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1.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(3): 253-265, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195979

RESUMO

Providing care in a twenty-first century urban emergency department (ED) and trauma center is a complex high-pressure practice environment. The pressure is intensified during patient surge scenarios commonly seen during mass casualty incidents, such that response must be practiced regularly. Beyond clinical mastery of individual patient trauma care, a coordinated system-level response is essential to optimize patient care during these relatively infrequent events. This paper highlights the need to perform exercises in hospitals while providing practical advice on how to utilize in situ simulation for mass casualty testing. Eleven lessons are presented to assist other emergency management professionals, hospital administrators, or clinical staff to achieve success with in situ simulation. Based upon our experience designing and executing an in situ mass casualty simulation within an ED, we offer lessons applicable to any type of disaster exercise. Simulation offers a powerful tool for the conduct of disaster preparedness exercises for staff across multiple hospital departments and professions.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Canadá , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais , Humanos , Triagem
2.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 252, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) among patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to healthy controls without T2DM. To achieve this objective, we conducted a case-control study in a large hospital in Atlanta from 2016 to 2019. RESULTS: We enrolled 98 cases; 119 potential controls were screened, 84 of which had HbA1c ≥ 5.7% and one did not have QFT result, leaving 34 (28.6%) individuals enrolled as controls. LTBI prevalence was 9.2% among cases and 14.7% among controls (crude odds ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.19-2.04). After adjusting for age and sex, the adjusted odds of LTBI among patients with T2DM was 0.45 (95% CI 0.13, 1.71) times the controls. We did not observe a statistically significant association between LTBI and T2DM. However, we reported a positive correlation between HbA1c level and nil count among individuals with LTBI (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.01). In addition, we reported a high prevalence of LTBI among adults with T2DM and family members without T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Tuberculose Latente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/complicações , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Teste Tuberculínico
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204972

