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2.
J Surg Res ; 245: 629-635, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency general surgery (EGS) accounts for more than 2 million U.S. hospital admissions annually. Low-income EGS patients have higher rates of postoperative adverse events (AEs) than high-income patients. This may be related to health care segregation (a disparity in access to high-quality centers). The emergent nature of EGS conditions and the limited number of EGS providers in rural areas may result in less health care segregation and thereby less variability in EGS outcomes in rural areas. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of income on AEs for both rural and urban EGS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (2007-2014) was queried for patients receiving one of 10 common EGS procedures. Multivariate regression models stratified by income quartiles in urban and rural cohorts adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and other hospital-based factors were used to determine the rates of surgical AEs (mortality, complications, and failure to rescue [FTR]). RESULTS: 1,687,088 EGS patients were identified; 16.60% (n = 280,034) of them were rural. In the urban cohort, lower income quartiles were associated with higher odds of AEs (mortality OR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.15-1.27], complications, 1.07 [1.06-1.09]; FTR, 1.17 [1.10-1.24] P < 0.001). In the rural context, income quartiles were not associated with the higher odds of AE (mortality OR, 1.14 [0.83-1.55], P = 0.42; complications, 1.06 [0.97-1,16], P = 1.17; FTR, 1.12 [0.79-1.59], P = 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Lower income is associated with higher postoperative AEs in the urban setting but not in a rural environment. This socioeconomic disparity in EGS outcomes in urban settings may reflect health care segregation, a differential access to high-quality health care for low-income patients.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Falha da Terapia de Resgate/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Rurais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Orv Hetil ; 161(1): 17-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884814

RESUMO

Introduction: Herbal medicine use has become widespread in recent years. This is the first study in Hungary evaluating the use of nutraceutical agents in patients undergoing elective surgery. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the types, frequency of use and predisposing factors of the most commonly used herbs among patients of an urban hospital and a university clinic. Method: We conducted an anonymous survey questionnaire at the Jávorszky Ödön Hospital and at the 1st Department of Surgery of Semmelweis University. A total of 1000 questionnaires were distributed. Results: In total, 612 questionnaires were returned. 34.3% of patients used herbal remedies, 19.6% of them two weeks prior to surgery. The most commonly used herbs were garlic, chamomile and lemongrass, while in the two-week period before surgery were garlic, ginger and rosehips. 58.5% of the patients had some type of co-morbidity; in this group, the use of herbal remedies was significantly more frequent. 64.4% of patients were expected to undergo general surgical intervention; in this group, the use of herbs was more popular. Analyzing the sociodemographic factors, women, people with a higher level of education, the ones that live in the capital and are over 60 years of age are more likely to use these compounds. Conclusion: One third of patients waiting for surgery used herbal remedies, one fifth of them two weeks prior to surgery. Only one fifth of the patients reported the use of these compounds to their doctors. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(1): 17-25.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Medicina Herbária , Fitoterapia , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Hungria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perioperatória , Plantas Medicinais , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 975, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of hypertension in Mozambique is poor, and rates of control are amongst the lowest in the world. Health system related factors contribute at least partially to this situation, particularly in settings where there is scarcity of resources to address the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. This study aimed to assess the management of hypertension in an emergency department (ED). METHODS: During a pragmatic and prospective 30-day snapshot study (with 24 h surveillance) and random profiling of one-in-five presentations to the ED of Hospital Geral de Mavalane, Maputo, we assessed patient's flow and care, as well as health facility's infrastructure and resources through direct observation. Reports from pharmacy and laboratory stocks were used to assess availability of diagnostics and medicines needed for hypertension management. RESULTS: The 1911 hypertensive patients included in the study had several stops during their journey inside the health facility and followed a non-standardized care flow. No clinical protocols or algorithms for risk stratification of hypertension were available. Stock-outs of basic diagnostic tools for risk stratification and medicines were registered. The availability of medicines was 28% on average. CONCLUSIONS: Critical gaps in health facility readiness to address arterial hypertension seen in ED were uncovered, including lack of clinical protocols, insufficient availability of diagnostics and essential medicines, as well as low affordability of the families to guaranty continuum of care. Innovative financing mechanisms are needed to support the health system to address hypertension.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais Urbanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/provisão & distribução , Criança , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 27(Special Issue): 587-593, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747150

