κB p65 DNA, p-IKKß, TNF-α levels and decrease in IL-10 levels). Wogonin prevented apoptotic damage by enhanced protein distribution of caspase-9, caspase-3, and Bax due to Cd exposure. Furthermore, Wogonin presented significant protection to histo-morphometric changes resulted after Cd administration. Taken together, the findings of this study provided clear evidence of the therapeutic potential of Cd-induced testicular toxicity at least partly due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Testículo/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Epididimo/patologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios/sangue , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Oxirredução , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236133, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has surpassed Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) as the most prevalent bariatric procedure worldwide. While RYGB and SG demonstrate equivalent short-term weight loss, long-term weight loss tends to be greater after RYGB. Differences in the effect of these procedures on gastrointestinal hormones that regulate energy homeostasis are felt to partially underlie differences in outcomes. The objective of this study was to prospectively quantify blood levels of gut hormones of energy and glucose homeostasis at one year follow up to delineate possible reasons for greater efficacy of RYGB over SG in achieving weight loss. METHODS: Patients undergoing SG (n = 19) and RYGB (n = 40) were studied before surgery and at 2,12, 26, and 52 weeks postoperatively. Blood samples drawn in the fasted state and after a liquid mixed meal were assayed at baseline, 26, and 52 weeks for peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin, insulin, glucose, and leptin. Fasting and postprandial appetitive sensations were assessed by visual analog scale. RESULTS: At 1 year there was greater weight loss in RYGB compared with SG patients (30% vs 27%; P = 0.03). Area under the curve (AUC) after the mixed meal for PYY was greater in RYGB patients (P<0.001). RYGB patients had significant increases in GLP-1 AUC compared to baseline (P = 0.002). Ghrelin levels decreased only after SG compared to baseline (P<0.001) but were not significantly different from RYGB. There was a trend toward decreased sweet cravings in RYGB patients (P = 0.056). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in gastrointestinal hormones that regulate energy and glucose homeostasis are a possible mechanism for greater efficacy of RYGB compared to SG.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia , Derivação Gástrica , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hormônios/sangue , Laparoscopia , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Chem Biol Interact ; 328: 109188, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679048

RESUMO

We have reported that gestational exposure to hexavalent chromium (CrVI) represses androgen receptor (Ar) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr) in Sertoli cells (SCs) of adult rats, while the mechanism underlying remains obscure. We tested the hypothesis "transient gestational exposure to CrVI during the critical embryonic windows of testicular differentiation and growth may have adverse impact on transcription factors controlling the expression of Ar and Fshr in SCs of the F1 progeny". CrVI (K2Cr2O7) was given through drinking water (50 ppm, 100 ppm and 200 ppm), to pregnant rats from gestational day 9-14 (testicular differentiation) and 15 to 21 (prenatal differentiation and proliferation of SC); male progenies were sacrificed on postnatal day 30 (Completion of postnatal SC maturation). A significant increase in free radicals and decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed in SCs of experimental rats. Real time PCR and western blot data showed decreased expression of Ar, Fshr, Inhibin B, Transferrin, Androgen binding protein, Claudin 11 and Occludin in SCs of experimental rats; concentrations of lactate, pyruvate and retinoic acid also decreased. Serum FSH, luteinizing hormone and estradiol increased, whereas testosterone and prolactin decreased in experimental rats. Western blot detection revealed decreased levels of transcription factors regulating Fshr viz., USF-1, USF-2, SF-1, c-fos, c-jun and GATA 1, and those of Ar viz., Sp-1, ARA54, SRC-1 and CBP in experimental rats, whereas the levels of cyclinD1 and p53, repressors of Ar increased. ChIP assay detected decreased USF-1 and USF-2 binding to Fshr promoter, and binding of Sp-1 to Ar promoter. We conclude that gestational exposure to CrVI affects SC structure and function in F1 progeny by inducing oxidative stress and diminishing the expression of Ar and Fshr through attenuation of their specific transcriptional regulators and their interaction with the respective promoter.