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 causes major changes in day-to-day hospital activity due to its epidemiological characteristics and the clinical challenges it poses, especially in internal medicine wards. Therefore, it is necessary to understand and manage all of the implicated factors in order to maintain a high standard of care, even in sub-par circumstances. Methods: This was a three-phase, mixed-design study. Initially, the Delphi method allowed us to analyze the causes of poor outcomes in a cohort of an aggregate of Italian COVID-19 wards via an Ishikawa diagram. Then, for each retrieved item, a score was assigned according to a pros/cons, opportunities/threats system. Scores were also assigned according to potential value/perceived risk. Finally, the performances of MCs (Medicine-COVID-19 wards) and MCFs (Medicine-COVID-19-free: Internal Medicine wards) units were represented via a Barber's nomogram. Results: MCFs hospitalized 790 patients (-23.90% compared to 2019 Internal Medicine admissions). The main risk factors for mortality were patients admitted from local facilities (+7%) and the presence of comorbidities (>3: 100%, ≥5: 24.7%). A total of 197 (25%) patients were treated with non-invasive ventilation (NIV). The most deaths (57.14%) occurred in patients admitted from local facilities. Conclusions: Medicine-COVID-19 wards show higher complexity and demand compared to non-COVID-19 ones and they are comparable to sub-intensive therapy wards. It is necessary to promote the use of NIV in such settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Roma (Grupo Étnico) , Hospitais , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
4.
F1000Res ; 10: 224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peru was one of the countries with the highest COVID-19 mortality worldwide during the first stage of the pandemic. It is then relevant to evaluate the risk factors for mortality in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in three hospitals in Peru in 2020, from March to May, 2020.  Methods: We carried out a retrospective cohort study. The population consisted of patients from three Peruvian hospitals hospitalized for a diagnosis of COVID-19 during the March-May 2020 period. Independent sociodemographic variables, medical history, symptoms, vital functions, laboratory parameters and medical treatment were evaluated. In-hospital mortality was assessed as the outcome. We performed Cox regression models (crude and adjusted) to evaluate risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Hazard ratios (HR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated.  Results: We analyzed 493 hospitalized adults; 72.8% (n=359) were male and the mean age was 63.3 ± 14.4 years. COVID-19 symptoms appeared on average 7.9 ± 4.0 days before admission to the hospital, and the mean oxygen saturation on admission was 82.6 ± 13.8. While 67.6% (n=333) required intensive care unit admission, only 3.3% (n=16) were admitted to this unit, and 60.2% (n=297) of the sample died. In the adjusted regression analysis, it was found that being 60 years old or older (HR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.14-2.15), having two or more comorbidities (HR=1.53; 95% CI: 1.10-2.14), oxygen saturation between 85-80% (HR=2.52; 95% CI: 1.58-4.02), less than 80% (HR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.01-7.00), and being in the middle (HR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.15-2.39) and higher tertile (HR=2.18; 95% CI: 1.51-3.15) of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, increased the risk of mortality.  Conclusions: The risk factors found agree with what has been described in the literature and allow the identification of vulnerable groups in whom monitoring and early identification of symptoms should be prioritized in order to reduce mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e8, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unnecessary blood transfusion exposes recipients to potential harms. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe blood transfusion practice and explore doctors' attitudes towards transfusion. SETTING: A hospital providing level 1 and 2 services. METHODS: A mixed-methods study design was used. In the cross-sectional descriptive component, a sample was taken from patients transfused over a 2-month period. Blood use was categorised as for medical anaemia or haemorrhage, and appropriate or not. The qualitative component comprised a purposeful sample for focus group and individual semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Of 239 patients sampled, 62% were transfused for medical anaemia and 38% for haemorrhage. In the medical anaemia group, compliance with age-appropriate transfusion thresholds was 69%. In medical anaemia and haemorrhage, 114 (77%) and 85 (93.4%) of recipients had orders for ≥ 2 red blood cell (RBC) units, respectively. In adults ≥ 18 years old with medical anaemia, 47.1% of orders would have resulted in a haemoglobin (Hb) 8 g/dL. Six doctors participated in focus group and eleven in individual interviews. There was a lack of awareness of institutional transfusion guidelines, disagreement on appropriate RBC transfusion thresholds and comments that more than one RBC unit should always be transfused. Factors informing decisions to transfuse included advice from senior colleagues, relieving symptoms of anaemia and high product costs. CONCLUSION: Most orders were for two or more units. In medical anaemia, doctors' compliance with RBC transfusion thresholds was reasonable; however, almost half of the orders would have resulted in overtransfusion. The attitudes of doctors sampled suggest that their transfusion practice is influenced more by institutional values than formal guidelines.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde/etnologia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Sobremedicalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 689115, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222185

RESUMO

Objective: Out-of-hospital (outpatient) cervical ripening prior to induction of labor (IOL) is discussed for its potential to decrease the burden on hospital resources. We assessed the cost and clinical outcomes of adopting an outpatient strategy with a synthetic hygroscopic cervical dilator, which is indicated for use in preinduction cervical ripening. Methods: We developed a cost-consequence model from the hospital perspective with a time period from IOL to post-delivery discharge. A hypothetical cohort of women to undergo IOL at term with an unfavorable cervix (all risk levels) were assessed. As the standard of care (referred to as IP-only) all women were ripened as inpatients using the vaginal PGE2 insert or the single-balloon catheter. In the comparison (OP-select), 50.9% of low-risk women (41.4% of the study population) received outpatient cervical ripening using a synthetic hygroscopic cervical dilator and the remaining women were ripened as inpatients as in the standard of care. Model inputs were sourced from a structured literature review of peer-reviewed articles in PubMed. Testing of 2,000 feasible scenarios (probabilistic multivariate sensitivity analysis) ascertained the robustness of results. Outcomes are reported as the average over all women assessed, comparing OP-select to IP-only. Results: Implementing OP-select resulted in hospital savings of US$689 per delivery, with women spending 1.48 h less time in the labor and delivery unit and 0.91 h less in the postpartum recovery unit. The cesarean-section rate was decreased by 3.78 percentage points (23.28% decreased to 19.50%). In sensitivity testing, hospital costs and cesarean-section rate were reduced in 91% of all instances. Conclusion: Our model analysis projects that outpatient cervical ripening has the potential to reduce hospital costs, hospital stay, and the cesarean section rate. It may potentially allow for better infection-prevention control during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and to free up resources such that more women might be offered elective IOL at 39 weeks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Maturidade Cervical , Colo do Útero , Cesárea , Feminino , Custos Hospitalares , Hospitais , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Pandemias , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
7.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 633-637, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226448