RESUMO

Currently, the development of day care hospitals is determined by the need to improve medical, social and economic efficiency of medical institutions, and high demand among population for this type of medical service. Our foreign colleagues' experiance shows that the volume of planned surgical care in such structural units reaches 80%. The article analyzes the results of the Surgical Short Stay Unit at the Moscow Morozov children's hospital. From February 2017 to December 2018, 5684 surgical interventions were performed in the Department, 1073 of them were performed via the laparoscopic method in patients with inguinal hernias, varicocele, and non-palpable testicular syndrome. The length of patients' stay at the hospital averaged 6-8 hours. A unique algorithm of anesthetic support using 2-lumen laryngeal masks without muscle relaxants and narcotic anesthetics was performed. Only 1 patient needed to be transferred to a 24-hour hospital from the Unit. There were no surgical complications. The organization of the short stay unit in Morozov Moscow Children's Hospital allowed to radically improve the availability of minimally invasive modern medical care for children, to free highly specialized round-the-clock surgical beds, and to increase economic benefits for the medical institution.


Assuntos
Hospitais Pediátricos , Tempo de Internação , Algoritmos , Criança , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Masculino , Moscou
6.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 27(Special Issue): 653-666, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747158

RESUMO

Stroke is in the top ten causes of children death, ahead of brain tumors. Х-ray diagnostics development has significantly improved the detectability of pediatric stroke. The average incidence of cerebrovascular diseases in children was 13 per 100,000 children annually. The main feature of children's stroke is its multifactorial character, which complicates diagnostic process and requires involvement of doctors of different specialties to determine the leading etiological factors and choose optimal therapy and management tactics. The Center for the Treatment of Cerebrovascular Pathology in Children and Adolescents was established on the basis of Morozov Children City Clinical Hospital by Moscow Healthcare Department, Order No. 169, dated February 27, 2014. The main task was to create a pediatric stroke center on the basis of multidisciplinary Morozov Children City Clinical Hospital, which met the main international requirements of the primary center for pediatric stroke. It was done to improve early diagnostic process, refine the algorithm for maintaining patient data in acute periods, develop preventive measures, maintain city pediatric stroke register, introduce family consultations, coordinate medical care for children with cerebrovascular pathology at various levels in Moscow, and improve medical care quality for children with cerebrovascular pathology and their families. Since April 2014 more than 800 children have undergone inpatient treatment and more than 420 have been treated in outpatient departments of Morozov Children City Clinical Hospital.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares , Hospitais Pediátricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adolescente , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/terapia , Criança , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Moscou , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 840, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organisational change in health systems is common. Success is often tied to the actors involved, including their awareness of the change, personal engagement and ownership of it. In many health systems, one of the most common changes we are witnessing is the redevelopment of long-standing hospitals. However, we know little about how hospital staff understand and experience such potentially far-reaching organisational change. The purpose of this study is to explore the understanding and experiences of hospital staff in the early stages of organisational change, using a hospital redevelopment in Sydney, Australia as a case study. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 46 clinical and non-clinical staff working at a large metropolitan hospital. Hospital staff were moving into a new building, not moving, or had moved into a different building two years prior. Questions asked staff about their level of awareness of the upcoming redevelopment and their experiences in the early stage of this change. