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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 37-42, dic.2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117898

RESUMO

Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimiento que poseen las madres sobre los signos de alarma de las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA) en niños menores de 5 años que asistieron al Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Universitario Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga durante el mes de noviembre 2019, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 37 madres las cuales se caracterizaron por un promedio de edad de 29,2 ± 7,3 años, solteras (43,2%), con secundaria completa (27%) y empleadas (40,5%). El promedio de edad de los pacientes fue de 15,3 ± 6,2 meses, con predominio del sexo masculino (54%); durante el último año, 45,9% registraron entre 2-3 episodios de IRA. Sobre el nivel de conocimiento global de las madres en relación a los signos de alarma de las IRA se evidenció que en el 56,7% de las madres el nivel era regular. El nivel de conocimiento para las causas de las IRA fue insuficiente en el 48,6% de los casos. En relación a los signos de alarma de IRA identificadas por parte de las madres fueron, en orden de frecuencia, dificultad para respirar (91,8%), fiebre (81%), rechazo al alimento (78,3%) y respiración ruidosa (75,6%). En conclusión, es evidente que la mayoría de las madres conoce los principales signos de alarma de las IRA sin embargo se deben establecer estrategias de intervención destinadas a mejorar su conocimiento con el fin de que las madres reconozcan tempranamente los signos de alarma y por ende busquen atención en el momento oportuno(AU)


With the objective of determining the level of knowledge that mothers have about warning signs of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children under 5 years of age who attended the Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Universitario Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga (November, 2019), a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out with 37 mothers with an average age of 29.2 ± 7.3 years, 43.2% were single, with completed secondary school (27%) and employed (40.5%). Average age of patients was 15.3 ± 6.2 months with male predominance (54%); during the previous year, 45.9% had between 2-3 episodes of ARI. Level of knowledge of mothers about global warning signs of ARI was regular in 56.76% of cases. Regarding causes of ARI, level of knowledge was insufficient in 48.6% of mothers. Warning signs of ARI identified by the mothers were, in order of frequency, difficulty in breathing (91.8%), fever (81%), food rejection (78.3%) and loud breathing loud (75.6%). In conclusion, it is clear that most mothers know the main warning signs of ARI however intervention strategies should be established to improve knowledge in order for mothers to recognize early warning signs and therefore seek attention in a timely manner(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Doenças Respiratórias , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Sinais e Sintomas , Hospitais Pediátricos , Pediatria , Doença Aguda , Febre
2.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 53-58, dic.2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117901

RESUMO

Se realizó una investigación de tipo no experimental, transversal y descriptiva para establecer las características epidemiológicas de los accidentes en el hogar de 112 pacientes entre 2 a 13 años de edad que ingresaron a la Atención Médica Inmediata (AMI) del Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga entre diciembre 2018 y enero 2019. La mayoría de los pacientes son preescolares (46%), del sexo masculino (71%) y de procedencia urbana (59,8%). En cuanto a las madres, predominaron aquellas mayores de 30 años (39,2%), con grado de instrucción secundaria (44,6%) y amas de casa (69,6%). La mayoría de los padres son mayores de 30 años (54,5%), tienen educación primaria (37,5%) y trabajan fuera del hogar (90,1%). Con respecto a los cuidadores, predominaron los mayores de 30 años (67%) y en su mayoría son familiares del niño (93%). El día de mayor frecuencia de los accidentes en el hogar fueron los viernes (18,8%), en el horario de 1 a 6:59 pm (46%) y el lugar más frecuente fue en el patio (36,6%). El tipo de accidente predominante fueron las caídas (34,9%), seguida de las quemaduras (25%) e intoxicaciones (21,4%). Este estudio permitió conocer las características epidemiológicas de los accidentes en el hogar y aporta datos para la toma de decisiones y la elaboración de protocolos de prevención(AU)