RESUMO

The Incidence of twin and high order multiple gestation has increased significantly over the past 15 years primarily because of the availability and increased use of ovulation inducing drugs and assisted reproductive technology. Both maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity is higher in multiple pregnancy than in singleton pregnancy. Proposed study is designed to determine the incidence and obstetric outcome of multiple pregnancy which is a high-risk pregnancy in a tertiary referral hospital. The purpose of this study is to evaluate obstetric outcome of multiple pregnancy. This prospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Obs and Gynae, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh from December 2011 to May 2012. Patients were selected by purposive way. In this study it was observed that incidence of twin pregnancy was 1.66% common age group 30-35 years (48%), common in multipara (74%), no pregnancy crossed EDD. Family history of twin was 32% and unknown etiology 58%. Most common maternal complication was preterm labour (60%). Commonest mode of delivery was LSCS (64%), incidence of perinatal mortality 15%, 36% baby had birth weight in between 2.1-2.5kg, all the baby requiring admission in neonatal unit. This prospective observational study revealed that perinatal mortality was high in our center, there was no maternal mortality.


Assuntos
Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida
8.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 671-677, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226454

RESUMO

Neonatal sepsis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity including prolonged hospital stay. Management of such cases is difficult, costly and need expert centers in many cases. Therefore, continued surveillance is mandatory to identify risk factors of neonatal sepsis which help optimizing its management. With the above idea, this cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in the department of Neonatology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2017 to December 2017 to observe the effects of maternal and neonatal risk factors in the development of neonatal sepsis and to determine risk factors of neonatal sepsis. Ninety four neonates (0-28 days) who were admitted in NICU with suspected sepsis were included in this study by purposive sampling technique. After admission written informed consent from parents or guardians obtained and histories were obtained including perinatal history and full physical examination of the infants were done and septic screening were sent. All the relevant information was recorded in a pre-designed questionnaire and all data were compiled, tabulated and then analyzed by SPSS version 21.0. Among 94 cases, 72.3% were preterm and 27.6% were term. There was male predominance and male/ female ratio was 1.9:1. Most (76.6%) of the patient admitted within 72 hours of birth. Most (83%) had low birth weight (<2500gm). Most came from rural area 61(64.9%) and also from low income family 59(62.8%). Premature onset of labour 40(42.6%), PROM >18 hours 36(38.3%), vaginal route of delivery 52(55.3%), instrumental resuscitation 15(16%), prelacteal feeding 11(11.7%), bottle feeding 15(16%) were the antenatal, natal and postnatal risk factors in this study. Also the neonatal factors, like prematurity, resuscitation at birth and low APGAR score carried the significant risk of developing sepsis. Poor feeding, lethargy, respiratory distress, jaundice were more common presenting symptoms. Tachycardia, tachypnea, chest indrawing, cyanosis hypothermia, hyperthermia and apnoea were found as more common presenting sign of sepsis in this study. Based on result it is concluded that prolonged rupture of membrane>18 hours, vaginal route of delivery, preterm birth, instrumental resuscitation, prelacteal feeding, bottle feeding were the major perinatal risk factors in this study.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Nascimento Prematuro , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
9.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 744-750, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226464

