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1.
BMJ Open Qual ; 9(4)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154097

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019, there had been global shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) supply due to the breakage of supply chain and also the forbidding of PPE exported by various countries. This situation had greatly affected the healthcare services in local hospitals of Hong Kong. To maintain the availability of PPE for healthcare workers in high-risk clinical settings, the cluster management of New Territories West Cluster, Hospital Authority, had implemented a bundle of interventions in controlling and managing the PPE consumption and ensuring its proper use. A Taskforce on Management of PPE was set up in February 2020 with the aim to monitor and manage the use of PPE in five local hospitals and eight general outpatient clinics of New Territories West Cluster, which were governed in a cluster basis, under the COVID-19 epidemic. Interventions including cutting down non-essential services, implementing telecare, monitoring PPE consumption at unit level and PPE stock at the Cluster Central Distribution Centre and forming mobile infection teams were implemented. The updated PPE standards and usage guidelines to clinical staff were promulgated through forums, newsletters and unit visits. The PPE consumption rates of individual unit were reviewed. Significant decrease in PPE consumption rates was noted when comparing with the baseline data. Comparing the data between 20 February and 1 June 2020, the overall PPE consumption rates were reduced by 64% (r=-0.841; p<0.001) while the PPE consumption rates in anaesthesia and operating theatres, and isolation and surveillance wards were reduced by 47% (r=-0.506; p=0.023) and 49% (r=-0.810; p<0.001), respectively. A bundled approach, including both administrative measures and staff education, is effective in managing PPE consumption during major infection outbreaks especially when PPE supply is at risk.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comitês Consultivos , Betacoronavirus , Hong Kong , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240624, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing demand for post-acute care services, which is amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. AIMS: We studied the pattern of spatial association between post-acute care services and acute care facilities and evaluated how geographic variability could influence their use. METHODS: We compiled data on CMS-certified acute care and critical access hospitals and post-acute health care services (nursing homes, home health care services, inpatient rehabilitation facilities, long-term care hospitals, and hospice facilities). We used the colocation quotient (CLQ) to measure the magnitude and direction of association (clustering or segregation) between post-acute care providers and hospitals. This metric allows pairwise comparison of categorical data; a value <1 indicates spatial segregation and a value >1 spatial clustering. Unity marks the lack of spatial dependence (random distribution). RESULTS: With the exception of nursing homes (CLQ 1.26), all other types of post-acute care providers are spatially segregated from rural critical access hospitals. Long-term care facilities ranked first (had the lowest global CLQ, 0.06), hospice facilities ranked last (had the highest global CLQ estimate, 0.54). Instead, post-acute care services either clustered with (inpatient rehabilitation 2.76, long-term care 2.10, nursing homes 1.37) or were only weakly segregated (home health care 0.86) from acute care hospitals. Home health care (1.44), hospice services (1.46), and nursing homes (1.08) spatially clustered with the same category of services. Results were robust in the sensitivity analysis and we provided illustrative examples of local variation for the states of MA and IA. CONCLUSION: Post-acute care services are isolated from critical access hospitals, and have a clustering pattern with the same category services and acute care hospitals. Such misdistribution of resources may result in both underuse and a substitution effect on the type of post-acute care between rural and urban areas and undermine public health during increasing demand, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Análise Espacial , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estados Unidos