A non-experimental, transversal, descriptive study was conducted to establish the epidemiological characteristics of accidents in the home of 112 patients between 2 and 13 years of age who attended the Atención Médica Inmediata (AMI) of the Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga between December 2018 and January 2019. Most patients are preschoolers (46%), male sex (71%) and from urban areas (59.8%). In most cases, mothers were older than 30 years (39.2%), with secondary education (44.6%) and homemakers (69.6%). The majority of fathers were older than 30 years (54.5%), with primary education (37.5%) and worked outside the home (90.1%). Most caregivers were older than 30 years (67%) and relatives of the child (93%). Accidents occurred predominantly on Friday (18.8%), from 1 to 6:59 pm (46%) and in the yard (36.6%). Most frequent type of accident were falls (34.9%), followed by burns (25%) and poisoning (21.4%). This study allowed us to know the epidemiological characteristics of accidents in the home and provides data for decision-making and the development of prevention protocols(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Acidentes por Quedas , Acidentes Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Estudos Epidemiológicos , Lesões Acidentais , Pediatria , Cuidado da Criança , Hospitais Pediátricos
3.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161664

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to estimate contingent of children that underwent ultrasonography in outpatient conditions of children hospital and to investigate reserves for improvement of actual ultrasonography service. The method of expert evaluation was applied to analyze medical documentation of 1171 children aged 0-18 years that underwent ultrasonography. The analysis was applied to demographic data, number of previous ultrasonography, specialty of physician involved into investigation, children chronic diseases and type of ultrasonography applied. The wide range of ultrasonic examinations were carried out in out-patient conditions of multidisciplinary children hospital was established. Their spectrum was determined by the age of patients. Children were most often referred to ultrasonography by cardiologist, pediatrician and gastroenterologist. In examined patients dominated diseases of digestive organs, congenital abnormalities, diseases of nervous and urinary systems, circulatory system. In the structure of morbidity, proportion of diseases of endocrine system, circulatory and digestive systems increased with age and the proportion of diseases of nervous, musculoskeletal systems and congenital abnormalities decreased. Among the types of ultrasonic examination, the first places in frequency took studies of circulatory system, abdominal organs, kidneys and retroperitoneal space. The large proportion of patients underwent ultrasound testing again. The comparative analysis demonstrated increasing of proportion of ultrasound studies of endocrine and reproductive organs and decreasing of musculoskeletal system and brain. It is proposed to apply received results in studying particularities of children that underwent ultrasonography in the inpatient and outpatient conditions. The received data can be used in planning of required volume of different diagnostic services at different levels.


Assuntos
Rim , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ultrassonografia
4.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(8): 530-537, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164022

