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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 316-319, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030446

RESUMO

The paper gives an overview of the spatial conditions, human resources and development course of child and adolescent psychiatry as an independent profession. The beginnings of the development date back to 1959, when the Department of children and youth is opened in Sarajevo at the Neuropsychiatric Clinic, which continues without interruption even today. After that was opened same department in Banja Luka and after a certain period of outpatient work, and stationary departments in Tuzla and Mostar. Over time, as the world's developed and improved understanding of the needs of treatment of mental disorders, and as the trends of professional approaches changed from time to time, the same set of guidelines were followed by the professional work of staff members in the departments. As the material opportunities allowed, in all localities there is a clear tendency to improve spatial conditions. However, personnel capability has improved at a slightly faster pace, so by the war time in Bosnia-Herzegovina (BH) between 1992 and 1995, in BH were mostly trained professional teams. In meanwhile, the need for psychiatric assistance has largely exceeded the human resource capabilities. The situation of war has changed dramatically in the present situation, departments are empty, and there is a paradoxical situation that the patient in the hospitals does not exist, but the reason is bizarre, since because of the war, physically, patients are not able to access to hospitals. This situation also contributes to the departure a large number of staff, which is in the child psychiatry, and so was insufficient. Despite this, during the war in Sarajevo, the Psychiatric Clinic conducts research on psychiatric morbidity and evaluation of population trauma due to war stress in the city of Sarajevo, and included the population of children and adolescents who remained in the city. The project is implemented only in the city area, because Sarajevo was city, three and half years under the total military siege. Further on, the paper elaborates the status of spatial and human resources capacity in the post-war period up to the present day. There is an evident expansion of the psychological assistance service throughout the territory of BH, which has been largely on the initiative and all the necessary assistance of the international community through non-governmental organizations, but with the involvement of the remaining domestic staffs. They were also stated the government projects, in the last two decades, on the professional training of staff working in Mental Health Centers across the country. In the latest age of the last ten years, a number of private psychological counselling centers have been opened that, beside the psychiatrists, are led by certified psychotherapists, psychologists, pedagogues, and teachers. This fact is very important for the future, because this is a good part solving the current lack of professionalism to provide psychological assistance to the population in developmental age. All professionals involved in the human psyche were aware of how important the timely recognition and provided expert assistance, when it comes to developmental age. In the post-war period, certain scientific researches on the psychological trauma severity of the population are being carried out, and the results of some of these researches are mentioned in this paper. The paper concludes with the statement that the current state of development of child psychiatry in the country is satisfactory in relation to the conditions that we had the past decade, but with the suggestion that a long way to furthering this profession and its affirmation at the global level is in the future.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente/história , Psiquiatria Infantil/história , Adolescente , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Criança , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Humanos
2.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(3): 325-340, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349552

RESUMO

This article addresses the implementation of malaria fever therapy in Spain. Neuropsychiatrist Rodríguez-Lafora first used it in 1924, but Vallejo-Nágera was the main advocate for the technique. He had learned the method from Wagner von Jauregg himself, and he worked in the Military Psychiatric Clinic and the San José Mental Hospital, both in Ciempozuelos (Madrid). Vallejo-Nágera worked with the parasitologist Zozaya, who had travelled to England with a Rockefeller Foundation grant in order to learn from British malariologist, Sydney Price James. This article details the results of the uneven implementation of this treatment in Spanish psychiatric institutions. Although syphilologists and internists used fever therapy for the treatment of general paralysis of the insane, they were much less enthusiastic than psychiatrists.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida/história , Malária/história , Neurossífilis/história , Psiquiatria/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Hipertermia Induzida/ética , Neurossífilis/terapia , Espanha
3.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(3): 341-350, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172607

RESUMO

The British Mandate in Palestine ended abruptly in 1948. The British departure engendered a complex situation which affected all areas of life, and the country's health system was no exception. Gradual transition of the infrastructure was almost impossible owing to the ineffectiveness of the committee appointed by the United Nations. The situation was further complicated by the outbreak of the Arab-Israeli War. We relate for the first time the story of 75 Jewish patients who were left in a former British mental hospital in Bethlehem - deep behind the front lines. Despite the hostilities, there were complex negotiations about relocating those patients. This episode sheds light on the Jewish and Arab relationship as it pertained to mental institutions during and immediately after the British Mandate.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/história , Árabes , História do Século XX , Humanos , Israel , Judeus , Oriente Médio , Psiquiatria/história
4.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 75(2): 171-192, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134446

