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1.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 253-264, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202549

RESUMO

Ambivalent sexism is a multidimensional construct composed of two elements: hostile sexism and benevolent sexism. The main aim of this study is to analyse the acceptance of ambivalent sexist attitudes in a sample of future teachers from Spain and Latin America. The research is based on a quantitative methodological strategy. The sample is composed of 2798 trainee teachers, and their mean age is 22.62 years (SD = 6.23), they were residing in seven countries: Spain, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina and Mexico. The data collection technique was the structured questionnaire. The results show that ambivalent sexist attitudes exist to a varying degree in future teachers of every country. The assumption of sexism varies significantly between men and women and among countries. There seems to be a relationship between levels of sexism with indices of gender inequality and human development. Education institutions are not exempt from obstacles and gender bias that impede the attainment of equality between women and men. Sexist attitudes of teachers can be transmitted through the education system and the socialization process, so including gender issues in initial and in service teacher training plans is essential


El sexismo ambivalente es un constructo multidimensional compuesto por dos componentes: el sexismo hostil y el sexismo benévolo. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar la aceptación de las actitudes sexistas ambivalentes en una muestra de futuros y futuras docentes de España y Latinoamérica. En la investigación participaron 2798 docentes en formación con una edad media de 22.62 años (DE = 6.23) que residían en siete países: España, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina y México. Los resultados muestran que las actitudes sexistas están presentes, con diferentes grados de aceptación, en el profesorado en formación de todos los países. La aceptación del sexismo varía significativamente entre hombres y mujeres y entre los países de la muestra. Parece existir una relación entre los niveles de sexismo y los índices de desigualdad de género y desarrollo humano. Las actitudes sexistas del profesorado pueden transmitirse a través del sistema educativo y de los procesos de socialización, por lo que es fundamental incluir la perspectiva de género en los planes de formación inicial y continua del profesorado


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Capacitação de Professores , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Sexuais , Sexismo/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Valores de Referência , Hostilidade , Empatia , Espanha , América Latina
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360120

RESUMO

This study examined the relationships of cyberbullying and traditional bullying victimization and perpetration, perceived family function, frustration discomfort, and hostility with self-reported depressive symptoms and suicidality in adolescents diagnosed as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both the self-reported severity of depressive symptoms on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and the occurrence of suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt on the suicidality module of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia were assessed in 195 adolescents with ADHD. The adolescents completed the Cyberbullying Experiences Questionnaire, Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire, Frustration-Discomfort Scale, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, and Family APGAR Index. Caregivers completed the ADHD problems component of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the correlates for each of self-reported depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results showed that after the effects of gender, age, ADHD symptoms, and family function were controlled, greater frustration discomfort and bullying perpetration significantly predicted self-reported depressive symptoms. Being cyberbullying victims and displaying hostility significantly predicted the risk of suicidality. Various types of bullying involvement, frustration intolerance, and hostility significantly predicted self-reported depressive symptoms and suicidality in adolescents with ADHD. By monitoring and intervening in these factors, we can reduce the risk of depression-related problems and suicidality in adolescents with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Suicídio , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Depressão/epidemiologia , Frustração , Hostilidade , Humanos , Autorrelato
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199135

RESUMO

The metabolism of bioamine in the central nervous system contributes to the development of addiction. We examined the roles of hostility and depression in the association between internet gaming disorder (IGD) and monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA) EcoRV polymorphism (rs1137070). A total of 69 adults with IGD and 138 without IGD were recruited through diagnostic interviewing. We evaluated participants for rs1137070, depression, and hostility. The participants with the TT genotype of rs1137070 had a higher odds ratio of 2.52 (1.37-4.64) for IGD compared with the C carriers. Expressive hostility behavior and hostility cognition mediated the association between rs1137070 and IGD. Indicating lower MAOA activity, the TT genotype predicted IGD and higher expressive hostility behavior and hostility cognition. Expressive hostility behavior and hostility cognition may underline the association between rs1137070 and IGD. Assessment of and intervention for hostility behavior and cognition should be provided to attenuate the risk of IGD, particularly in those with the TT genotype. Further brain imaging or neurobiological studies are required to elucidate the possible mechanism underlying the association between MAOA activity and IGD.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/genética , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/genética , Hostilidade , Humanos , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Monoaminoxidase , Polimorfismo Genético
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206834