3.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 9(1): 55, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Hadassah Medical Organization operates two hospitals in Jerusalem. During the COVID-19 pandemic it made an administrative decision to operate one hospital as a COVID-19 treatment hospital (CTH) and to have the second function as a non-COVID-19 treating hospital (NCTH) offering general medical services. The purpose of this study was to assess how this decision affected hospital worker anxiety. METHODS: From April 27 to May 1, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel, while the country was under lock-down, an electronic questionnaire survey was carried out among hospital workers of the CTH and NCTH. The questionnaire includes personal demographics and attitudes about COVID-19 and assesses present anxiety state using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults (STAI-S) validated questionnaire. A STAI-S score of ≥45 was considered to represent clinical anxiety. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were received from 1570 hospital employees (24%). 33.5% of responders had STAI-S scores ≥45. Multivariable regression analysis showed that being a resident doctor (odds ration [OR] 2.13; 95% CL, 1.41-3.23; P = 0.0003), age ≤ 50 (OR, 2.08; 95% Cl, 1.62-2.67; P < .0001), being a nurse (OR, 1.29; 95% CL, 1.01-1.64; P = 0.039), female gender (OR, 1.63; 95% CL, 1.25-2.13; P = 0.0003) and having risk factors for COVID-19 (OR, 1.51; 95% CL, 1.19-1.91; P = 0.0007), but not hospital workplace (p = 0.08), were associated with the presence of clinical anxiety. 69% of the responders had been tested for COVID-19, but only nine were positive. CTH workers estimated that the likelihood of their already being infected with COVID-19 to be 21.5 ± 24.7% as compared to the 15.3 ± 19.5% estimate of NCTH workers (p = 0.0001). 50% (545/1099) of the CTH workers and 51% (168/330) of the NCTH workers responded that the most important cause of their stress was a fear of infecting their families (p = 0.7). CONCLUSIONS: By multivariable analysis the creation of a NCTH during the COVID-19 pandemic was not found to be associated with a decrease in the number of hospital workers with clinical anxiety. Hospital worker support resources can be focused on the at-risk groups identified in this study.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Cidades/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Quarentena , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040638, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To undertake a case review of deaths in a 6-week period during the COVID-19 pandemic commencing with the first death in the hospital from COVID-19 on 12th of March 2020 and contrast this with the same period in 2019. SETTING: A large London teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Three groups were compared: group 1-COVID-19-associated deaths in the 6-week period (n=243), group 2-non-COVID deaths in the same period (n=136) and group 3-all deaths in a comparison period of the same 6 weeks in 2019 (n=194). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: This was a descriptive analysis of death case series review and as such no primary or secondary outcomes were pre-stipulated. RESULTS: Deaths in patients from the Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) communities in the pandemic period significantly increased both in the COVID-19 group (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.60-3.68, p<0.001) and the non-COVID group (OR=1.76, 95% CI=1.09-2.83, p=0.02) during this time period and the increase was independent of differences in comorbidities, sex, age or deprivation. While the absolute number of deaths increased in 2020 compared with 2019, across all three groups the distribution of deaths by age was very similar. Our analyses confirm major risk factors for COVID-19 mortality including male sex, diabetes, having multiple comorbidities and background from the BAME communities. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of COVID-19 deaths occurring disproportionately in the elderly compared with non-COVID deaths in this period in 2020 and 2019. Deaths in the BAME communities were over-represented in both COVID-19 and non-COVID groups, highlighting the need for detailed research in order to fully understand the influence of ethnicity on susceptibility to illness, mortality and health-seeking behaviour during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Betacoronavirus , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários , Pandemias/ética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
6.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e039088, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093033