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Some staff expressed apprehension and held negative expectations regarding the organisational change. Concerns included inadequate staffing and potential for collaboration breakdown due to new layout of workspaces. These fears were compounded by current experiences of feeling uninformed about the change, as well as feelings of being fatigued and under-staffed in the constantly changing hospital environment. Nevertheless, balancing this, many staff reported positive expectations regarding the benefits to patients of the change and the potential for staff to adapt in the face of this change. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that it is important to understand prospectively how actors involved make sense of organisational change, in order to potentially assuage concerns and alleviate negative expectations. Throughout the processes of organisational change, such as a hospital redevelopment, staff need to be engaged, adequately informed, trained, and to feel supported by management. The use of champions of varying professions and lead departments, may be useful to address concerns, adequately inform, and promote a sense of engagement among staff.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais Urbanos/organização & administração , Inovação Organizacional , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 629, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite a 1.5% National HIV prevalence, less than 40% of people living with HIV in Sierra Leone know their status. Limited activities on testing partners of HIV patients could be contributory to this substantial unawareness of HIV status. We carried out a retrospective study aimed at assessing partner testing and HIV prevalence among adults (≥ 15 years) tested using Determine™ and SD Bioline as recorded in the HIV testing registers from January to December 2017 at Connaught Hospital, an urban tertiary hospital in Sierra Leone. RESULTS: Of the 3808 clients tested for HIV, 2048 (53.8%) were females. The median age was 31 (IQR 24-42) years and 2104 (55.3%) were single. While 3014 (79.1%) had Provider-Initiated Testing and Counseling (PITC), 794 (20.9%) had Client-Initiated Testing and Counseling (CITC). HIV test was positive in 925 (24.3%) {CI 22.9-25.6, P < 0.001} clients. Of the 17 (0.4%) partners tested for HIV, 9 (52.9%) were positive. PITC yielded more HIV positive cases (760, 25.2%) than CITC (165, 20.8%). Partner testing (P = 0.007), female sex (P < 0.001) and PITC (P = 0.006) were associated with a positive HIV diagnosis. With high HIV prevalence and low partner testing, activities on partner testing are needed to improve the response to the epidemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 614, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess geographical distribution of hospitals and extent of inequalities in hospital beds against socioeconomic status (SES) of residents of five metropolitan cities in Iran. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to measure geographical inequality in hospital and hospital bed distributions of 68 districts in five metropolitan cities during 2016 using geographic information system (GIS), and Gini and Concentration indices. Correlation analysis was performed to show the relationship between the SES and inequality in hospital beds densities. RESULTS: The study uncovered marked inequalities in hospitals and hospital beds distributions. The Gini indices for hospital beds were greater than 0.55. The aggregated concentration indices for public and private hospital beds were 0.33 and 0.49, respectively. The GIS revealed that 216 (70.6%) hospitals were located in two highest socioeconomic status classes in the cities. Only 29 (9.5%) hospitals were located in the lowest class. The public, private, and the cumulative hospitals beds distributions in Tehran and Esfahan showed significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation with SES of the residents. CONCLUSIONS: The high inequalities in hospital and hospital beds distributions in our study imply an overlooked but growing concern for geographical access to healthcare in rapidly urbanizing metropolitan cities in Iran. Thus, regardless of ownership, decision-makers should emphasize the disadvantaged areas in metropolitan cities when need arises for the establishment of new healthcare facilities in order to ensure fairness in healthcare. The metropolitan cities and rapid urbanization settings in other countries could learn lessons to reduce or prevent similar issues which might have hampered access to healthcare.


Assuntos
Ocupação de Leitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Urbanos/provisão & distribução , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Geografia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Densidade Demográfica , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484676