RESUMO

Victimization and perpetration of cyberbullying and traditional bullying are prevalent among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined the associations of impulsivity, frustration discomfort, and hostility with victimization and with the perpetration of cyberbullying and traditional bullying in adolescents with ADHD. Self-reported involvement in cyberbullying and traditional bullying was assessed in 195 adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD. Adolescents also completed questionnaires for impulsivity, frustration discomfort, and hostility. Caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist for adolescents' ADHD, internalization, oppositional defiance, and problems with conduct. The associations of impulsivity, frustration discomfort, and hostility with victimization and perpetration of cyberbullying and traditional bullying were examined using logistic regression analysis. The results demonstrated that after the effects of demographic characteristics and behavioral problems were controlled for, frustration intolerance increased the risks of being cyberbullying victims and perpetrators whereas hostility increased the risks of being the victims and perpetrators of traditional bullying. Impulsivity was not significantly associated with any type of bullying involvement. Prevention and intervention programs should alleviate frustration intolerance and hostility among adolescents with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Frustração , Hostilidade , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo
5.
Personal Disord ; 12(4): 300-311, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323587

RESUMO

Despite the advances in our understanding of the structure of personality and psychopathology (see Kotov et al., 2017), less attention has been paid to empirically examining their underlying facet structure. To gain a more nuanced understanding of the structure of personality, it is important to identify empirically derived lower order structures of these trait domains; thus, the present study sought to examine the structure of antagonism as represented by items from commonly used measures of pathological personality traits. Participants were recruited from a large, southeastern university (N = 532) and completed 234 antagonism items selected from seven measures of pathological personality traits. Criterion variables measuring interpersonal adjectives, aggression, substance use, depression, and anxiety were also collected. A series of factor analyses were conducted to examine the structure of antagonism at a range of specificities. A seven-factor solution emerged as being both comprehensive and reasonably parsimonious with factors labeled Callousness, Grandiosity, Domineering, Manipulation, Suspiciousness, Aggression, and Risk Taking. The present findings demonstrate how trait Antagonism unfolds at varying levels of specificity as well as how the emergent factors differentially relate to outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Agressão , Hostilidade , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade
6.
Aggress Behav ; 47(5): 544-556, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114206

RESUMO

The research examined whether, and if so how, young adults' trust beliefs in others were associated with interpersonal hostility. The participants in Study 1 were 139 young adults from the UK (76 women; Mage = 20.8). In Study 2, 88 young adult women from the UK (Mage = 21.5) served as participants. The participants completed a standardized measure of trust beliefs in others (total with reliability, honesty, and emotional subscales). In Study 1, participants imagined they were victims of peer provocation. They were required to judge the intention for the provocation and their retaliation to it. In Study 2, the participants were engaged in a lab-based acquaintanceship interaction that involved the exchange of disclosures. They completed an adjective checklist that assessed anger and evaluated the quality of the conversation. Trust beliefs were linearly and negatively associated with the attribution of hostile intentions, retaliation, anger toward others, and critical evaluation of a developing peer relationship. As expected though, quadratic relations were found. Young adults with very low and those with very high trust beliefs (primarily emotionally based) showed greater attribution of hostile intentions, retaliation, anger toward others, and critical evaluation of a developing peer relationship than did young adults with the middle range of trust beliefs. The linear relations supported the hypothesis that trust promotes psychosocial adjustment. The quadratic relations supported the deviation from the normative trust (centralist) approach primarily for emotional trust beliefs in others.


Assuntos
Hostilidade , Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Percepção Social , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(5): 421-434, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124926