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The newly identified SARS-CoV-2 can cause serious acute respiratory infections such as pneumonia. In France, mortality rate in the general population was approximately 10% and could reach higher levels at the hospital. In the current context of high incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 in the community, a significant increase in the rate of nosocomial transmission is expected. The risk of nosocomial transmission could even be higher in low-income countries that have fragile healthcare systems. This protocol is intended to estimate the prevalence and incidence of suspected or confirmed cases of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection, the clinical spectrum and the determinants (risk factors/protective) at participating hospitals. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be an international multicentre prospective, observational, hospital-based study in adults and children. It will include volunteer patients and healthcare professionals in France and hospitals affiliated with the GABRIEL network. Demographic and clinical data will be collected using case report forms designed especially for the purpose of the project. A nasopharyngeal swab will be collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse-transcriptase PCR. Characteristics of the study participants, the proportion of confirmed nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infections relative to all patients with syndromes suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection, will be analysed. Appropriate multivariate modelling will be used to identify the determinants associated with nosocomial onset. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the clinical research and committee of all participating countries. The findings will be submitted to peer-reviewed journal for publication and shared with national health authorities. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04290780.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Acta Med Port ; 33(11): 716-719, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026314

RESUMO

The possibility of a second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic coexisting with a simultaneous epidemic of influenza and the co-circulation of other seasonal respiratory viruses sets the stage for a perfect storm. Preparing for the Autumn-Winter of 2020/2021 is complex, requiring centralized guidance but local and regional solutions, with strong leadership and a high level of coordination. It is essential to act upstream of hospitals in order to reduce demand on emergency departments, minimizing the risk of transmission that occurs there and the team overload, as well as downstream to ensure capacity for hospitalization and in the hospital itself to optimize resources and organization. The failure of this plan will create unbearable pressure on hospital care. The authors describe the challenges lying ahead for hospitals and the most important measures that should be included in this plan to prepare the Autumn-Winter of 2020/2021 in Portugal.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração Hospitalar , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Humanos , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Portugal/epidemiologia
8.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020507, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110590

RESUMO

Background: In a surgical setting, COVID-19 patients may trigger in-hospital outbreaks and have worse postoperative outcomes. Despite these risks, there have been no consistent statements on surgical guidelines regarding the perioperative screening or management of COVID-19 patients, and we do not have objective global data that describe the current conditions surrounding this issue. This study aimed to clarify the current global surgical practice including COVID-19 screening, preventive measures and in-hospital infection under the COVID-19 pandemic, and to clarify the international gaps on infection control policies among countries worldwide. Methods: During April 2-8, 2020, a cross-sectional online survey on surgical practice was distributed to surgeons worldwide through international surgical societies, social media and personal contacts. Main outcome and measures included preventive measures and screening policies of COVID-19 in surgical practice and centers' experiences of in-hospital COVID-19 infection. Data were analyzed by country's cumulative deaths number by April 8, 2020 (high risk, >5000; intermediate risk, 100-5000; low risk, <100). Results: A total of 936 centers in 71 countries responded to the survey (high risk, 330 centers; intermediate risk, 242 centers; low risk, 364 centers). In the majority (71.9%) of the centers, local guidelines recommended preoperative testing based on symptoms or suspicious radiologic findings. Universal testing for every surgical patient was recommended in only 18.4% of the centers. In-hospital COVID-19 infection was reported from 31.5% of the centers, with higher rates in higher risk countries (high risk, 53.6%; intermediate risk, 26.4%; low risk, 14.8%; P < 0.001). Of the 295 centers that experienced in-hospital COVID-19 infection, 122 (41.4%) failed to trace it and 58 (19.7%) reported the infection originating from asymptomatic patients/staff members. Higher risk countries adopted more preventive measures including universal testing, routine testing of hospital staff and use of dedicated personal protective equipment in operation theatres, but there were remarkable discrepancies across the countries. Conclusions: This large international survey captured the global surgical practice under the COVID-19 pandemic and highlighted the insufficient preoperative screening of COVID-19 in the current surgical practice. More intensive screening programs will be necessary particularly in severely affected countries/institutions. Study registration: Registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04344197.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais/normas , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Políticas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Eur J Cancer ; 139: 181-187, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035991

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies suggest that patients with cancer are more likely to experience severe outcomes from COVID-19. Therefore, cancer centres have undertaken efforts to care for patients with cancer in COVID-free units. Nevertheless, the frequency and relevance of nosocomial transmission of COVID-19 in patients with cancer remain unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence and impact of hospital-acquired COVID-19 in this population and identify predictive factors for COVID-19 severity in patients with cancer. METHODS: Patients with cancer and a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were prospectively identified using provincial registries and hospital databases between March 3rd and May 23rd, 2020 in the provinces of Quebec and British Columbia in Canada. Patient's baseline characteristics including age, sex, comorbidities, cancer type and type of anticancer treatment were collected. The exposure of interest was incidence of hospital-acquired infection defined by diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 ≥ 5 days after hospital admission for COVID-unrelated cause. Co-primary outcomes were death or composite outcomes of severe illness from COVID-19 such as hospitalisation, supplemental oxygen, intensive-care unit (ICU) admission and/or mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: A total of 252 patients (N = 249 adult and N = 3 paediatric) with COVID-19 and cancer were identified, and the majority were residents of Quebec (N = 233). One hundred and six patients (42.1%) received active anticancer treatment in the last 3 months before COVID-19 diagnosis. During a median follow-up of 25 days, 33 (13.1%) required admission to the ICU, and 71 (28.2%) died. Forty-seven (19.1%) had a diagnosis of hospital-acquired COVID-19. Median overall survival was shorter in those with hospital-acquired infection than that in a contemporary community-acquired population (27 days versus unreached, hazard ratio (HR) = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.4, p = 0.0006. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that hospital-acquired COVID-19, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status and advanced stage of cancer were independently associated with death. INTERPRETATION: Our study demonstrates a high rate of nosocomial transmission of COVID-19, associated with increased mortality in both univariate and multivariate analysis in the cancer population, reinforcing the importance of treating patients with cancer in COVID-free units. We also validated that age and advanced cancer were negative predictive factors for COVID-19 severity in patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22174, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031261