RESUMO

This paper investigates the certification of insanity through a standardized template called Form K which was used in Ontario between 1873 and 1883. My main thesis is that the introduction of the Form K had profound and long-lasting effects on the determination of insanity. In particular, it created a unique case in the history of certification, it grounded civil confinement on a strategy of consensus, and it informed mental health documentation for more than a century. As the result of a transnational mediation from Victorian England, the Form K prescribed an examination setting which involved a high number of participants, including three physicians and several witnesses. By comparing this case with other jurisdictions of the time, this paper shows how Ontario became a distinctive case worldwide. In order to get a closer look at this medico-legal procedure, I consider the archival records of the Toronto asylum and conclude that the certification of insanity relied on a strategy of consensus. While the Form K proved quite successful in preventing legal actions, it produced financial, logistic, and bureaucratic issues. The Form K was thus discontinued after a decade, yet its structure influenced Ontario's mental health documentation throughout the twentieth century. This paper shows the relevance of the certification of insanity for transnational history and for understanding contemporary issues of involuntary confinement and stigma in mental health.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Transtornos Psicóticos/história , História do Século XIX , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/normas , Saúde Mental , Ontário , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico
5.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(2): 194-207, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050799

RESUMO

Previous historiography has already paid particular attention to well-known 'metropolitan' biographies of I. Balinsky, V. Bekhterev and others, as well as their role in the establishment of a scientific approach in the treatment of mental illnesses in the Russian Empire. Little attention has been paid to 'provincial' physicians and the importance of their scientific activity in bridging the gap between the Russian and European institutions of psychiatry. The primary aim of this article is to show how Alexander Frese's 'mobile' and 'imperial' career influenced the emergence of the transnational origins of Russian psychiatry. It describes his travels to foreign psychiatric hospitals, and his subsequent critical assessment of them. I argue that his ideas, which had been formulated during these trips, determined the design of emerging psychiatric institutions (district hospitals) in the Russian Empire.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Psiquiatria/história , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XIX , Rússia (pré-1917)
6.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(2): 178-193, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063064

RESUMO

The fate of Jewish psychiatric patients in occupied Europe during World War II is inseparable from the fate of the disabled and mentally ill, as planned by the Nazi regime. But Jews found themselves at the confluence of eugenics, Christian anti-Judaism and Nazi racist and anti-Semitic madness. They faced the twin promise of death - both as Jews and as mentally ill. They did not escape from the euthanasia programme and, if by a miracle they survived, they disappeared into the extermination camps. The modalities of annihilation of Jewish psychiatric patients are inseparable from the forms of German occupation, which differed from country to country. In this research we focus initially on various countries in occupied Europe, and then on France.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Judeus/história , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/história , II Guerra Mundial , Pessoas com Deficiência/história , Eugenia (Ciência)/história , Eutanásia/história , Feminino , França , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Socialismo Nacional/história
7.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(2): 217-226, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928087

RESUMO

After many years of disregard, the use of psychedelic drugs in psychiatric treatment has re-emerged in recent years. The prospect that psychedelics may again be integrated into mainstream psychiatry has aroused interest in long-forgotten research and experience from the previous phase of psychedelic therapy, which lasted from the late 1940s to the 1970s. This article will discuss one large-scale psychedelic therapy programme at Modum Bad Nervesanatorium, a psychiatric clinic which treated 379 inpatients with psychedelic drugs during the years 1961-76. The psychiatrists there initially regarded the psychedelic treatment as efficacious and without serious negative reactions, but reports of long-term harm have since surfaced. This article discusses how insights from Modum Bad might benefit the new generation of psychedelic treatment efforts.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos/história , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Psiquiatria/história , Experimentação Humana Terapêutica/história , Alucinógenos/efeitos adversos , Alucinógenos/uso terapêutico , História do Século XX , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Humanos , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico/uso terapêutico , Imperícia/história , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Noruega
8.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(2): 163-177, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965866

RESUMO

The history of modern psychiatry in China began at the end of the nineteenth century, as a result of the work of missionaries. Soochow was one of the first cities to establish a hospital for the treatment of mental patients, but historians knew little about it. It provided a valuable service from 1898 to 1937. In the 1930s, there were 200 beds in the psychiatry and neurology section, making it the most influential psychiatric hospital in East China. After Soochow was occupied by the Japanese army in 1937, the hospital was destroyed and shut down.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Missionários/história , Psiquiatria/história , China , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Unidade Hospitalar de Psiquiatria/história , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/história , Estados Unidos
9.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(1): 67-82, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581845

RESUMO

As the first state hospital in the USA, the Worcester State Hospital for the Insane at Worcester, Massachusetts (est. 1833), set a precedent for asylum design and administration that would be replicated across the country. Because the senses were believed to provide a direct conduit into a person's mental state, the intended therapeutic force of the Worcester State Hospital resided in its particular command over sensory experience. In this paper, I examine how aurality was used as an instrument in the moral architecture of the asylum; how the sonic design of the asylum collided with the day-to-day logistics of institutional management; and the way that patients experienced and engaged with the resultant patterns of sound and silence.