RESUMO

Objective: Hostility is a transdiagnostic phenomenon that can have a profound negative impact on interpersonal functioning and psychopathological severity. Evidence suggests that cognitive bias modification for interpretation bias (CBM-I) potentially reduces hostility. However, stringent efficacy studies in people with clinical levels of hostility are currently lacking. Method: The present study investigated the effects of CBM-I in two studies: one feasibility study (Study 1) in a mixed clinical-community sample of men (N = 29), and one randomized clinical study (Study 2) in a mixed-gender sample with clinical levels of hostility (N = 135), pre-registered at https://osf.io/r46jn. We expected that CBM-I would relate to a larger increase in benign interpretation bias and larger reductions in hostile interpretation bias, hostility symptoms and traits, and general psychiatric symptoms at post-intervention compared to an active control (AC) condition. We also explored the beneficial carry-over effects of CBM-I on working alliance in subsequent psychotherapy 5 weeks after finishing CBM-I (n = 17). Results: Results showed that CBM-I increased benign interpretation bias in both studies and partially reduced hostile interpretation bias in Study 2, but not in Study 1. Findings of Study 2 also showed greater reductions in behavioral (but not self-reported) aggression in CBM-I relative to control, but no condition differences were found in self-report hostility measures and general psychiatric symptoms. Conclusions: Overall, we found modest support for CBM-I as an intervention for hostility, with some evidence of its efficacy for hostile interpretation bias and aggression. We discuss study limitations as well as directions for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Hostilidade , Adulto , Agressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 23(5): 1053-1064, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945077

RESUMO

This qualitative study aimed to elucidate and contextualize which and how migration-related stressors may influence Latinx Americans' (i.e., US-born; US-citizens) mental health status, including substance misuse. In 2019, a community sample of 22 Latinx Americans were recruited for an in-depth qualitative interview. Eligibility criteria included: being an adult, self-identify as Latinx, report a migration-related stressor, and report at least one symptom of a mental health or substance use problem. Open-ended questions focused on the migrant experience, perceptions and impacts of immigration enforcement, and how these experiences related to their mental health. Using a migration as a social determinant framework, we identified several migration-related stressors at the structural- and social-level of environmental influence that were related to participants' mental health. Findings highlight how migration-related stressors at the structural- and social-level of influence create systematic uncertainty by inducing fear into the daily lives of Latinx Americans.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Adulto , Emigração e Imigração , Hostilidade , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pesquisa Qualitativa
9.
Behav Ther ; 52(3): 709-719, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990244

RESUMO

Most efforts to understand microaggressions have examined affected group members, but little work has been done to understand the motivations and characteristics of offenders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether microaggressions are best conceptualized as a form of aggression, as per common definitions advanced in social psychology, by examining correlations between propensity to commit microaggressions and aggressive tendencies. This cross-sectional study was conducted using MTurk Prime to survey a sample of White and Black adults across the United States (N = 610). Measures administered included the Cultural Cognitions and Actions Scale (CCAS) to assess the likelihood of committing microaggressions, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ), Inventory of Hostility and Suspicious Thinking (IHS), Overt-Covert Aggression Inventory (OCAI), and the Positive and Negative Affectivity Schedule (PANAS). The CCAS was found to be highly and significantly positively correlated with all three measures of aggression. There was a significant negative correlation between Black participants' ratings of microaggressive interactions being racist and White participants' likelihood of engaging in those same interactions. There was a significant positive correlation between negative affectivity and the propensity of White participants to commit microaggressions. In a regression predicting microaggressive propensity from aggressive tendencies, the BPAQ was highly significant, whereas negative affectivity was not. Findings indicate that microaggressions represent aggression and hostility on the part of offenders and a form of aggressive behavior that is generally socially unacceptable. Future research should explore the relationship between the many forms of microaggressions and aggression among different groups.


Assuntos
Agressão , Hostilidade , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 301: 113982, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993038

RESUMO

Female Veterans are the fastest growing demographic group in the Department of Veterans Affairs. Moreover, suicide rates in female Veterans are increasing, making suicide in female Veterans a topic of vital clinical and research significance. The current study examined the association between suicide, aggression, and mood symptoms by sex. Participants consisted of 264 Veterans (female=54, male=210) ages 18-55. Veterans completed well-validated measures of suicidal behaviors, aggression, anxiety, and depression. Male Veterans reported higher physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, hostility, and total aggression compared to female Veterans. In male Veterans, lifetime suicidal behavior including ideation and attempts was correlated with total aggression and subscales of physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility. However, in female Veterans lifetime suicidal behavior was significantly associated with hostility and anger. There were no between-group differences in measures of suicidal behaviors, anxious or depressive symptoms. These results suggest important differences in the association between aggression and suicidal behavior by sex. These data have significant clinical implications, as males with aggressive traits and females who endorse hostility and anger may be more likely to engage in suicidal behaviors.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Veteranos , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Aggress Behav ; 47(4): 464-471, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792921