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging health care systems worldwide, raising the question of reducing the transplant program due to the shortage of intensive care unit beds and to the risk of infection in donors and recipients.We report the positive experience of a single Transplant Center in Rome, part of the National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, one of the major national centers involved in the COVID-19 emergency.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21896, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925724

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the differences in antibiotic usage patterns in the treatment of acute pyelonephritis according to hospital type and region in Korea.The claims database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea was used to select patients with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision code N10 (acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis) or N12 (tubulo-interstitial nephritis, neither acute nor chronic) as the primary discharge diagnosis in 2010-2014. Usage of each class of antibiotics was expressed as the defined daily dose (DDD)/event.The average antibiotic usage per inpatient event was 11.3 DDD. The average antibiotic usage was the highest among patients admitted to tertiary hospitals (13.8 DDD), followed by those admitted to secondary hospitals (11.5 DDD), clinics (10.0 DDD), and primary hospitals (9.8 DDD). According to the geographic analyses, third-generation cephalosporins were highly prescribed in some southern regions; fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides were highly prescribed in some centrally located regions of the Korean peninsula. The hotspots for carbapenem usage included Seoul and Gyeonggi province cluster and Busan cluster: these regions include the capital city and the second biggest city in Korea, respectively.In conclusion, the antibiotic usage patterns for acute pyelonephritis in Korea differ according to the hospital type and region.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pielonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminoglicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Centros de Cuidados de Saúde Secundários/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(4): 480-486, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the working experience of COVID-19 care nurses. METHODS: Twenty two nurses taking care of COVID-19 patients were interviewed by means of descriptive phenomenology. All the data were transcribed and recorded, and then processed into WORD documents. The Colaizzi 7 footwork was used to classify, encode, establish nodes and extract themes based on Nvivo11.0 software. RESULTS: Two main themes were extracted: one is the positive feelings of nurses, including the sense of professional mission and pride, the sense of achievement and happiness, the improvement of self-worth and ability, the powerful support system and the power of role models; the other is the negative experience of nurses, including the worry and anxiety at work, the lack of experience and trust, the difficulty of work, and the inconvenience of isolating life. CONCLUSIONS: s While fully affirming the work value of nurses, it is necessary for the society, hospitals and patients to give extensive and continuous support, care and respect to nurses, so as to stimulate their working enthusiasm and sense of professional achievement. Hospital managers need to implement all kinds of security work, meet the safety needs of nurses, pay attention to the physical and mental health of nurses, strengthen the training of nursing talents for critical and severe diseases and infectious diseases, improve the allocation of human resources, and enhance the ability of material allocation and reserve for major health events, so as to make adequate preparations for coping with public health events in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Hospitais , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Local de Trabalho , Betacoronavirus , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238562, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A summary indicator for evaluating the breast cancer network has never been measured at the regional level. The aim is to design treemaps providing a summary description of hospitals (including breast units) and Local Health Units (LHUs) in terms of their levels of performance within the breast cancer network of the Lazio region (central Italy). The treemap structure has an intuitive design and displays information from both general and specific analyses. METHODS: Patients admitted to the regional hospitals for malignant breast cancer (MBC) surgery in 2010-2017 were selected in a population-based cohort study. These quality indicators were calculated based on the international guidelines (EUSOMA, ESMO) to assess the performance in terms of volume of activity, surgery procedure, post-surgery assistance and timeliness of medical therapy or radiotherapy beginning. The quality indicators were calculated using administrative health data systematically collected at the regional level and were included in the treemap to represent the surgery or the post-surgery areas of the breast cancer clinical pathway. In order to allow aggregation of scores for different indicators belonging to the same clinical area, up to five evaluation classes were defined using the "Jenks Natural Breaks" algorithm. A score and a colour were assigned to each clinical area based on the ranking of the indicators involved. The analyses were performed on an annual basis, by the LHU of residence and by the hospital which performed the surgical intervention. RESULTS: In 2017, 6218 surgical interventions for MBC were performed in the hospitals of Lazio. The results showed a continuous increase of the level of performance over the years. Hospitals showed higher variability in the levels of performance than the LHUs. 36% of the evaluated hospitals reached a high level of performance. An audit of the S. Filippo Neri breast unit revealed incorrect coding of the input data. For this reason, the score for the indicator for the volume of wards was re-calculated and re-evaluated, with a subsequent improvement of the level of performance. Most LHUs achieved at least an average overall level of performance, with 20% of the LHUs reaching a high level of performance. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first attempt to apply the treemap logic to a single clinical network, in order to obtain a summary indicator for the evaluation of the breast cancer care network. Our results supply decision makers with a transparent instrument of governance for heterogeneous users, directing efforts improving and promoting equity of care. The treemaps could be reproduced and adapted for other local contexts, in order to limit inappropriateness and ensure uniform levels of breast cancer care within local areas. The next step is the evaluation of audit and feedback interventions to improve the quality of care and to guarantee homogeneous levels of care throughout the region.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Redes Comunitárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia
14.
Urol J ; 17(5): 536-539, 2020 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869251