RESUMO

More than 21 million low-income children rely on free or reduced-price meals during the school year. The US Department of Agriculture Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) provides meals to children during the summer months, but these programs are underused. The emergency department (ED) of urban medical centers is 1 of the few establishments that children access during the summer months, and as such, it may be a prime point of entry for such programs. This advocacy case study describes the implementation and evaluation of situating an SFSP in the pediatric ED and explores the impact on participant intention to connect with community resources after the ED visit. In this 7-week pilot, we partnered with a community agency to provide free lunch to all children ages 2 to 18 during their ED visit at an urban, freestanding children's hospital. After patient rooming and clarification of nil per os status, boxed meals were delivered to patients and siblings along with information regarding the SFSP and how to access community program sites. Parents completed a survey about the experience with the meal program in the ED, previous knowledge of the SFSP, and intention to use community SFSP sites in the future. This case study demonstrates that situating the SFSP in the acute-care clinical setting is acceptable and has strong potential to improve the historically poor connection between families and critical community resources. Additionally, this project highlights the potential of community-clinical partnerships to improve family resources and enhance the reach of established programs.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Serviços de Alimentação , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Refeições , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hospitais Pediátricos , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Pobreza , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture , População Urbana
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 632, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overdose deaths can be prevented by distributing take home naloxone (THN) kits. The emergency department (ED) is an opportune setting for overdose prevention, as people who use opioids frequently present for emergency care, and those who have overdosed are at high risk for future overdose death. We evaluated the implementation of an ED-based THN program by measuring the extent to which THN was offered to patients presenting with opioid overdose. We analyzed whether some patients were less likely to be offered THN than others, to identify areas for program improvement. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records from all ED visits between April 2016 and May 2017 with a primary diagnosis of opioid overdose at a large, urban tertiary hospital located in Alberta, Canada. A wide array of patient data was collected, including demographics, opioid intoxicants, prescription history, overdose severity, and whether a naloxone kit was offered and accepted. Multivariable analyses were used to identify patient characteristics and situational variables associated with being offered THN. RESULTS: Among the 342 ED visits for opioid overdose, THN was offered in 49% (n = 168) of cases. Patients were more likely to be offered THN if they had been found unconscious (Adjusted Odds Ratio 3.70; 95% Confidence Interval [1.63, 8.37]), or if they had smoked or injected an illegal opioid (AOR 6.05 [2.15,17.0] and AOR 3.78 [1.32,10.9], respectively). In contrast, patients were less likely to be offered THN if they had a current prescription for opioids (AOR 0.41 [0.19, 0.88]), if they were admitted to the hospital (AOR 0.46 [0.22,0.97], or if they unexpectedly left the ED without treatment or before completing treatment (AOR 0.16 [0.22, 0.97). CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world evaluation of an ED-based THN program, we observed that only half of patients with opioid overdose were offered THN. ED staff readily identify patients who use illegal opioids or experience a severe overdose as potentially benefitting from THN, but may miss others at high risk for future overdose. We recommend that hospital EDs provide additional guidance to staff to ensure that all eligible patients at risk of overdose have access to THN.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alberta , Overdose de Drogas/reabilitação , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 157: 107869, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560962

RESUMO

AIMS: There is limited information characterizing young adults (18-35 years) (YA) with diabetes, especially those admitted for hyperglycemic emergencies. The study aims were to examine associations of patient-level characteristics with hyperglycemic emergency hospitalization and to identify variations based on diabetes type and glycemic control. METHODS: We conducted retrospective analysis of 273 YA admitted to an inner-city hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHS). T-tests, Chi-Square tests, and ANOVA identified differences in demographics, diabetes history, clinical indicators, complications/comorbidities, and hospital admission stratified separately by diabetes type (1 vs 2) and admission HbA1c < 9% (75 mmol/mol), ≥9% to 12% (108 mmol/mol), ≥12%). RESULTS: Mean admission HbA1c was 12.4% (112 mmol/ml). HbA1c was ≥9.0% for 90.5%. The main DKA/HHS trigger was medication nonadherence (57.9%), with 35.6% presenting with new-onset type 2 diabetes. Only 3.7% utilized outpatient diabetes clinics, 38.8% were re-hospitalized within the year, and 69% lacked insurance. Diabetes complications (44.7%) and psychiatric co-morbidities (35.5%) were common. Significantly more YA with type 1 diabetes had insurance, whereas YA with type 2 diabetes had higher admission HbA1c. YA with HbA1c ≥12% were more likely to be Black and lack insurance. CONCLUSIONS: YA hospitalized for DKA/HHS in an inner-city hospital tended to have severely uncontrolled diabetes. Many already had comorbidities and diabetes complications, high use of acute care services and low use of diabetes specialty services. YA characteristics varied by diabetes type and HbA1c. Overall, a substantial percentage lacked insurance, potentially impacting healthcare utilization patterns and medication adherence, and leading to DKA/HHS admissions.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/complicações , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Emergências , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 29(4): 421-430, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447514

