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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(2): 117-124, maio-ago. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252364

RESUMO

Introdução: o trauma é uma doença significativa em perda de anos de vida, contribuindo para alta morbidade e mortalidade. Seu evento em idosos pode ocasionar desfechos indesejáveis devido às condições fisiológicas do idoso. Objetivo: analisar as características e associação com o óbito de idosos traumatizados hospitalizados em uma unidade de terapia intensiva. Material e métodos: estudo transversal, com dados de prontuários de idosos hospitalizados por trauma em uma unidade de terapia intensiva geral. Foram incluídos pacientes com 60 anos ou mais de idade e admitidos por lesões. As variáveis coletadas relacionam-se às características sociodemográficas, da internação, de saúde, do trauma e do tratamento intensivo. Para identificação das principais características foi realizada análise descritiva, e para associação com o óbito foi realizado o teste de associação qui-quadrado. Resultados: observou-se predominância masculina (62,5%); idosos entre 60 e 79 anos (70,2%); com comorbidades (60,4%); politraumatizados (58,3%); trauma contuso (95,8%) tendo como principal causa externa as quedas (56,3%). A região do corpo mais afetada foi cabeça e pescoço (39,6%); e a gravidade do trauma foi leve (52,1%). Foram associados ao óbito a disfunção pulmonar (p=0,005), uso de nutrição enteral (p=0,027), drogas vasoativas (p=0,003) e ventilação mecânica (p<0,001). Conclusão: as informações sobre idosos hospitalizados por trauma em tratamento intensivo, sobretudo a observação de fatores associados ao óbito, são úteis para a composição de um perfil clínico capaz de direcionar para a assistência intensiva capaz de prevenir esse e demais desfechos indesejados durante a hospitalização.(AU)


Introduction: trauma is a significant disease in terms of loss of years of life, contributing to high morbidity and mortality. Its occurrence in the elderly can cause undesirable outcomes due to the physiological conditions of such a population. Objective: to analyze the characteristics and association with the death of traumatized elderly people hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Material and methods: cross-sectional study, with data collected from medical records of elderly hospitalized for trauma in a general intensive care unit. Patients aged 60 years' old and over, having been admitted for injuries, were included. The variables collected are related to sociodemographic, hospitalization, health, trauma, and intensive care characteristics. In order to identify the main characteristics, a descriptive analysis was performed. The chi-square association test was applied for the association with death. Results: the study presented predominance of male patients (62.5%); age ranging between 60 and 79 years' old (70.2%); with comorbidities (60.4%); polytrauma (58.3%); blunt trauma (95.8%) with falls being considered the main external cause (56.3%). The head and neck were the regions most frequently affected (39.6%), and the severity of the trauma being mild (52.1%). Lung dysfunction (p = 0.005), use of enteral nutrition (p = 0.027), vasoactive drugs (p = 0.003), and mechanical ventilation (p <0.001) were associated with death. Conclusion: information on elderly hospitalized for trauma in intensive care, especially the observation of factors associated with death, are useful for the composition of a clinical profile capable of guiding the patient to intensive care capable of preventing this and other undesirable outcomes during hospitalization.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Transversais/instrumentação
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(22): 807-810, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081684