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than a million people worldwide causing a public health crisis. Under these unique circumstances, urologists continue to provide essential healthcare services and support healthcare systems, by participating in the treatment of COVID-19(+) patients and sparing vital equipment and hospital beds. However, delivering medical care during the pandemic requires strategic planning for all surgical and outpatient activities. Proposed measures include rescheduling elective non-oncological surgeries and using a prioritization protocol for oncological surgeries according to hospital capacity. Following that, outpatient clinics could be partly replaced by telemedicine. Additionally, urologists should be trained in screening and treating patients with COVID-19 during their daily routine.  In order to efficiently provide their services, a management protocol for suspected or known COVID-19 urological patients should be implemented. Furthermore, preventive measures for the nosocomial dispersion of the virus and training on self-protective equipment is mandatory for all physicians. Finally, organizational planning for the best utilization of the staff is of utmost importance. Implementation and adaptation of the protocols according to local requirements and guidelines will ameliorate the quality of services and population's health status. Finally, enhancement of current practices will prepare health systems for future crisis.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doenças Urológicas/epidemiologia , Urologia/organização & administração , Comorbidade , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Doenças Urológicas/terapia
15.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(2): 470-475, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New York City was among the epicenters during the COVID-19 pandemic. Oncologists must balance plausible risks of COVID-19 infection with the recognized consequences of delaying cancer treatment, keeping in mind the capacity of the health care system. We sought to investigate treatment patterns in gynecologic cancer care during the first two months of the COVID-19 pandemic at three affiliated New York City hospitals located in Brooklyn, Manhattan and Queens. METHODS: A prospective registry of patients with active or presumed gynecologic cancers receiving inpatient and/or outpatient care at three affiliated New York City hospitals was maintained between March 1 and April 30, 2020. Clinical and demographic data were abstracted from the electronic medical record with a focus on oncologic treatment. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was explored to evaluate the independent effect of hospital location, race, age, medical comorbidities, cancer status and COVID-19 status on treatment modifications. RESULTS: Among 302 patients with gynecologic cancer, 117 (38.7%) experienced a COVID-19-related treatment modification (delay, change or cancellation) during the first two months of the pandemic in New York. Sixty-four patients (67.4% of those scheduled for surgery) had a COVID-19-related modification in their surgical plan, 45 (21.5% of those scheduled for systemic treatment) a modification in systemic treatment and 12 (18.8% of those scheduled for radiation) a modification in radiation. Nineteen patients (6.3%) had positive COVID-19 testing. On univariate analysis, hospital location in Queens or Brooklyn, age ≤65 years, treatment for a new cancer diagnosis versus recurrence and COVID-19 positivity were associated with treatment modifications. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, hospital location in Queens and COVID-19 positive testing were independently associated with treatment modifications. CONCLUSIONS: More than one third of patients with gynecologic cancer at three affiliated New York City hospitals experienced a treatment delay, change or cancellation during the first two months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Among the three New York City boroughs represented in this study, likelihood of gynecologic oncology treatment modifications correlated with the case burden of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Sistema de Registros , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Health Place ; 65: 102406, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877867