Assuntos
Arquitetura Hospitalar/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Hospitais Estaduais/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Som , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/história , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Masculino , Massachusetts , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Psiquiatria/história , Restrição Física
10.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(4): 354-362, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862356

RESUMO

Extensive institutionalisation of people with mental disorders has a brief history lasting just 150 years. Yet asylums feature prominently in modern perceptions of psychiatry's development, on a mental map drawn in sharp contrasts between humanity and barbarity, knowledge and ignorance, and good and bad practice. This Review seeks to nuance the standard narrative of asylums by considering the voices and views of those who were in them at different historical timepoints. The arguments are to caution against dismissing inpatient care outright as simply fundamentally misconceived, and to show the ideological background to many structures and changes, which might superficially seem merely clinical and instrumental. The aim of this Review is to bring out what current mental health systems can learn from an evidence-based analysis of asylums' actual successes and failures in the past.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Psiquiatria/tendências , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Hospitalização , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Reino Unido
11.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 26(4): 1203-1210, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800836

RESUMO

This research note lays out methodological approaches, documentary sources, historiographical inscription and reflections that arose from an ongoing research study entitled "From the Hospício de Pedro II to the Hospital Nacional de Alienados: a hundred years of records (1841-1944)." A group of researchers and students involved in the project have analyzed the history of the first psychiatric institution in Brazil for the period from the second half of the nineteenth century through the mid-twentieth century. They are also committed to the ideal of contributing to the organization and conservation of the documentary sources of this institution. Here we present the innovative nature of the project, especially due to its methodological approaches in combination with its focus on preserving historical documents.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Registros Hospitalares , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Psiquiatria/história , Brasil , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Hospitais para Doentes Terminais/história , Prisões/história
13.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 207(9): 768-772, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465312

RESUMO

Before the Enlightenment, the mentally ill in the Hispanic world received standard medical care. After the foundation of the first hospital for specific treatment for mentally ill in Valencia in 1409, a number of hospitals opened their doors to patients with mental illness across the Iberian Peninsula during the 15th century. This model of medical care for people with mental illness was carried to America and the Philippines soon after the arrival of the Spaniards. The treatment for the mentally ill in the Hispanic World influenced the development of Pinel's moral treatment and the care of the mentally ill during the Enlightenment. This article will explain the circumstances leading to the foundation of a number of specific hospitals for the mentally ill in the Hispanic territories as well as the kind of care that these patients received at the so-called casas de locos.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História Medieval , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/organização & administração , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/história , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/história , Peru , Filipinas , Espanha
14.
Hist Psychiatry ; 30(4): 424-442, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390904

RESUMO

This article analyses the use of coercive measures in two national institutions for high-security psychiatry in Norway - Kriminalasylet (Criminal Asylum) and Reitgjerdet - during the period 1895-1978. Historical study of coercion in psychiatry is a fruitful approach to new insight into the moral and ethical considerations within the institutions. We approach the topic through a qualitative study of patient case files and ward reports from the institutions' archives, as well as a comprehensive quantification of the coercive measures used. The data show shifting considerations of humane treatment and changes in the respect for human dignity in the institutions' practices. They also show that technological developments, such as the introduction of new psychopharmaceuticals, did not necessarily lead to higher standards of treatment.


Assuntos
Coerção , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Isolamento de Pacientes/história , Psiquiatria/história , Restrição Física , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Noruega , Psiquiatria/ética , Psiquiatria/legislação & jurisprudência , Psicotrópicos/história , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico
15.
Hist Psychol ; 22(4): 289-308, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355661

RESUMO

Mental hygiene experienced significant growth on an international level in the first half of the 20th century. A concept of American origin, mental hygiene developed into various forms in different cultural and national contexts. With a large international settlement and vibrant cultural activities, Shanghai witnessed a rise of interest in preventing mental illnesses and promoting mental health during the 1930s and early 1940s. The city gradually became one of the most important places for providing mental hygiene services in China. Apart from the establishment of mental hospitals, departments of neuropsychiatry, and child guidance clinics, people from various disciplines, sectors, and nationalities united to deliver health services to the foreign as well as local Chinese population. The present study first examines the social and cultural conditions that made possible, according to contemporary firsthand accounts, this international "teamwork." Taking the establishment of The Mercy Hospital for Nervous Diseases and the organization of child guidance clinics as examples, this study investigates the ways in which knowledge and practices of different origins were combined and transformed. In contrast to previous depictions of the development of psychiatry and mental hygiene in Republican China as a product of missionary influence, scientific progress, or social control, this study seeks to illuminate the interplay of international and local forces in negotiating the meaning of mental hygiene and creating a flexible public health model characteristic of Shanghai's political and social makeup. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Serviços de Saúde Mental/história , Psiquiatria/história , Criança , China , História do Século XX , Humanos , Internacionalidade/história , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
16.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 17(1): 91-102, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315410