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In this study, a comparison of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory parameters between symptomatic and asymptomatic children with SARS-CoV-2 infection was performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from all children with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to KK Women's and Children's Hospital (KKH), Singapore, from January to May 2020 were analysed. RESULTS: Of the 39 COVID-19 children included, 38.5% were asymptomatic. Household transmission accounted for 95% of cases. The presenting symptoms of symptomatic children were low-grade fever (54.2%), rhinorrhoea (45.8%), sore throat (25%), diarrhoea (12.5%) and acute olfactory dysfunction (5.4%). Children of Chinese ethnicity (37.5% vs 6.7%), complete blood count (45.8% vs 6.7%) and liver enzyme abnormalities (25% vs 7.7%) were more common in symptomatic versus asymptomatic children. All children had a mild disease course and none required oxygen supplementation or intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of asymptomatic infected children coupled with household transmission as the main source of paediatric COVID-19 infection underscores the importance of early screening and isolation of children upon detection of an index case of COVID-19 in a household. Symptomatic children were more likely to have abnormal laboratory parameters but they did not have a poorer outcome compared to asymptomatic cases.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hospitalização , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Singapura , Avaliação de Sintomas
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 804, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Misuse and overuse of antibiotics by physicians in the treatment of children is common in China. This study aimed to reveal the overall use of antibiotics to treat children hospitalized in four types of pediatric wards. METHODS: Seven independent point prevalence surveys (PPSs) were conducted in Shanghai Children's Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University over the period 2012 to 2018. Pediatric ward types were defined general pediatric medical, pediatric surgical, pediatric intensive care units (PICU), and neonatal. RESULTS: A total of 3975 pediatric patients were included in the study, of which 63.9% received at least one dose antibiotic. The top five classes of antibiotics administered were cephalosporins (43.8%, n = 1743), penicillins (13.2%, n = 526), carbapenems (8.7%, n = 347), nitroimidazoles (7.1%, n = 281) and macrolides (6.5%, n = 257). The five most commonly used generic antibiotics were cefuroxime (14.9%, n = 594), ceftriaxone (9.7%, n = 387), cefotaxime (9.0%, n = 358), meropenem (8.1%, n = 320) and ampicillin/sulbactam (6.0%, n = 239). Meropenem was among top five antibiotics prescribed in the general pediatric, PICU and neonatal wards and sixth in the pediatric surgical wards. Of all children on antibiotics, 23.4% received prophylactic treatment, and prophylaxis accounted for 68.1% of indications for treatment in the pediatric surgical wards. CONCLUSIONS: Given that over-treatment with third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems has been associated with treatment-resistant infections, the prescription of these drugs should be strictly controlled and monitored, and measures should be taken to improve the management of surgical prophylaxis in hospitalized children in China.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Hospitais Pediátricos , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adolescente , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Carbapenêmicos/efeitos adversos , Cefalosporinas/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos de Coortes , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prescrições , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 155, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on pediatric operations, and establish preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative protocols to improve the pediatric operations. METHODS: We here compare the number of patients who underwent surgery in Chongqing Medical University Affiliated Children's Hospital during the pandemic (January 23-March 11), after the pandemic (March 12-April 30), after our measures were put in place (May 1-May 21), and the equivalent period in 2019. RESULT: During the COVID-19 pandemic, 62.68% fewer patients underwent surgery than during the homologous period of time 1 year earlier (P < 0.01). After the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of orchidopexy cases increased significantly from 175.14 to 504.57 per week (P < 0.01). The large number of patients that accrued in our hospital may have increased the risk of COVID-19 transmission. In response, hospitals and clinics have made protocols and reorganized healthcare facilities (e.g., performing nucleic acid tests (NAT), adding adequate personal protective equipment (PPE)) from May 1, 2020. After the measures were implemented, the number of operations performed remained stable and comparable to the pre-pandemic period. COVID-19 RNA detection was performed in 5104 cases and there were no new confirmed cases in our hospital. CONCLUSION: This outbreak of COVID-19 has affected not only individuals with COVID-19 but also patients seeking surgical operations. Understanding the present situation helps clinicians provide a high level of treatment to all children.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(11): 828-836, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is characterised by rapid onset of limb weakness with spinal cord grey-matter abnormalities on MRI scan. We aimed to assess whether detection of enterovirus in respiratory or other specimens can help predict prognosis in children with AFM. METHODS: In this nationwide, longitudinal study, we evaluated the significance of detection of enterovirus in any sample in predicting outcomes in a cohort of Canadian children younger than 18 years presenting with AFM to tertiary paediatric hospitals in Canada in 2014 and 2018. All patients fulfilled the 2015 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for definite AFM or probable AFM. Clinical data, laboratory findings, treatment, and neuroimaging results were collected (follow up period up to 5 years). We assessed neurological function and motor outcomes using Kurtzke's Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and a Weakest Limb Score. FINDINGS: 58 children with AFM (median age 5·1 years, IQR 3·8-8·3) were identified across five of Canada's ten provinces and three territories. 25 (43%) children had enterovirus detected in at least one specimen: 16 (64%) with EV-D68, two (8%) with EV-A71, two (8%) with coxsackievirus, 10 (40%) with untyped enterovirus. Children who were enterovirus positive were more likely than those that were negative to have had quadriparesis (12 [48%] of 25 vs four [13%] of 30; p=0·028), bulbar weakness (11 [44%] of 25 vs two [7%] of 30; p=0·028), bowel or bladder dysfunction (14 [56%] of 25 vs seven [23%] of 30; p=0·040), cardiovascular instability (nine [36%] of 25 vs one [3%] of 30; p=0·028), and were more likely to require intensive care unit admission (13 [52%] of 25 vs 5 [17%] of 30; p=0·028). On MRI, most children who were enterovirus positive showed brainstem pontine lesions (14 [61%] of 23), while other MRI parameters did not correlate with enterovirus status. Median EDSS of enterovirus positive (EV+) and enterovirus negative (EV-) groups was significantly different at all timepoints: baseline (EDSS 8·5, IQR 4·1-9·5 vs EDSS 4·0, IQR 3·0-6·0; p=0·0067), 3 months (EDSS 4·0, IQR 3·0-7·4 vs EDSS 3·0, IQR 1·5-4·3; p=0·0067), 6 months (EDSS 3·5, IQR 3·0-7·0 vs EDSS 3·0, IQR 1·0-4·0; p=0·029), and 12 months (EDSS 3·0, IQR 3·0-6·9 vs EDSS 2·5 IQR 0·3-3·0; p=0·0067). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of a subgroup of patients showed significantly poorer motor recovery among children who tested positive for enterovirus than for those who tested negative (p=0·037). INTERPRETATION: Detection of enterovirus in specimens from non-sterile sites at presentation correlated with more severe acute motor weakness, worse overall outcomes and poorer trajectory for motor recovery. These results have implications for rehabilitation planning as well as counselling of families of children with these disorders. The findings of this study support the need for early testing for enterovirus in non-CNS sites in all cases of AFM. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Debilidade Muscular , Mielite , Doenças Neuromusculares , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Canadá/epidemiologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/microbiologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus/classificação , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Debilidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Debilidade Muscular/reabilitação , Mielite/diagnóstico , Mielite/epidemiologia , Mielite/microbiologia , Mielite/terapia , Doenças Neuromusculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Neuromusculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/microbiologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prognóstico , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
10.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(11): 605-611, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105337