RESUMO

The increasing inequality in spatial accessibility to hospitals in developing countries has been attracting attention from researchers and politicians. The situation seems to be worse in growing megacities where more than 10 million people live and rapid urban sprawl has caused serious problems with the supply of health and public transport services. The recent global COVID-19 pandemic calls for particular attention to be afforded to the matter of equal access to basic medical facilities and services for people across different neighborhoods. Although some studies have already been undertaken into the subject of health-focused inequality in the cities of developing countries, the spatial inequity in hospital accessibility has rarely been discussed to date. In this paper, I aim to provide new evidence by considering Beijing as a case study. With the results of my analysis, I show that low-income neighborhoods have experienced lower levels of accessibility not only to high-tier hospitals (secondary and tertiary hospitals) but also to primary healthcare services (primary hospital and neighborhood clinics). The rate at which high-income neighborhoods access secondary and tertiary hospitals is approximately 4 times and 1.5 times as high as that of low-income neighborhoods. Low-income face nearly twice the travel time of those from high-income neighborhoods to reach the nearest primary hospital or neighborhood clinics. Suburban neighborhoods have less access to medical services than neighborhoods that are located in the central urban areas. It seems that the rapid urban sprawl has been worsening spatial inequality in the context of access to medical services in the growing megacity of Beijing. Equal access to healthcare services should be prioritized in future policy discussions, especially in relation to the urban growth management of megacities in developing countries in order to ensure that fair and inclusive urbanization processes are undertaken. Equal access to healthcare services would also be widely beneficial in the context of managing the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Área Programática de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Pequim , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cidades , Humanos , Características de Residência , Transportes
17.
Surgery ; 168(5): 770-776, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many hospitals have implemented visitor restriction policies in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Because caregivers serve an important role in postoperative recovery, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of visitor restrictions on the postoperative experience of coronavirus disease 2019-negative patients undergoing surgery. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgery immediately before or after the implementation of a visitor restriction policy were enrolled. Patients were surveyed on their inpatient experience and preparedness for discharge using items adapted from validated questionnaires. RESULTS: Among 128 eligible patients, 117 agreed to participate (91.4% response rate): 58 (49.6%) in the Visitor Cohort and 59 (50.4%) in the No-Visitor Cohort. Mean age was 57.5 years (standard deviation 13.9) and 66 (56.4%) were female. Among all patients, 47.8% underwent oncologic surgery, 31.6% transplant, and 20.5% general or other. Patients in the No-Visitor Cohort were less likely to report complete satisfaction with the hospital experience (80.7% vs 66.0%, P = .044), timely receipt of medications (84.5% vs 69.0%, P = .048), and assistance getting out of bed (70.7% vs 51.7%, P = .036). No-Visitor Cohort patients were less likely to feel that their discharge preferences were adequately considered (79.3% vs 54.2%, P = .004). Qualitative analysis of patient responses highlighted the consistent psychosocial support provided by visitors after surgery (84.5%), and patients in the No-Visitor Cohort reported social isolation due to lack of psychosocial support (50.8%). CONCLUSION: The implementation of hospital visitor restriction policies may adversely impact the postoperative experience of coronavirus disease 2019-negative patients undergoing surgery. These findings highlight the urgent need for novel patient-centered strategies to improve the postoperative experience of patients during ongoing or future disruptions to routine hospital practice.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Visitas a Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Período Pós-Operatório , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239159, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis infection control is a combination of measures designed to minimize the risk of tuberculosis transmission within populations. Healthcare workers are not sufficiently protected from tuberculosis infection in healthcare facilities where infection control protocols are not followed completely. Studies conducted in Ethiopia about tuberculosis infection control practices were self-report. OBJECTIVE: To assess tuberculosis infection control practices and associated factors among health care workers in hospitals of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. METHOD: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 6 to April 2, 2019. The sample size was 422. The sample was proportionally allocated to each hospital and the respective discipline. Simple random sampling was used to select participants from each discipline. Data were entered into EpiData version 4.4.2.1 and analyzed using SPSS Version 21 software. Multicollinearity and Model goodness-of-fit was checked. A multivariate logistic regression model at 95% CI was used to identify the predictors. RESULT: The response rate was 97.4%. The proportion of good tuberculosis infection control practice was 39.9% [95% CI (35.5, 44.9)]. Knowledge on tuberculosis infection control measures [AOR = 3.65, 95% CI (2.07, 6.43)], educational level of degree and above [AOR = 2.78, 95% CI (1.7, 4.53)] and ever having tuberculosis-related training [AOR = 2.02, 95% CI (1.24, 3.31)] were significantly associated with good tuberculosis infection control practice. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The proportion of good tuberculosis infection control practice among healthcare workers in hospitals of the Gamo Gofa Zone was 39.9%. The good practice of tuberculosis infection control was determined by educational level, working department, knowledge on tuberculosis infection control measures, and having tuberculosis-related training. Hence, training of healthcare workers, targeting diploma-holders in upgrading educational level programs, developing knowledge on tuberculosis infection control measures, and qualitative research to explore reasons for not practicing infection control measures is recommended.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Hospitais/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Auto-Splicing de RNA Ribossômico , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
19.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1070-1079, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report hospitalization patterns from 2000 to 2016 for young children (ages 0-5 years old) in California who underwent 1 of the 20 most common inpatient procedures that required general anesthesia and evaluate the estimated probability of treatment at a tertiary care children's hospital (CH) by year. METHODS: We hypothesized that children ≤5 years old increasingly undergo care at tertiary care CHs for common inpatient surgeries or other procedures that require general anesthesia. Data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development dataset were used to determine procedure, patient age, year of procedure, and hospital name. Hospitals were designated as either tertiary care CHs, children's units within general hospitals (CUGHs), or general hospitals (GHs) based on the California Children's Services Provider List. A tertiary care CH was defined using the California Children's Services definition as a referral hospital that provides comprehensive, multidisciplinary, regionalized pediatric care to children from birth up to 21 years of age with a full range of medical and surgical care for severely ill children. We report the unadjusted percentage of patients treated at each hospital type and, after controlling for patient covariates and comorbidities, the estimated probability of undergoing care at a tertiary care CH from 2000 to 2016. RESULTS: There were 172,318 treatment episodes from 2000 to 2016. The estimated probability of undergoing care at a tertiary care CH increased from 63.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 62.4%-64.4%) in 2000 to 78.3% (95% CI, 77.3%-79.4%) in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: Children ≤5 years old undergoing common inpatient procedures that require general anesthesia increasingly receive care at tertiary care CHs in California.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Internados , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesia Geral , California , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Demografia , Feminino , Hospitais/classificação , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238741, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911510