RESUMO

More than a decade of research on emotions has demonstrated the role of affect in social judgments. Emotions influence the way individuals make inferences about others' behavior. Building on these previous findings, the present research investigates the effects of anger and sadness on the attribution of intentionality. In Experiment 1, angry, sad, or neutral participants read a series of sentences describing simple actions and had to indicate whether the actions were done intentionally or accidentally. Results showed that anger significantly predicted the proportion of intentional judgment when participants were asked to interpret ambiguous sentences. In Experiment 2, the effect of anger on intentionality was replicated. Angry participants endorsed more intentional explanations than neutral participants. This finding helps explain how anger increases the inclination to make hostile inferences.


Assuntos
Ira , Percepção Social , Emoções , Hostilidade , Humanos , Julgamento
12.
Aggress Behav ; 47(4): 405-420, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719096

RESUMO

This article focuses on the characteristics of sexually violent men who have not been convicted of a crime. The objective of this study was to test the four key interrelated pillars of the Confluence Model. The first key pillar posits the interaction of Hostile Masculinity and Impersonal Sex as core risk predictors. The second pillar entails a "mediated structure" wherein the impact of more general risk factors is mediated via those specific to aggression against women. The third pillar comprises a single latent factor underlying various types of sexual violence. The fourth pillar expands the core model by including the secondary risk factors of lower empathy, peer support, extreme pornography use, and participation in alcohol parties. An ethnically diverse sample of 1,148 male students from 13 U.S. colleges and universities completed a comprehensive survey that assessed the hypothesized risk factors and self-reported sexual violence, which included noncontact sexual offenses, contact sexual coercion, and contact sexual aggression. A series of multiple regression analyses were conducted before testing structural equation models. The results supported the integration of the four pillars within a single expanded empirical model that accounted for 49% of the variance of sexual violence. This study yielded data supporting all four key pillars. These findings provide information about non-redudant risk factors that can be used to develop screening tools, group-based and individually tailored psychoeducational and treatment interventions.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Universidades , Agressão , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual
13.
J Fam Psychol ; 35(5): 649-659, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661683

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to investigate bio-psycho-behavioral associations between marital distress and the physical health of couples, with two different aspects of physical health outcomes receiving attention: physical illness and physical functional impairments over the middle years. Using an actor-partner interdependence model within a longitudinal approach and data from married heterosexual couples in enduring marriages (N = 370 dyads), we examined the mediating pathways which reflected biopsychosocial processes and addressed how trajectories spousal hostility may contribute to husbands' and wives' later health. The results indicated that hostile marital interactions in the early middle years could wear down couples' regulatory systems through greater psychological distress, more health-risk behaviors, and a higher body mass index (BMI), which in turn increased vulnerability to later physical health problems for both husbands and wives. For both husbands and wives, their evolved psychological distress influenced by both their own and their spouse's perceived spousal hostile behaviors, supported the stress-related dyadic process in the couples. The findings also emphasized the salient role of psychological distress in leading not only to an increased risk of physical illness directly but also to a higher risk of physical impairment through increased levels of BMI for both husbands and wives. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Hostilidade , Casamento , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cônjuges
14.
Neuroscience ; 461: 36-43, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691143

RESUMO

As a textbook manifestation of an aggressive attitude, hostility can pose a serious threat to both an individual's life and the security of society at large. Past evidence suggests that some anxiety-related traits may be more prone to giving rise to hostility. However, many aspects of hostility, such as, determining the susceptible temperament for hostility, the neural basis of hostility, and the underlying mechanisms through which having a susceptible temperament generates hostility in a healthy brain, remain unclear. In this study, we sought to delve into these questions by assessing temperament and brain white matter integrity using self-report questionnaires and diffusion tensor imaging in a sizable sample of healthy adults (n = 357). First, we investigated the relationship between hostility and the four temperaments of the Cloninger model. Then, we investigated which white matter tracts were significantly correlated with hostility using a whole-brain analysis. Finally, we used a mediation analysis to explore the tripartite relationship between vulnerability temperament, the fractional anisotropy (FA) value of the white matter, and hostility. Our results suggest that a harm avoidance temperament may be susceptible to hostility and that the cingulum may be a key white matter region responsible for hostility. Based on these results, we developed a temperament-brain-attitude pathway showing how harm avoidance temperament could affect the brain and ultimately lead to hostility.