RESUMO

Background: Hypertension is the number one cardiovascular risk factor and the leading cause of mortality worldwide. It's the driver of the cardiovascular disease epidemic in Africa where it is a major, independent risk factor for heart failure, stroke and renal failure. There is no study to assess the level of knowledge of hypertension among hypertensive patients in our setup. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and selfcare practice towards control of hypertension among hypertensive patients on follow up at our hospital. Methods: A total of 385 hypertensive patients who were on follow up at our hospital were randomly selected for interview. The Sociodemographic and relevant clinical data were extracted using a structured questionnaire. Operational definitions and Likert scale was used to compare the variables. Results: Only 48.6% of hypertensive patients participated in this study have good basic knowledge of hypertension, 47.8% of them have good attitude and only 39.5% of the study participants have good practice towards control of hypertension. Male sex, formal education and being urban resident are associated with better knowledge, attitude and self-care practice of hypertensive patients at our hospital. Conclusion: The result states that there is an inadequate knowledge about hypertension; as well attitude and self-care practice towards control of hypertension among our hypertensive patients is generally poor. Responsible bodies should focus on addressing such limitations of hypertensive patients. Attention should be given to hypertensive patients who are females, low educational level and those coming from rural.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hipertensão/psicologia , Autocuidado , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Escolaridade , Etiópia , Feminino , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 606, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a disparity in the burden of gynaecological cancer for Indigenous women compared with non-Indigenous women in Australia. Understanding how Indigenous women currently experience gynaecological cancer care services and factors that impact on their engagement with care is critical. This study explored Indigenous Australian women's experience of gynaecological cancer care at a major metropolitan hospital in Queensland. METHODS: Indigenous women receiving care at a major metropolitan Queensland hospital for investigation or diagnosis of gynaecological cancer were invited to participate in a larger longitudinal study exploring women's experiences of gynaecological cancer care. This component was an in-depth, qualitative interview exploring the women's experiences of hospital care at approximately three-month post initial referral. A peer-approach was used to interview women. Hospital-based care providers involved in the care of Indigenous gynaecological cancer patients were invited to be interviewed. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach enabling a multi-layered, contextualised understanding of the patients' experience and their interaction with tertiary cancer services. RESULTS: Eight Indigenous patients and 18 care providers were interviewed. Analysis of all interviews revealed four broad issues affecting Indigenous patients' early experiences of care: (1) navigating the system, impacted by timely diagnosis, access to support services and follow up; (2) communication and decision-making, patients' decision-making, efficacy of doctor-patient communication, and patients' knowledge about cancer; (3) coping with treatment demands, was impacted by emotional stress, access to services and support by hospital staff; and (4) feeling welcome and safe in the hospital, impacted by patients' relationship with care providers and their access to culturally-safe services. The combination of factors impacting these women's' experience of gynaecological care commonly left these women at breaking point, often with limited access to information, resources or support. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that experiences of cancer care for Indigenous women are overlain by challenges associated with late referral, misdiagnosis, miscommunication, lack of information, logistics in accessing treatment and services and system cultural insensitivities. Our findings offer insights that can inform cancer care provision to more effectively support Indigenous women accessing gynaecological cancer services.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cuidadores/psicologia , Comunicação , Tomada de Decisões , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/etnologia , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Queensland/epidemiologia , Queensland/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 58(4): 545-551, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report our experience of implementing non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in a tertiary urban academic medical center in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational retrospective study of singleton and twin pregnancies that underwent prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidy from July 2016 to April 2018 was conducted. Demographics of the study population electing NIPT versus those opting the integrated test were compared. We also assessed clinical significant factors influencing cfDNA fetal fraction in NIPT. RESULTS: Among the 817 women who underwent serum screening tests during the study period, 490 women (60.0%) chose the integrated test while 327 women (40.0%) chose NIPT. Compared to the integrated test group, women in the NIPT group were older (mean age 34.7 ± 3.7 vs. 32.6 ± 3.4; p-value < 0.01), multiparous (47.1% vs. 39.8%; p-value = 0.046), and had higher rate of previous abortion history (28.4% vs. 21.6%; p-value = 0.033). A significant decrease in the number of invasive diagnostic tests was observed since the adoption of NIPT. The screen negative and positive rates of the integrated test group for fetal aneuploidy were 95.3% and 4.7%, respectively while those of the NIPT group were 95.9% and 1.2%, respectively. The rate of inadequate cfDNA fetal fraction was 3.0%. Low fetal fraction was associated with higher maternal age, body weight and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of NIPT has significantly affected the practice pattern of prenatal aneuploidy screening by replacing the integrated test and decreasing invasive diagnostic tests.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Idade Materna , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Aneuploidia , Estudos de Coortes , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Feminino , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Gravidez , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Adv Emerg Nurs J ; 41(3): 234-243, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356250