RESUMO

Bed flow decisions should be based on current information about capacity. The purpose of this project was to develop a real-time, enterprise-wide, capacity management dashboard. The dashboard successfully used information from the electronic medical record to create a comprehensive standardized data source, which was used to drive patient flow decisions optimizing bed space, allocating resources and maintaining safety.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Hospitais Pediátricos/organização & administração , Criança , Humanos , Ohio
11.
Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont) ; 33(3): 9-14, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097100

RESUMO

During my career, I have had many mantras, including "I love to wonder what will happen tomorrow" and "It's all about relationships." Well, I have been rewarded in spades because nothing has been predictable or stable about our professional practice environments since COVID-19 infiltrated our organizations. I have been challenged to develop and implement changes at The Hospital for Sick Children - a 300-bed tertiary pediatric academic health sciences centre in Toronto, ON - that we had never contemplated before. I believe that staying true to my leadership values and core principles has been essential when taking on such challenges and staying afloat during these tumultuous times.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Hospitais Pediátricos/organização & administração , Relações Interprofissionais , Enfermeiras Administradoras/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Liderança , Ontário/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 729, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study describes the disease burden, clinical characteristics, antibiotic management, impact of multidrug resistance and outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (PABSI) among children admitted to a tertiary referral hospital for children in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted at a paediatric referral hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Demographic and clinical details, antibiotic management and patient outcome information were extracted from medical and laboratory records. Antibiotic susceptibility results of identified organisms were obtained from the National Health Laboratory Service database. RESULTS: The incidence risk of PABSI was 5.4 (95% CI: 4.34-6.54) PABSI episodes / 10,000 hospital admissions and the most common presenting feature was respiratory distress, 34/91 (37.4%). Overall, 69/91 (75.8%) of the PA isolates were susceptible to all antipseudomonal antibiotic classes evaluated. Fifty (54.9%) of the PABSI episodes were treated with appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. The mortality rate was 24.2% and in multivariable analysis, empiric antibiotic therapy to which PA isolates were not susceptible, infections present on admission, and not being in the intensive care unit at the time that PABSI was diagnosed were significantly associated with 14-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: PABSI caused appreciable mortality, however, appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy was associated with reduced 14-day mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/mortalidade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária
13.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 36(11): 551-553, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925702