Assuntos
Substância Branca , Adulto , Anisotropia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Hostilidade , Humanos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671350

RESUMO

This research aimed to explore the interplay of sexism and moral disengagement (MD) in the explanation of psychological and physical dating aggression. The sample comprised 1113 Spanish adolescents (49.2% girls, n = 552) between the ages of 12 to 17 (M = 14.44). A latent profile analysis conducted with sub-sample of 432 adolescents with sentimental experience identified four configurations: (1) benevolent; (2) less disengaged and sexist; (3) highly disengaged and sexist; and (4) moderately disengaged and sexist. Regarding gender and age, boys were more present than girls in the moderately disengaged and sexist group, as well as in the highly disengaged and sexist profile. The highly disengaged and sexist and benevolent groups were the youngest. Regarding dating aggression, the highly disengaged and sexist group had the highest engagement in physical and psychological aggression. However, the others three profiles showed a similar engagement in aggression. These findings confirmed the moderating role of MD on the relationship between sexism and dating aggression and suggested that the association between MD, sexism, and dating aggression was exponential; that is, the risk appeared when adolescents were extremely hostile and disengaged. The results have implications for the design of tailored dating aggression prevention programmes.


Assuntos
Agressão , Princípios Morais , Adolescente , Atitude , Criança , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Sexismo
16.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 60(2): 160-176, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous work has demonstrated that the tendency to make hostile attributions is not a stable trait but varies across different social situations. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether hostile attributions within clinical samples are better understood as a persistent characteristic or one that varies across contexts. METHODS: The current analyses investigated patterns of attributions among people diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCZ, n = 271) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 100) and non-clinical control participants (NCC, n = 233) in an existing data set. RESULTS: Results showed that specific relational features in vignettes portraying different social encounters influence the way people make attributions and that variability across contexts is present in both non-clinical and clinical populations. Like non-clinical participants, participants diagnosed with ASD ascribed the greatest hostility to a scene involving an authority figure. In contrast, SCZ participants reported the greatest hostility in response to a scene involving a friend. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that salient environmental factors should be considered when assessing social cognitive skills and biases. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Hostile attributions should be perceived as situational constructs rather than stable and persistent characteristics. Hostile attributions were most prevalent among persons diagnosed with schizophrenia; however, on average, all participants showed greater hostility for situations involving an authority figure, an acquaintance, or a friend relative to those involving a co-worker or stranger. Psychotherapists and clinicians working with people diagnosed with schizophrenia or autism spectrum disorder could work on identifying situation triggers, which may prompt hostile attributions. Psycho-educational and psychotherapeutic interventions can be altered based on individual triggers of hostile attributions, and attempts can be made to lessen these attributions. Paranoia appears to be linked to hostile attributions regardless of the specific clinical diagnosis and should be considered in the therapeutic process.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Hostilidade , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Percepção Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246787, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566843