RESUMO

Burnout is characterized by 3 facets: the presence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a lack of sense of personal accomplishment. It arises when stress becomes so severe relative to a person's own resources that he or she loses motivation to perform, and it is associated with many negative outcomes. Emergency medicine (EM) physicians ranked highest in a study of burnout rates among physician subspecialties. However, there is an overall lack of robust research examining the work-related psychological states in advanced practice providers (APPs). Because the utilization of APPs in emergency departments (EDs) is steadily increasing, we aimed to describe burnout in this understudied group. A sample of APPs employed in a large urban academic hospital was surveyed using 3 well-established questionnaires measuring burnout, resilience, and mindfulness. Responses were compared with a normative group of health care workers (HCWs). The respondents reported a significantly greater sense of personal accomplishment than other HCWs. This was greater with a perceived control over their work environment and if they self-identified as being nonjudgmental. The sense of accomplishment was less in the respondents of older age and for those with children. This group also reported an increased sense of depersonalization. Mindfulness traits of acting with awareness and having trust in their instincts were identified as potential protective factors against depersonalization. Although the respondents were not more emotionally exhausted than other HCWs, being more emotionally "reactive" did predict greater emotional exhaustion. This is an important finding for APPs working in affect-laden work environments such as EDs. These findings suggest that increasing control over the work environment, fostering trust of instincts, and reducing emotional reactiveness are prudent interventional targets for EM-APP leaders to prevent and reduce burnout in the workforce.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Profissionais de Enfermagem/psicologia , Assistentes Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 206, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312318

RESUMO

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is currently causing more deaths than Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) globally. Ghana as one of the 30 high burden TB/HIV countries has a high annual TB case-fatality rate of 10%. The study sought to assess the effect of HIV infection on TB treatment outcomes and assess the time to mortality after treatment onset. Methods: We conducted a review of treatment files of TB patients who were treated from January 2013 to December 2015 in two urban hospitals in the Accra Metropolis. Modified Poisson regression analysis was used to measure the association between HIV infection and TB treatment outcomes. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were used to plot survival curves. Results: Seventy-seven percent (83/107) of HIV infected individuals had successful treatment, compared to 91.2% (382/419) treatment success among HIV non-infected individuals. The proportion of HIV-positive individuals who died was 21.5% (23/107) whilst that of HIV-negative individuals was 5.5% (23/419). Being HIV-positive increased the risk of adverse outcome relative to successful outcome by a factor of 2.89(95% CI 1.76-4.74). The total number of deaths recorded within the treatment period was 46; of which 29(63%) occurred within the first two months of TB treatment. The highest mortality rate observed was among HIV infected persons (38.6/1000 person months). Of the 107 TB/HIV co-infected patients, 4(3.7%) initiated ART during TB treatment. Conclusion: The uptake of ART in co-infected individuals in this study was very low. Measures should be put in place to improve ART coverage among persons with TB/HIV co-infection to help reduce mortality.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
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