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This cross-sectional study looked at the impact of the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric emergency department (PED) attendances and admissions (as a proxy for severity of illness) in the United States and United Kingdom. METHODS: Data were extracted for children and adolescents, younger than 16 years, attending Royal Manchester Children's Hospital (RMCH, United Kingdom), and Yale New Haven Children's Hospital (YNHCH, United States). Attendances for weeks 1 to 20 of 2020 and 2019 were compared, and likelihood of admission was assessed via calculation of odds ratios, using week 13 (lockdown) as a cutoff. RESULTS: Attendance numbers for each PED decreased in 2020 compared with 2019 (RMCH, 29.2%; YNHCH, 24.8%). Odds of admission were significantly higher after lockdown than in 2019-RMCH (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.46) and YNHCH (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.98). CONCLUSIONS: Although the absolute numbers of children and adolescents attending the PED and being admitted decreased after lockdown, the acuity of illness of those attending appears to be higher.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Pediátricos/normas , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239731, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) imaging is an indispensable tool in the management of acute paediatric neurological illness providing rapid answers that facilitate timely decisions and interventions that may be lifesaving. While clear guidelines exist for use of CT in trauma to maximise individual benefits against the risk of radiation exposure and the cost to the healthcare system, the same is not the case for medical emergency. AIMS: The study primarily aimed to retrospectively describe indications for non-trauma head CT and the findings at a tertiary paediatric hospital. METHODS: Records of children presenting with acute illness to the medical emergency unit of Red Cross War Children's Hospital, Cape Town, over one year (2013) were retrospectively reviewed. Participants were included if they underwent head CT scan within 24 hours of presentation with a non-trauma event. Clinical data and reports of CT findings were extracted. RESULTS: Inclusion criteria were met by 311 patients; 188 (60.5%) were boys. The median age was 39.2 (IQR 12.6-84.0) months. Most common indications for head CT were seizures (n = 169; 54.3%), reduced level of consciousness (n = 140;45.0%), headache (n = 74;23.8%) and suspected ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) malfunction (n = 61;19.7%). In 217 (69.8%) patients CT showed no abnormal findings. In the 94 (30.2%) with abnormal CT results the predominant findings were hydrocephalus (n = 54;57.4%) and cerebral oedema (n = 29;30.9%). Papilloedema was more common in patients with abnormal CT (3/56; 5.4%) compared with none in those with normal CT; P = 0.015; while long tract signs were found in 42/169 (24.9%) and 23/56 (41.1%) of patients with normal and abnormal CT findings, respectively; P = 0.020. Post-CT surgery was required by 47(15.1%) of which 40 (85.1%) needed a ventricular drainage. A larger proportion of patients with VPS (25/62; 40.3%) required surgery compared to patients without VPS (22/249; 8.8%; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: A majority of head CT scans in children with medical emergency with acute neurological illness were normal. Patients with VPS constituted the majority of patients with abnormal CT scans that required subsequent neurosurgical intervention. Evidence-based guidelines are required to guide the best use of head CT in the management of children without head trauma.


Assuntos
Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Cefaleia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Convulsões/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Inconsciência/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/epidemiologia , Renda , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inconsciência/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239655, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976491