Assuntos
Cromo/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores do FSH/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Feminino , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Hormônios/sangue , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores do FSH/genética , Células de Sertoli/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584842

RESUMO

As a consequence of a hormonal imbalance, Prostatic Hyperplasia (PH) is characterized by increased prostate volume, along with higher local angiogenesis and vascularization. Orchiectomy is the common treatment for dogs, however it is not an option for breeding animals. Thus, finasteride arises as the drug of choice for stud dogs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orchiectomy or finasteride therapies on hormonal and vascular dynamics of PH dogs. Fifteen dogs, aged 6-13 years were assigned to: Untreated Group (dogs diagnosed with PH-n = 5), Finasteride treated group (PH dogs treated with finasteride-n = 5) and Orchiectomy treated group (PH dogs submitted to orchiectomy-n = 5). Evaluations were performed in a monthly interval (first day of treatment; after 30 and 60 days). Doppler ultrasonography was performed to measure prostatic volume, vascularization and hemodynamic profile of prostatic artery. Dihydrotestosterone, estrogen and testosterone concentrations were measured. At day 60, prostatic biopsy was performed for histological, immunohistochemical and qPCR analysis for VEGF-A expression. At day 60, vascularization score was higher in untreated compared to treated groups (finasteride and orchiectomy). Furthermore, VEGF-A expression was lower in the Orchiectomy Treated Group, but VEGF-A was immunohistochemically lower in both treated groups (finasteride and orchiectomy) compared to the Untreated Group. The efficiency of finasteride treatment in reducing clinical signs, prostate volume and vascularization appears to be similar to orchiectomy. In conclusion, both PH medical and surgical therapy lead to reduction in prostate dimension and VEGF-A expression and, consequently, lower local vascularization. However, orchiectomy promotes marked hormonal changes, which ultimately lead to prostate atrophy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Finasterida/farmacologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios/sangue , Neovascularização Patológica , Orquiectomia , Hiperplasia Prostática/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/fisiopatologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
18.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 117-131, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early puberty is associated with higher than average risk of antisocial behaviour, both in girls and boys. Most studies of such association, however, have focused on psychosocial mediating and moderating factors. Few refer to coterminous hormonal measures. AIM: The aim of this review is to consider the role of hormonal markers as potential mediating or moderating factors between puberty timing and antisocial behaviour. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted searching Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane and Google Scholar. RESULTS: Just eight studies were found to fit criteria, all cross-sectional. Measurements were too heterogeneous to allow meta-analysis. The most consistent associations found were between adrenal hormones-both androgens and cortisol-which were associated with early adrenarche and antisocial behaviours in girls and later adrenarche and antisocial behaviour in boys. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from our review suggest that longitudinal studies to test bidirectional hormone-behaviour associations with early or late puberty would be worthwhile. In view of the interactive processes between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, integrated consideration of the hormonal end products is recommended.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adrenarca/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/etiologia , Hormônios/sangue , Menarca/fisiologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adrenarca/fisiologia , Androgênios , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Gonadotropinas Hipofisárias/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Neurology ; 95(2): e166-e178, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate sex differences in late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) risks by means of multimodality brain biomarkers (ß-amyloid load via 11C-Pittsburgh compound B [PiB] PET, neurodegeneration via 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG] PET and structural MRI). METHODS: We examined 121 cognitively normal participants (85 women and 36 men) 40 to 65 years of age with clinical, laboratory, neuropsychological, lifestyle, MRI, FDG- and PiB-PET examinations. Several clinical (e.g., age, education, APOE status, family history), medical (e.g., depression, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia), hormonal (e.g., thyroid disease, menopause), and lifestyle AD risk factors (e.g., smoking, diet, exercise, intellectual activity) were assessed. Statistical parametric mapping and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regressions were used to compare AD biomarkers between men and women and to identify the risk factors associated with sex-related differences. RESULTS: Groups were comparable on clinical and cognitive measures. After adjustment for each modality-specific confounders, the female group showed higher PiB ß-amyloid deposition, lower FDG glucose metabolism, and lower MRI gray and white matter volumes compared to the male group (p < 0.05, family-wise error corrected for multiple comparisons). The male group did not show biomarker abnormalities compared to the female group. Results were independent of age and remained significant with the use of age-matched groups. Second to female sex, menopausal status was the predictor most consistently and strongly associated with the observed brain biomarker differences, followed by hormone therapy, hysterectomy status, and thyroid disease. CONCLUSION: Hormonal risk factors, in particular menopause, predict AD endophenotype in middle-aged women. These findings suggest that the window of opportunity for AD preventive interventions in women is early in the endocrine aging process.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Imagem Multimodal , Neuroimagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Compostos de Anilina , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Menopausa/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Tiazóis
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...