RESUMO

The effect of HIV infection on COVID-19 outcomes is unclear. Studies in South Africa (1) and the United Kingdom (2) found an independent association between HIV infection and COVID-19 mortality; however, other studies have not found an association between poor COVID-19 outcomes and either HIV status among hospitalized patients (3-5) or HIV-associated factors such as CD4 count, viral load, or type of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (6). The effect of HIV infection on COVID-19 outcomes remains an urgent question in sub-Saharan Africa, where many countries are experiencing dual HIV and COVID-19 epidemics, and capacity to treat severe COVID-19 is limited. Using data from patients with probable or confirmed COVID-19 admitted to specialized treatment centers during March-December 2020 in Zambia, the Zambian Ministry of Health and CDC assessed the relationship between HIV infection and severe COVID-19 and COVID-19-associated death. Among 443 patients included in the study, 122 (28%) were HIV-positive, and of these, 91 (89%) were receiving ART at the time of hospitalization. HIV status alone was not significantly associated with severe COVID-19 at admission or during hospitalization or with COVID-19-associated death. However, among HIV-positive persons, those with severe HIV disease were more likely to develop severe COVID-19 and were at increased risk for COVID-19-associated death. Ensuring that persons maintain HIV disease control, including maintaining ART continuity and adherence, achieving viral suppression, and addressing and managing underlying medical conditions, could help reduce COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
4.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare systems across the world. The rate of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) admissions during the pandemic has varied significantly. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the pandemic on ACS hospital admissions and to determine whether this is related to the number of COVID-19 cases in each country. METHOD: Search engines including PubMed, Embase, Ovid and Google Scholar were searched from December 2019 to the 15 September 2020 to identify studies reporting ACS admission data during COVID-19 pandemic months in 2020 compared with 2019 admissions. RESULTS: A total of 40 studies were included in this multistudy analysis. They demonstrated a 28.1% reduction in the rate of admission with ACS during the COVID-19 pandemic period compared with the same period in 2019 (total of 28 613 patients in 2020 vs 39 225 in 2019). There was a significant correlation between the absolute risk reduction in the total number of ACS cases and the number of COVID-19 cases per 100 000 population (Pearson correlation=0.361 (p=0.028)). However, the correlation was not significant for each of the ACS subgroups: non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (p=0.508), STEMI (p=0883) and unstable angina (p=0.175). CONCLUSION: There was a significant reduction in the rate of ACS admission during the COVID-19 pandemic period compared with the same period in 2019 with a significant correlation with COVID-19 prevalence.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Angina Instável/diagnóstico , Angina Instável/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252799, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086837

RESUMO

AIMS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) binds to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) enabling entrance of the virus into cells and causing the infection termed coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we investigate associations between plasma ACE2 and outcome of COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: This analysis used data from a large longitudinal study of 306 COVID-19 positive patients and 78 COVID-19 negative patients (MGH Emergency Department COVID-19 Cohort). Comprehensive clinical data were collected on this cohort, including 28-day outcomes. The samples were run on the Olink® Explore 1536 platform which includes measurement of the ACE2 protein. High admission plasma ACE2 in COVID-19 patients was associated with increased maximal illness severity within 28 days with OR = 1.8, 95%-CI: 1.4-2.3 (P < 0.0001). Plasma ACE2 was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with hypertension compared with patients without hypertension (P = 0.0045). Circulating ACE2 was also significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with pre-existing heart conditions and kidney disease compared with patients without these pre-existing conditions (P = 0.0363 and P = 0.0303, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that measuring plasma ACE2 is potentially valuable in predicting COVID-19 outcomes. Further, ACE2 could be a link between COVID-19 illness severity and its established risk factors hypertension, pre-existing heart disease and pre-existing kidney disease.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/sangue , COVID-19 , Cardiopatias , Hospitalização , Nefropatias , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/mortalidade , Nefropatias/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 31(1): 33, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083541

RESUMO

Accurate prediction of the risk of progression of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is needed at the time of hospitalization. Logistic regression analyses are used to interrogate clinical and laboratory co-variates from every hospital admission from an area of 2 million people with sporadic cases. From a total of 98 subjects, 3 were severe COVID-19 on admission. From the remaining subjects, 24 developed severe/critical symptoms. The predictive model includes four co-variates: age (>60 years; odds ratio [OR] = 12 [2.3, 62]); blood oxygen saturation (<97%; OR = 10.4 [2.04, 53]); C-reactive protein (>5.75 mg/L; OR = 9.3 [1.5, 58]); and prothrombin time (>12.3 s; OR = 6.7 [1.1, 41]). Cutoff value is two factors, and the sensitivity and specificity are 96% and 78% respectively. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve is 0.937. This model is suitable in predicting which unselected newly hospitalized persons are at-risk to develop severe/critical COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Prognóstico , Tempo de Protrombina , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3449, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103510

RESUMO

Most COVID-19 vaccines require two doses, however with limited vaccine supply, policymakers are considering single-dose vaccination as an alternative strategy. Using a mathematical model combined with optimization algorithms, we determined optimal allocation strategies with one and two doses of vaccine under various degrees of viral transmission. Under low transmission, we show that the optimal allocation of vaccine vitally depends on the single-dose efficacy. With high single-dose efficacy, single-dose vaccination is optimal, preventing up to 22% more deaths than a strategy prioritizing two-dose vaccination for older adults. With low or moderate single-dose efficacy, mixed vaccination campaigns with complete coverage of older adults are optimal. However, with modest or high transmission, vaccinating older adults first with two doses is best, preventing up to 41% more deaths than a single-dose vaccination given across all adult populations. Our work suggests that it is imperative to determine the efficacy and durability of single-dose vaccines, as mixed or single-dose vaccination campaigns may have the potential to contain the pandemic much more quickly.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinação , Número Básico de Reprodução , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104300