RESUMO

Teacher's pupil control ideology is a central feature for the quality of the teacher-student relationship, which, in turn, impacts the teacher's level of well-being. The pupil control ideology refers to a teacher's belief system along a continuum from humanistic to custodial views. Teachers with humanistic orientation view students as responsible and, therefore, they exert a lower degree of control to manage students' classroom behaviors. Teachers with a custodial orientation view students as untrustworthy and, therefore, they exert a higher degree of control to manage students' classroom behaviors. The relationship between pupil control ideology and dysfunctional beliefs originated from the cognitive-behavioral therapy framework has not been investigated, despite existing evidence suggesting that the pupil control ideology is linked to stress and burnout. One hundred fifty-five teachers completed a set of self-report questionnaires measuring: (i) teacher's pupil-control ideology; (ii) perfectionistic and hostile automatic thoughts; (iii) irrational beliefs; (iv) unconditional self-acceptance; (v) early maladaptive schemas; and (vi) dimensions of perfectionism. The result suggests that teachers who adopt a custodial view on pupil control ideology endorse more dysfunctional beliefs than teachers who adopt a humanistic view. They tend to present a higher level of perfectionism, unrelenting standards, and problematic relational beliefs, including schemas of mistrust and entitlement. They also present more often other-directed demands and derogation of other thoughts. Such results picture a dysfunctional view on pupils who misbehave, as adversaries who threaten their rigid and/or perfectionistic expectations.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Professores Escolares/normas , Adulto , Cognição/ética , Educação , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perfeccionismo , Isolamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929710, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Hostility in hypertension patients combined with depressive disorders indicates a worse outcome for hypertension management. This study was designed to explore the influence of hostility on 24-h diastolic blood pressure in hypertension patients who also had depressive disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 130 people with primary hypertension and depressive disorders were collected through unstructured psychiatric interview by a professional psychiatrist and ambulatory blood pressure monitor in this cross-sectional study. During the study, dynamic blood pressure was examined for 24 h by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the hostility level. Hostility was defined by hostile factors of the Symptom Checklist 90. The association between hostility and 24-h dynamic blood pressure was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS 30.8% (40 of 130) patients had a high level of 24-h dynamic blood pressure load (>30%), in which 14.6% was for male and 16.2% for female respectively. In male, the proportion of high 24 h DBP load (>30%) in highest hostility group was greater than that of low hostility group and median hostility group significantly (p=0.03). No significant differences were revealed among 3 groups in female. The age-adjusted odds-ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval of diastolic blood pressure across the categories of hostility were: in males, 1.44 (0.60, 3.47) (1 for reference), and in females, 5.86 (0.58, 59.06) (P for trend=0.04). CONCLUSIONS Our results showed that hostility may be a risk factor for increased 24-h diastolic blood pressure in hypertension patients who also have depressive disorders, especially in males. The clinical meaning of the study is that hypertension management should contain psychological interventions for better effects.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Hostilidade , Hipertensão/psicologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
19.
Schizophr Res ; 228: 394-402, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with devastating emotional, cognitive and language impairments. Understanding the deficits in each domain and their interactions is important for developing novel, targeted psychotherapies. This study tested whether negative-threat word processing is altered in individuals with SZ compared to healthy controls (HC), in relation to SZ symptom severity across domains. METHODS: Thirty-one SZ and seventeen HC subjects were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while silently reading negative-threat and neutral words. Post-scan, subjects rated the valence of each word. The effects of group (SZ, HC), word type (negative, neutral), task period (early, late), and severity of clinical symptoms (positive, negative, excitement/hostility, cognitive, depression/anxiety), on word valence ratings and brain activation, were analyzed. RESULTS: SZ and HC subjects rated negative versus neutral words as more negative. The SZ subgroup with severe versus mild excitement/hostility symptoms rated the negative words as more negative. SZ versus HC subjects hyperactivated left language areas (angular gyrus, middle/inferior temporal gyrus (early period)) and the amygdala (early period) to negative words, and the amygdala (late period) to neutral words. In SZ, activation to negative versus neutral words in left dorsal temporal pole and dorsal anterior cingulate was positively correlated with excitement/hostility scores. CONCLUSIONS: A negatively-biased behavioral response to negative-threat words was seen in SZ with severe versus mild excitement/hostility symptoms. The biased behavioral response was mediated by hyperactivation of brain networks associated with semantic processing of emotion concepts. Thus, word-level semantic processing may be a relevant psychotherapeutic target in SZ.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Emoções , Hostilidade , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Semântica
20.
J Psychiatr Res ; 136: 47-53, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556904

RESUMO

Social-emotional information processing (SEIP) is critical for appropriate human interaction. It is composed of processes that underlie how we behave towards others, especially in response to adverse social threat. We conducted a study in 26 healthy participants who completed a validated Video-SEIP (V-SEIP) task in the fMRI scanning environment. The V-SEIP phases studied included encoding (ENC) of socially relevant information, hostile attribution (HA) of motive, and the negative emotional response (NER) the participant would have in the context of the video vignettes. The ENC phase was associated with activation of amygdala, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, right middle temporal gyrus, and visual cortex, the HA phase associated with activation of several brain regions including frontal and temporal cortex as well as basal ganglia and cerebellum, while the NER phase was associated with activation in the midbrain with regions involving the periaqueductal gray, basal ganglia, and the cerebellum. We suggest that this V-SEIP task represents a novel neuro-biomarker for the study of SEIP and that it can be extended for use in a number of psychiatric conditions in which anger, irritability, and impulsive aggressive are prominent features.


Assuntos
Agressão , Hostilidade , Mapeamento Encefálico , Emoções , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Percepção Social
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