RESUMO

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a disease of modern era. It was first described 40 years back. Since then it has drawn an immense interest among the clinicians. It is diagnosed by the presence of eosinophils count ≥15/HPF on esophageal biopsied mucosa in patients with symptoms of esopohageal dysfunction. It is more prevalent among patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. As its symptoms overlap with that of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), it is frequently overlooked & misdiagnosed which increases patients' sufferings. No data is available in Bangladesh. The objective of the study was to find out the frequency of eosinophilic esophagitis among patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. The study was conducted at the Outpatient department of the department of Gastroenterology of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from September 2018 to April 2019. One hundred and thirty three (133) consecutive patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux disease based on validated questionnaire underwent upper GI endoscopy. Biopsies were taken from proximal and distal esophagus as well as any other endoscopically abnormal esophageal mucosal lesion. Among 133 patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, 7 patients (5.3%) were found to be positive for eosinophilic esophagitis. Mean age at diagnosis was 37.28±13.38 years. It was more common in younger age group. Female patients (56%) were more than male patients (44%). Heart burn was the major symptom followed by acid regurgitation. Nocturnal cough showed statistically significant relationship with eosinophilic esophagitis. Although the frequency is low, it may be considered as a differential diagnosis among patients with GERD.


Assuntos
Esofagite Eosinofílica , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Esofagite Eosinofílica/complicações , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 769-779, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226467

RESUMO

The huge numbers of non-healthcare personnel (non-HCP) who get infected by corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) not only paralyze health care systems but also put health care personnel (HCP) at potential risk globally. Objective of the study was to compare the Healthcare personnel (HCP) and non-HCP COVID-19 cases. This prospective observational study was carried out in National Heart Foundation Hospital and Research Institute of Bangladesh from March 08, 2020 to July 20, 2020. During this study period all admitted non-HCP who subsequently was diagnosed as COVID-19 positive by rRT-PCR and HCP of this hospital, who experienced fever or respiratory symptoms or came in close contact with COVID-19 patients at home or their workplace and become COVID-19 positive, were included. Out of 320 infected patients, 181(56.6%) patients were non-HCP and 139(43.4%) were HCP. Non-HCP were older than HCP (Mean age: 52.95±13.82 years vs. 34.08±11.11 years; p=0.001). Non-HCP were predominantly male and HCP were predominantly female (73.5% vs. 41% & 26.5% vs. 59%; p=0.001). Non-HCP had more risk factors and co-morbidities than HCP (p=0.001). Typical symptoms of COVID-19 such as fever and cough were prevalent in HCP. More aggressive treatment was required for non-HCP. Non-HCP had more severe disease and higher case fatality rate (9.4% vs. 0.7%; p=0.001) than HCP. Disease severity (OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.15) and DM (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.94) were the independent predictor of mortality. Non-HCP was older in age, predominantly male and had more co-morbidities than HCP. Typical symptoms of COVID-19 were prevalent in HCP. Non-HCP had more severe disease and higher case fatality rate than HCP.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 808-815, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226472