RESUMO

Introduction: vital sign monitoring is a key component of safe facility-based obstetric care. We aimed to assess quality of care around vital sign monitoring during obstetric hospitalizations in a tertiary-care facility in a resource-limited setting. Methods: retrospective review of obstetric records at a tertiary care facility. We assessed documentation of vital signs including fetal and maternal heart rate, and maternal blood pressure, temperature, oxygen saturation and urine output. The primary outcome was the quality of vital sign monitoring (high- versus low-quality based on frequency of monitoring). We compared quality of monitoring with timing of admission, presence of complication, and delivery mode using chi-squared tests. Results: among 360 records of obstetric admissions (94% of a planned random sample), 96% documented a delivery. Of these, 8% of pregnant women and 11% of postpartum women had high-quality vital sign monitoring documented on initial evaluation at admission. For women delivering during the hospitalization, 0.8% of women delivering had high-quality monitoring in the first four hours postpartum, with higher rates of high-quality monitoring in women delivering vaginally compared to those delivered by cesarean (1.4% versus 0%, p<0.001). There were no differences in rates of quality monitoring by time of admission, or obstetric complication. Conclusion: very few obstetric hospitalizations had high-quality vital sign monitoring. Attention towards improving vital sign monitoring is a critical need.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Hospitalização , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Sinais Vitais , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Gravidez , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Uganda
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(25)2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088793

RESUMO

Low plasma arginine bioavailability has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction and immune dysregulation. The role of arginine in COVID-19 is unknown, but could contribute to cellular damage if low. Our objective was to determine arginine bioavailability in adults and children with COVID-19 vs. healthy controls. We hypothesized that arginine bioavailability would be low in patients with COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We conducted a prospective observational study of three patient cohorts; arginine bioavailability was determined in asymptomatic healthy controls, adults hospitalized with COVID-19, and hospitalized children/adolescents <21 y old with COVID-19, MIS-C, or asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection identified on admission screen. Mean patient plasma amino acids were compared to controls using the Student's t test. Arginine-to-ornithine ratio, a biomarker of arginase activity, and global arginine bioavailability ratio (GABR, arginine/[ornithine+citrulline]) were assessed in all three groups. A total of 80 patients were included (28 controls, 32 adults with COVID-19, and 20 pediatric patients with COVID-19/MIS-C). Mean plasma arginine and arginine bioavailability ratios were lower among adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19/MIS-C compared to controls. There was no difference between arginine bioavailability in children with COVID-19 vs. MIS-C. Adults and children with COVID-19 and MIS-C in our cohort had low arginine bioavailability compared to healthy adult controls. This may contribute to immune dysregulation and endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19. Low arginine-to-ornithine ratio in patients with COVID-19 or MIS-C suggests an elevation of arginase activity. Further study is merited to explore the role of arginine dysregulation in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , Hospitalização , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adulto , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 197, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring mechanical ventilation are at risk of ventilator-associated bacterial infections secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study aimed to investigate clinical features of Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia (SA-VAP) and, if bronchoalveolar lavage samples were available, lung bacterial community features in ICU patients with or without COVID-19. METHODS: We prospectively included hospitalized patients with COVID-19 across two medical ICUs of the Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS (Rome, Italy), who developed SA-VAP between 20 March 2020 and 30 October 2020 (thereafter referred to as cases). After 1:2 matching based on the simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II) and the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, cases were compared with SA-VAP patients without COVID-19 (controls). Clinical, microbiological, and lung microbiota data were analyzed. RESULTS: We studied two groups of patients (40 COVID-19 and 80 non-COVID-19). COVID-19 patients had a higher rate of late-onset (87.5% versus 63.8%; p = 0.01), methicillin-resistant (65.0% vs 27.5%; p < 0.01) or bacteremic (47.5% vs 6.3%; p < 0.01) infections compared with non-COVID-19 patients. No statistically significant differences between the patient groups were observed in ICU mortality (p = 0.12), clinical cure (p = 0.20) and microbiological eradication (p = 0.31). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, SAPS II and initial inappropriate antimicrobial therapy were independently associated with ICU mortality. Then, lung microbiota characterization in 10 COVID-19 and 16 non-COVID-19 patients revealed that the overall microbial community composition was significantly different between the patient groups (unweighted UniFrac distance, R2 0.15349; p < 0.01). Species diversity was lower in COVID-19 than in non COVID-19 patients (94.4 ± 44.9 vs 152.5 ± 41.8; p < 0.01). Interestingly, we found that S. aureus (log2 fold change, 29.5), Streptococcus anginosus subspecies anginosus (log2 fold change, 24.9), and Olsenella (log2 fold change, 25.7) were significantly enriched in the COVID-19 group compared to the non-COVID-19 group of SA-VAP patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our study population, COVID-19 seemed to significantly affect microbiological and clinical features of SA-VAP as well as to be associated with a peculiar lung microbiota composition.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 246, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104294