RESUMO

In the first half of the 20th century, in most European countries, it was thought that cholinesterase and other drugs that counteract acetylcholine should reduce the manifestations of schizophrenia. In 1937, Fiamberti (1894-1970) introduced the transorbital method of lobotomy which established the use of acetylcholine shock treatment for curing the disturbances of schizophrenia. Accepting the idea that the psychic alterations of schizophrenia were caused by a pathological interruption of nerve conduction at a presumably cortical level, Fiamberti thought he could apply this to the clinical field using the properties of acetylcholine, an acetic ester of choline. Here, we examined, in detail, the contribution of Mario Fiamberti to acetylcholine therapy.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Esquizofrenia/história , Acetilcolina/uso terapêutico , História do Século XX , Humanos , Psicocirurgia/história , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Hist Psychiatry ; 30(4): 409-423, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257940

RESUMO

In 1779, Susan Carnegie (1743-1821) persuaded the Town Council of Montrose, Scotland, to build a safe haven for those suffering from both poverty and mental illness. As a result, Montrose Lunatic Asylum became not only the first public asylum in Scotland, but among the first in the English-speaking world. Carnegie - born 175 years before women could vote - championed a humane and science-based response to mental illness. Montrose Asylum practised moral treatment a decade before Tuke and Pinel. As a champion of the new mental science, her enduring influence resulted in the hiring of the young W.A.F. Browne. Her story enriches the current wave of scholarship on Scottish psychiatry in particular, and on women in psychiatry in general.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Feminino , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Princípios Morais , Pobreza/história , Psiquiatria/história , Escócia
18.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 26(2): 501-518, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241672

RESUMO

This article presents the life stories of three young adults with a long history of psychiatric hospitalization who became residents of a psychiatric hospital in Sorocaba (SP), in a region known as a center for the mentally ill. This study analyzes mental health policies and their effects on the lives of these individuals based on discussions about social suffering. Using the participant objectivation technique, these individuals were followed for two years after dehospitalization. The results show that health policy in Sorocaba has been advanced through totalizing and coercive schemes with institutionalization and medicalization comprising the "solution" to some social problems.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Institucionalização/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Brasil , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Violência , Adulto Jovem
19.
Med Hist ; 63(3): 249-269, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208479

RESUMO

Twentieth-century psychiatry was transformed in the 1950s and 1960s by the introduction of powerful psychopharmaceuticals, particularly Chlorpromazine (Thorazine). This paper examines the reception of Chlorpromazine in the Soviet Union and its effect on the Soviet practice of psychiatry. The drug, known in the USSR by the name Aminazine, was first used in Moscow in 1954 and was officially approved in 1955. I argue that Soviet psychiatrists initially embraced it because Aminazine enabled them to successfully challenge the Stalin-era dogma in their field (Ivan Pavlov's 'theory of higher nervous activity'). Unlike in the West, however, the new psychopharmaceuticals did not lead to deinstitutionalisation. I argue that the new drugs did not disrupt the existing Soviet system because, unlike the system in the West, the Soviets were already dedicated, at least in theory, to a model which paired psychiatric hospitals with community-based 'neuropsychiatric dispensaries.' Chlorpromazine gave this system a new lease on life, encouraging Soviet psychiatrists to more rapidly move patients from in-patient treatment to 'supporting' treatment in the community.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/história , Clorpromazina/história , Farmácias/história , Psiquiatria/história , Psicofarmacologia/história , Esquizofrenia/história , Assistência Ambulatorial/história , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Clorpromazina/uso terapêutico , História do Século XX , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Humanos , Institucionalização/história , Serviços de Saúde Mental/história , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/terapia , U.R.S.S.
20.
Med Hist ; 63(3): 291-313, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208481

RESUMO

Despite facing manifold social and educational barriers, British asylum nurses across the long nineteenth century articulated distinctive professional identities as a means of leveraging their position in the medical hierarchy. This article draws upon a corpus of previously unattributed contributions to the Asylum News (1897-1919) - one of the first journals produced for the edification of asylum workers - to illustrate the diversity of medical personae developed and disseminated by these employees in the Edwardian era. Through scientific and creative works, nurses engaged with the pressing social and medical debates of the day, in the process exposing a heterogeneous intellectual culture. Moreover, as their writings attest, for some ambitious nurses these pretensions to intellectual authority prompted claims for medical autonomy, driving agitation on the hospital wards. The article thus strengthens claims for the 'cultural agency' of asylum workers and offers new insights into the cultural antecedents of professionalisation and trade unionism.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/história , Profissionalismo/história , Psiquiatria/história , Reino Unido
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