RESUMO

Healthcare professionals are the crucial and influencing source of information for vaccines and their communication among patients and communities that can accelerate successful vaccination in a country. This cross-sectional study was one of the first and foremost ones in Bangladesh to observe the basic perception and attitudes towards vaccination against COVID-19 among the healthcare workers (HCWs) - doctors, interns, nurses, ward boys, cleaners, and medical technologists of major COVID-dedicated hospitals. The cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in February 2021 among 550 HCWs to assess the perception and attitude towards vaccination against COVID-19. The study participants were targeted as the priority group for COVID-19 vaccination, working in two major COVID-dedicated hospitals, Holy Family Red Crescent Medical College Hospital (HF-center), and Sheikh Russel National Gastro-liver Institute and Hospital (SR-center) in Dhaka, Bangladesh during the pandemic. The questionnaire was structured with a three-point scale of responses from 'true', 'false', and 'do not know'. The responses were calculated on point-score as +1 for the correct response, -1 for the wrong response, and 0 for 'do not know' with an overall highest and the lowest possible score of +5 to -5. Absolute (n) and relative frequencies (%) were presented for qualitative variables, while quantitative variables were presented as mean (± standard deviation). Chi-square test was done for univariate analysis of qualitative variables and Student's t-test for quantitative variables. With the 95.27% response rate, including 204 males and 320 were female and the male: female ratio was 1: 1.56. The majority of the participants were doctors (45.8%) followed by nurses (27.9%), and MLSS (26.3%) respectively. The respondents were between 18 to 64 years of age with a mean of 36.17±10.94 years. Most of the respondents (95.99%) responded correctly about the cost-free availability of a vaccine against COVID-19 in the country, 87.40% preferred vaccination as safe and effective. Again 29.77% HCWs think the vaccine might not be safe or effective due to emergency authorization. Only 38.93% of respondents could respond correctly about the necessity of vaccines for children, 31.10% think the vaccination was not required instead of natural immunity. The positive perception and attitude of the frontline HCWs in COVID-dedicated hospitals in Bangladesh are crucial which will positively influence motivation and wide acceptance among the general population for the attainment of the nationwide vaccination program, and adopt effective strategic modification to minimize the gaps for a low-middle income country like Bangladesh with its resource constrain.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Atitude , Bangladesh , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207100

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: A hospital-based stroke registry is a useful tool for systematic analyses of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and natural course of stroke. Analyses of stroke registry data can provide information that can be used by health services to improve the quality of care for patients with this disease. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from the Riga East University Hospital (REUH) Stroke Registry in order to evaluate the etiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, treatment, functional outcomes, and other relevant data for acute stroke during the period 2016-2020. Results: During a five-year period, 4915 patients (3039 females and 1876 males) with acute stroke were registered in the REUH Stroke Registry. The causative factors of stroke were cardioembolism (45.7%), atherosclerosis (29.9%), lacunar stroke (5.3%), stroke of undetermined etiology (1.2%), and stroke of other determined causes (1.2%). The most frequent localizations of intracerebral hemorrhage were subcortical (40.0%), lobar (18.9%), and brainstem (9.3%). The most prevalent risk factors for stroke were hypertension (88.8%), congestive heart failure (71.2%), dyslipidemia (46.7%), and atrial fibrillation (44.2%). In addition, 1018 (20.7%) patients were receiving antiplatelet drugs, 574 (11.7%) were taking statins, and 382 (7.7%) were taking anticoagulants. At discharge, 35.5% of the patients were completely independent (mRS (modified Rankin Scale) score: 0-2), while 49.5% required some form of assistance (mRS score: 3-5). The intrahospital mortality rate was 13.7%, although it was higher in the hemorrhage group (30.9%). Conclusions: Our stroke registry data are comparable to those of other major registries. Analysis of stroke registry data is important for improving stroke care and obtaining additional information for stroke studies.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
14.
JAMA ; 326(3): 277-278, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283188
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199085

RESUMO

Due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, dental treatment performed by undergraduate students at the University of Marburg/Germany was immediately stopped in spring 2020 and stepwise reinstalled under a new hygiene concept until full recovery in winter 2020/21. Patient treatment in the student courses was evaluated based on three aspects: (1) Testing of patients with a SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen (SCRA) Test applied by student assistants (SA); (2) Improved hygiene regimen, with separated treatment units, cross-ventilation, pre-operative mouth rinse and rubber dam application wherever possible; (3) Recruitment of patients: 735 patients were pre-registered for the two courses; 384 patients were treated and a total of 699 tests with the SCRA test were performed by SAs. While half of the patients treated in the course were healthy, over 40% of the patients that were pre-registered but not treated in the course revealed a disease being relevant to COVID (p < 0.001). 46 patients had concerns to visit the dental hospital due to the increase of COVID incidence levels, 14 persons refused to be tested. The presented concept was suitable to enable patient treatment in the student course during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Educação em Odontologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199168