RESUMO

Introduction: the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a disease that originated from Wuhan in December 2019. It rapidly spread across the globe causing high mortality especially among the elderly. Africa though not spared has limited studies regarding its effects on its population. We therefore sought to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in Douala, Cameroon. Methods: we conducted a single-centre, retrospective, and observational study by reviewing records of patients managed for COVID-19 between the 8th March 2020 and 31st, May 2020. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction and were analysed for epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and radiological features. Outcomes were either clinical improvement by Day-28 or in-hospital mortality. Results: we analyzed 282 case files, 192 were males (M: F=2: 1). The mean age was 52 (+/- 15) years. Hypertension and diabetes accounted for 75% of the chronic medical conditions identified. Main presenting complaints were dyspnea, cough, asthenia, and fever (55-60%). Radiographic analysis showed a ground-glass appearance in 85% of cases. Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine was the most (91.8%) frequently used drug in management protocols, 35% needed oxygen supplementation while 6 patients were intubated. Severe pneumonia (11.3%) was the commonest complication. They were 91 admissions in the intensive care unit. The average length of hospital stay was 10 (+/- 5) days. The mortality rate was 32%. Conclusion: our findings are concordant with universally reported data of COVID-19 hospitalised patients. These parameters are essential in designing effective prevention and control programs aimed at reducing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic particularly in countries with limited resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Camarões/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Adulto Jovem
13.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(9)2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intermediate care unit at Akershus University Hospital treats patients with incipient or manifest organ failure. Selecting patients who might benefit from treatment in an intermediate care unit is challenging. Few data are available on long-term survival of patients treated in medical intermediate care units and on how assumed favourable and unfavourable prognostic factors predict long-term survival in this population. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Comorbidity, reason for admission and whether an infection was a direct or contributory reason for the admission were prospectively registered for patients in the unit in 2014 and 2016. We registered mortality up to six years after the admission and conducted a logistic regression analysis with three-year survival as the outcome variable. RESULTS: Of the 2 170 included patients, 153 (7 %) died in the intermediate care unit. Of the 2 017 patients who were discharged alive from the intermediate care unit, 55 % were still alive three years later, including 28 % of older patients aged over 80 years and 23 % of patients with cancer. Age, malignancy, other comorbidity and infection were predictors of mortality. INTERPRETATION: Many patient groups in an intermediate care unit have a poor long-term prognosis. However, people older than 80 years, cancer patients or patients with another serious comorbidity may live long after their stay in an intermediate care unit, and the fact of belonging to these groups should not be an independent reason for withholding treatment.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Idoso , Comorbidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 68(2): 123-129, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085003

RESUMO

Obesity is a chronic disease that leads to an increased risk of mortality and morbidity, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic may create a new health challenge. There is clear evidence showing that some biological and social factors associated with obesity involve an increased risk of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and greater severity compared to people with normal weight. Undoubtedly, obesity involves a low-grade proinflammatory state that produces a dysregulation of the immune system that compromises its ability to respond to respiratory infection by COVID-19 and so produces a worsening of the disease. In this review, the main epidemiological and pathophysiological data that associate obesity with COVID-19 are described.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Hospitalização , Obesidade/complicações , Pandemias , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Previsões , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Populações Vulneráveis
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 563, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the impact on seven-day in-hospital mortality following the introduction in 2012 of a shadowing programme for new UK medical graduates requiring them to observe the doctor they are replacing for at least 4 days before starting work. METHODS: Data on emergency admissions were derived from Hospital Episode Statistics between 2003 and 2019. A generalised estimating equation model was used to examine whether the introduction of the programme was associated with a change in mortality. RESULTS: There were 644,018 emergency admissions, of which 1.8% (7612) ended in death in hospital within a week following the admission. Throughout the study period, there was an annual increase in the number of emergency admissions during July and August, though in-hospital mortality rates declined. The generalised estimating equation analysis found no significant change in the odds of death within 7 days after admission for patients admitted on the first Wednesday in August compared with patients admitted on the last Wednesday in July (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.94-1.13, p = 0.53). Furthermore, there was no significant change observed for any clinical diagnosis category following the introduction of the shadowing programme. CONCLUSION: There was a rising trend in the number of emergency admissions over the study period, though mortality was decreasing. We found no significant association between the introduction of shadowing programme and in-hospital mortality; however, lack of power means that we cannot rule out a small effect on mortality. There are other outcomes that might have changed but were not examined in this study.