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Globally, pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children which leads to over 156 million episodes and 14.9 million hospitalizations each year. Besides this fact, the recovery time and predictors of children's hospitalization related to severe community-acquired pneumonia is not well known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the median time to recovery and its predictors among severe community-acquired pneumonia patients admitted to the pediatric ward, Debre Markos referral hospital, North West Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was employed among 352 records of children who were admitted starting from January 2016 to December 2018. Patients' charts were retrieved using a structured data extraction tool. Cox proportional hazard model assumption and model fitness was checked. Stratified Cox regression was fitted as a final model. Hazard ratio with its 95% confidence interval was used and P-value < 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant association. RESULT: The overall median recovery time was 4 days IQR (3-7). Recovery rate from severe community acquired pneumonia was 16.25 (95% CI: 14.54-18.15) per 100 person day observation. Age (AHR; 0.94 95% CI (0.90-0.98)), being stunted (AHR; 0.62 95% CI (0.43-0.91)), presence of danger sign at admission (AHR; 0.61 95% CI (0.40-0.94)), late presentation to seek care(AHR; 0.64 95% CI (0.47-0.88)) and co-morbidity (AHR; 0.45 95% CI (0.35-0.58)) were significant predictors of recovery time. CONCLUSION: The median recovery time from severe community-acquired pneumonia was long so that measures to reduce recovery time should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Etiópia , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 22(87): 263-271, jul.-sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194298

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: durante la pandemia de COVID-19, el uso de equipos y dispositivos de protección por parte de los profesionales es fundamental para evitar la transmisión de la infección en el colectivo de sanitarios. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: el Grupo Laboral-Profesional de la Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria (AEPap) ha realizado una encuesta a los vocales autonómicos de la AEPap para conocer la disponibilidad que han tenido los pediatras de Atención Primaria (PAP) de sistemas de protección frente a la enfermedad, y las pruebas diagnósticas realizadas para el diagnóstico de los contagios de los PAP. RESULTADOS: en marzo de 2020, solo en el 32% de las comunidades autónomas (CC. AA.), los pediatras tenían sistemas de protección adecuados. En abril ascendió al 70%. En todas las CC. AA. se han registrado casos de PAP enfermos, aunque es difícil cuantificar el número de afectados. De las que tenemos datos, sumando el número de pediatras enfermos conocido, más test de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) positivo, los que han estado en aislamiento y los ingresados, la cifra asciende al 7,65% de la cifra total de PAP. Los test rápidos serológicos o PCR o ambos se han realizado en seis comunidades los últimos días de abril y en otras seis los primeros días de mayo. Entre las CC. AA. de las que hay información, Aragón es la única comunidad en la que no se ha realizado test. Se ha correlacionado la disponibilidad de los sistemas de protección y el gasto sanitario. CONCLUSIONES: los sistemas de protección han sido insuficientes. Las CC. AA. con mayor gasto sanitario han contado más precozmente con sistemas de protección adecuados. Han resultado infectados PAP en todas las comunidades autónomas, especialmente en Madrid, Castilla y León y Comunidad Valenciana. La detección de profesionales afectos por la infección ha sido tardía


INTRODUCTION: during the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of protective equipment and devices by professionals is essential to prevent transmission of the infection in the healthcare community. METHODS: the Professional Labor Working group of the Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics (AEPap) has carried out a survey of the autonomous members of the AEPap to find out the availability for primary care pediatricians (PCP) of protection elements against the disease, the diagnostic measures carried out on the professionals for the diagnosis of infections in the PCP. RESULTS: during the month of March, in 32% of the autonomous communities (CC. AA.), pediatricians had adequate means of protection, which in April amounted to 70%. Sick cases of PCP have been registered in all the CC. AA., although it is difficult to quantify the number of patients affected. According to our data, adding the positive test patients, those who have been in isolation and those admitted, the figure rises up to 7.65%. Rapid serological tests or PCR or both have been carried out in 6 communities in the last days of April and in 6 others in the first days of May. The only community in which it has not been carried out is that of Aragon. The availability of protection systems and health expenditure have been correlated. CONCLUSIONS: protection systems have been insufficient. The CC. AA. with the highest health expenditure have had adequate protection systems earlier. PCP have been infected in all the autonomous communities, especially in Madrid, Castilla y León and Valencia. The detection of affected professionals by the infection has been late


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Hospitais Pediátricos/organização & administração , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Cuidado da Criança/métodos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Precauções Universais/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia
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