RESUMO

The demand for medical assistance in dying remains high and controversial with a large knowledge gap to support optimal patient care. The study aimed to explore physicians' attitudes regarding euthanasia and examine the factors that related to these attitudes. We surveyed 135 physicians working at a tertiary-care hospital in Israel. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic and background information, DNR procedure information, encounters with terminally ill patients, familiarity with the law regarding end-of-life questions, and Attitudes toward Euthanasia. About 61% agreed that a person has the right to decide whether to expedite their own death, 54% agreed that euthanasia should be allowed, while 29% thought that physicians should preserve a patients' life even when they expressed the wish to die. A negative statistically significant relationship was found between the level of religiosity and attitudes toward euthanasia. The physicians' attitudes towards euthanasia are quite positive when compared to other countries. The data shows a conflict of values: the sacredness of human life versus the desire to alleviate patients' suffering. The Coronavirus-19 outbreak reinforces the importance of supporting physicians' efforts to provide ethical and empathic communication for terminally ill patients. Future studies should aim to improve our understanding and treatment of the specific types of suffering that lead to end-of-life requests.


Assuntos
Eutanásia , Médicos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Israel
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204455

RESUMO

The mental health of nurses participating in patient care is under threat amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to identify the mental health status (depression, anxiety, and stress) and its influencing factors on nurses who provided patient care at a specialized hospital for COVID-19 in South Korea. Of the 180 nurses who participated in this study, 30.6% had moderate or higher levels of depression, 41% had moderate or higher anxiety levels, and 19.4% had moderate or higher stress levels. In this study, stigma influenced nurses' mental health, such that the higher the stigma, the higher the nurses' depression, anxiety, and stress. Depression was higher in female nurses than in male nurses, and stress was higher in charge nurses than nurses in other job positions. Therefore, a management program should be designed to improve the mental health of nurses during the current pandemic. In particular, a solution to reduce stigma is required, and the mental health of female nurses and nurses in leadership roles requires special attention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205798

RESUMO

Rural residents with heart failure (HF) face more challenges than their urban counterparts in taking action when their symptoms worsen due to limited healthcare resources in rural areas. This may contribute to rural residents' pre-hospital delay in seeking medical care. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between residence locations and pre-hospital delay among patients with HF. Therefore, this study determined whether living in rural areas is associated with pre-hospital delay in patients with HF. A retrospective electronic medical record review was conducted using the data of patients discharged with worsening HF from an academic medical center. Data on postal codes of the patients' residences and their experiences before seeking medical care were obtained. Pre-hospital delay was calculated from the onset of HF symptoms to hospital arrival. A multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between residence location and pre-hospital delay. The median pre-hospital delay time of all patients was 72 h (N = 253). About half of the patients did nothing to relieve their symptoms before seeking medical care. Living in urban areas was associated with a shorter pre-hospital delay. Patients with HF waited several days after first experiencing worsening of symptoms before getting admitted to a hospital, which may be related to inappropriate interpretation and responses to the worsening of symptoms. Furthermore, we found that rural residents were more vulnerable to pre-hospital delay than their urban counterparts.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207509

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that indoor air quality and contaminated surfaces provide an important potential source for transmission of pathogens in hospitals. Airborne hospital microorganisms are apparently harmless to healthy people. Nevertheless, healthcare settings are characterized by different environmental critical conditions and high infective risk, mainly due to the compromised immunologic conditions of the patients that make them more vulnerable to infections. Thus, spread, survival and persistence of microbial communities are important factors in hospital environments affecting health of inpatients as well as of medical and nursing staff. In this paper, airborne and aerosolized microorganisms and their presence in hospital environments are taken into consideration, and the factors that collectively contribute to defining the infection risk in these facilities are illustrated.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Microbiologia do Ar , Atenção à Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos
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