Assuntos
Admissão do Paciente , Médicos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos
16.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 122, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies described the epidemiological link and main clinical features of pediatric COVID-19, during the first pandemic period. Our study encompasses several different phases since the National Lockdown in Italy. The primary outcome is (I) to analyze the prevalence of positive NST (Nasopharyngeal Swab Test) among the largest Italian Pediatric cohort admitted to a single regional PED Hub for COVID-19 during an eight-month period. Secondary outcomes are: (II) the description of trend of admissions in our PED and (III) the categorization of the positive patients according to clinical manifestations and epidemiological link. METHODS: We described 316 patients with a positive NST for SARS-CoV2, on a total of 5001 nasopharyngeal swabs performed among 13,171 admissions at our PED, over a period starting from March 17th, 2020 to December 1st, 2020. Age, epidemiological link, clinical features and hospitalizations were analyzed according to different lockdown phases. Data were collected anonymously from electronic records and analyzed using SPSS 22.00 statistics software (Chicago, IL). RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of total admissions have been tested. During the post lockdown period, we performed the highest percentage of NST (Nasopharyngeal Swab Test) 49.7%, and among them 7.9% were positive. The prevalence of infection during a 10-month period was 2.3%. Mean age was 6.5 years old. Familial Link accounted for the 67.7% of infection, while Extrafamilial and Unknown link accounted for 17 and 14.9%, respectively. Familial link is predominant during all phases. Seventeen patients showed an intra-scholastic link, and the highest prevalence was observed in the 7-10 years age group, with a prevalence of 12.8% (5 patients). Fever was the most frequent symptom (66%), in particular among preschooler children aged 0-6 years (71.9%). Older children were more frequently symptomatic. Seven patients were admitted with MIS-C diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Different levels of containment measures caused important changes in number of positive NST for SARS-CoV2. Familial link was predominant in our cohort, during all phases of Lockdown. The risk of being infected at home is four time greater than the risk of being infected from an extra familial individual. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clear impact of intra-scholastic link. The constant improvement in knowledge on onset symptoms and risk factor for SARS-CoV2 infection and its complications (e.g. MIS-C), can impact on number of hospitalizations, ICU admissions and early management.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Teste para COVID-19 , Criança , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS Med ; 18(6): e1003605, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased vitamin D levels, as reflected by 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) measurements, have been proposed to protect against COVID-19 based on in vitro, observational, and ecological studies. However, vitamin D levels are associated with many confounding variables, and thus associations described to date may not be causal. Vitamin D Mendelian randomization (MR) studies have provided results that are concordant with large-scale vitamin D randomized trials. Here, we used 2-sample MR to assess evidence supporting a causal effect of circulating 25OHD levels on COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genetic variants strongly associated with 25OHD levels in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 443,734 participants of European ancestry (including 401,460 from the UK Biobank) were used as instrumental variables. GWASs of COVID-19 susceptibility, hospitalization, and severe disease from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative were used as outcome GWASs. These included up to 14,134 individuals with COVID-19, and up to 1,284,876 without COVID-19, from up to 11 countries. SARS-CoV-2 positivity was determined by laboratory testing or medical chart review. Population controls without COVID-19 were also included in the control groups for all outcomes, including hospitalization and severe disease. Analyses were restricted to individuals of European descent when possible. Using inverse-weighted MR, genetically increased 25OHD levels by 1 standard deviation on the logarithmic scale had no significant association with COVID-19 susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] = 0.95; 95% CI 0.84, 1.08; p = 0.44), hospitalization (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.33; p = 0.41), and severe disease (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.22; p = 0.77). We used an additional 6 meta-analytic methods, as well as conducting sensitivity analyses after removal of variants at risk of horizontal pleiotropy, and obtained similar results. These results may be limited by weak instrument bias in some analyses. Further, our results do not apply to individuals with vitamin D deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: In this 2-sample MR study, we did not observe evidence to support an association between 25OHD levels and COVID-19 susceptibility, severity, or hospitalization. Hence, vitamin D supplementation as a means of protecting against worsened COVID-19 outcomes is not supported by genetic evidence. Other therapeutic or preventative avenues should be given higher priority for COVID-19 randomized controlled trials.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , Suplementos Nutricionais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26252, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087914