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing different types of infections, particularly in intensive care unit patients. Characteristics that favor its persistence artificial environments are related to its high adaptability, wide arsenal of virulence factors and resistance to several antimicrobial classes. Among the several virulence determinants, T3SS stands as the most important due to the clinical impact of exoS and exoU genes in patient's outcome. The molecular characterization of P. aeruginosa isolates helps in the comprehension of transmission dynamics and enhance knowledge of virulence and resistance roles in infection process. In the present study, we investigated virulence and resistance properties and the genetic background of P. aeruginosa isolated from ICUs patients at a referral hospital in Brazilian Amazon. A total of 54 P. aeruginosa isolates were characterized by detecting 19 virulence-related genes, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular detection of ß-lactamase-encoding genes and genotyping by MLST and rep-PCR. Our findings showed high prevalence of virulence-related markers, where 53.7% of the isolates presented at least 17 genes among the 19 investigated (P = 0.01). The rare exoS+/exoU+ cytotoxic virulotype was detected in 55.6% of isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed percentages of antibiotic resistance above 50% to carbapenems, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones associated to MDR/XDR isolates. Isolates harboring both blaSPM-1 and blaOXA genes were also detected. Genotyping methods demonstrated a wide genetic diversity of strains spread among the different intensive care units, circulation of international MDR/XDR high-risk clones (ST111, ST235, ST244 and ST277) and emergence of seven novel MLST lineages. Finally, our findings highlight the circulation of strains with high virulence potential and resistance to antimicrobials and may be useful on comprehension of pathogenicity process, treatment guidance and establishment of strategies to control the spread of epidemic P. aeruginosa strains.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Brasil , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular , Prevalência , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Virulência/genética
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