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Suicide is an increasingly serious public health care concern worldwide. The impact of decreased in-house psychiatric resources on emergency care for suicidal patients has not been thoroughly examined. We evaluated the effects of closing an in-hospital psychiatric ward on the prehospital and emergency ward length of stay (LOS) and disposition location in patients who attempted suicide.This was a retrospective before-and-after study at a community emergency department (ED) in Japan. On March 31, 2014, the hospital closed its 50 psychiatric ward beds and outpatient consultation days were decreased from 5 to 2 days per week. Electronic health record data of suicidal patients who were brought to the ED were collected for 5 years before the decrease in in-hospital psychiatric services (April 1, 2009-March 31, 2014) and 5 years after the decrease (April 1, 2014-March 31, 2019). One-to-one propensity score matching was performed to compare prehospital and emergency ward LOS, and discharge location between the 2 groups.Of the 1083 eligible patients, 449 (41.5%) were brought to the ED after the closure of the psychiatric ward. Patients with older age, burns, and higher comorbidity index values, and those requiring endotracheal intubation, surgery, and emergency ward admission, were more likely to receive ED care after the psychiatric ward closure. In the propensity matched analysis with 418 pairs, the after-closure group showed a significant increase in median prehospital LOS (44.0 minutes vs 51.0 minutes, P < .001) and emergency ward LOS (3.0 days vs 4.0 days, P = .014) compared with the before-closure group. The rate of direct home return was significantly lower in the after-closure group compared with the before-closure group (87.1% vs 81.6%, odds ratio: 0.66; 95% confidence interval: 0.45-0.96).The prehospital and emergency ward LOS for patients who attempted suicide in the study site increased significantly after a decrease in hospital-based mental health services. Conversely, there was significant reduction in direct home discharge after the decrease in in-house psychiatric care. These results have important implications for future policy to address the increasing care needs of patients who attempt suicide.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fechamento de Instituições de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Comunitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Desinstitucionalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fechamento de Instituições de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental/economia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidade Hospitalar de Psiquiatria/economia , Unidade Hospitalar de Psiquiatria/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26258, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087916

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to study the epidemiological changes in geriatric trauma in Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates, in the past decade to give recommendations on injury prevention.Trauma patients aged 65 years and above who were hospitalized at Al-Ain Hospital for more than 24 hours or died in the hospital after their arrival regardless of the length of stay were studied. Data were extracted from the Al-Ain Hospital trauma registry. Two periods were compared; March 2003 to March 2006 and January 2014 to December 2017. Studied variables which were compared included demography, mechanism of injury and its location, and clinical outcome.There were 66 patients in the first period and 200 patients in the second period. The estimated annual incidence of hospitalized geriatric trauma patients in Al-Ain City was 8.5 per 1000 geriatric inhabitants in the first period compared with 7.8 per 1000 geriatric inhabitants in the second period. Furthermore, mortality was reduced from 7.6% to 2% (P = 0.04). There was a significant increase in falls on the same level by14.9% (62.1%-77%, P = 0.02, Pearson χ2 test). This was associated with a significant increase of injuries occurring at home (55.4%-78.7% P = 0.0003, Fisher Exact test). There was also a strong trend in the reduction of road traffic collision injuries which was reduced by 10.8% (27.3%-16.5%, P = 0.07, Fisher Exact test).Although the incidence and severity of geriatric trauma did not change over the last decade, in-hospital mortality has significantly decreased over time. There was a significant increase in injuries occurring at homes and in falls on the same level. The home environment should be targeted in injury prevention programs so as to reduce geriatric injuries.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow/normas , Escala de Coma de Glasgow/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/tendências , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
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