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1.
Anim Cogn ; 23(2): 289-299, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781885

RESUMO

How much nonhuman animals understand about seeing has been the focus of comparative cognition research for decades. Many social primates (and other species) are sensitive to cues about what others can and cannot see. Whether this sensitivity evolved in primates through shared descent or convergent evolution remains unclear. The current study tested gibbons-the apes that are least studied yet most distantly related to humans and one of the less social primates-in two food-competition tasks. Specifically, we presented eastern hoolock gibbons, Hoolock leuconedys, and silvery gibbons, Hylobates moloch, with a choice between a contested piece of food visible to both themselves and a human competitor and an uncontested piece visible only to themselves. Subjects successfully stole the uncontested food when the competitor turned away his body (N = 10, experiment 1) and his head (N = 9, experiment 2). However, when the head of the experimenter was oriented towards the contested piece of food, whether the competitor opened or closed his eyes made no difference. Subjects' sensitivity to body- and head-orientation cues was comparable to that of chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, and ring-tailed lemurs-species living in much larger groups than gibbons. These findings support the continuity hypothesis that sensitivity to body- and head-orientation cues is a product of shared descent among primates.


Assuntos
Cognição , Sinais (Psicologia) , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Hylobates , Hylobatidae , Lemur , Macaca mulatta , Postura , Percepção Visual
2.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0217784, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365525

RESUMO

Gibbons are highly territorial and have two key areas within these territories. The core area in which we find all sleeping trees and the trees from which the gibbons duet and the wider home range (HR) which has varying levels of overlap with neighbouring gibbon groups. The core area is strenously defended, with the wider HR being more of a shared area for neighbouring groups. We present ranging and movement data on four wild gibbon groups from January 2010 to July 2018. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were collected every 5 mins on habitauted groups in Sebangau, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia resulting in 35,521 waypoints. Gibbon home- and corerange sizes were calculated using 95%, and 50%, volume contours of kernel density estimates. Home-ranges ranged from 58.74-147.75 ha with a mean of 95.7 ± SD 37.75 ha, the highest of comparable Hylobates species. Core-range size ranged from 20.7-51.31 ha with a mean size of 31.7 ± SD 13.76 ha. Gibbons had consistant site fidelity for their home- and core ranges; percentage overlap ranged from 4.3 23.97% with a mean 16.5 ± SD 8.65% overlap in home-range area. Core ranges did not overlap with the exception of two groups, in which a 0.64 ha (2.69%) overlap occurred. Unsurprisingly forest loss from fire does affect the location of the HR of the impacted group, but does not appear to affect adjacent groups, though more data are needed on this. Understanding the complex use of space of these territorial animals is important in assessing both carrying capacity for wild populations and understading how reintroduced gibbon pairs will establish their core and HR.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Florestas , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital/fisiologia , Hylobates/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Indonésia , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica
3.
Zool Res ; 40(5): 449-455, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343856

RESUMO

Investigations on manual laterality in non-human primates can help clarify human evolutionary origins of hand preference and cerebral cognition. Although body posture can influence primate hand preference, investigations on how posture affects hylobatid manual laterality are still in their infancy. This study focused on how spontaneous bipedal behavioral tasks affect hand preference in Hylobatidae. Ten captive northern white-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys) were chosen as focal subjects. Unimanual grooming during sitting posture and supported bipedal posture were applied as behavioral tasks. The gibbons displayed a modest tendency on left-hand preference during sitting posture and right-hand preference during supported bipedal posture, although no group-level hand preference was detected for either posture. From the sitting to supported bipedal posture, 70% of individuals displayed different degrees of right-side deviation trends. The strength of manual laterality in the supported bipedal posture was higher than that in the sitting posture. We found significant sex differences in manual laterality during supported bipedal posture but not during sitting posture. Thus, to a certain degree, bipedal posture in N. leucogenys facilitates stronger hand preference, elicits a rightward trend in manual laterality, and produces sex-specific hand preference.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Hylobates/fisiologia , Postura , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
4.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217590, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194749

RESUMO

Ficus species are keystone plants in tropical rainforests, and hemi-epiphytic figs play a notably important role in forest ecosystems. Because hemi-epiphytic figs have strict germination requirements, germination and establishment stages regulate their populations. Despite the ecological importance of hemi-epiphytic figs in the rainforests, seed dispersal systems by fig-eating animals under natural conditions remain unknown because of the difficulty in tracing the destiny of dispersed seeds in the canopy. Therefore, seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) has never been evaluated for hemi-epiphytic figs. We evaluated the SDE of hemi-epiphytic figs using qualitative and quantitative components by three relatively large-sized (> 3 kg) arboreal and volant animals in Bornean rainforests that largely depend on fig fruits in their diets: binturongs Arctictis binturong, Mueller's gibbons Hylobates muelleri, and helmeted hornbills Rhinoplax vigil. The SDE values of binturongs was by far the highest among the three study animals. Meanwhile, successful seed dispersal of hemi-epiphytic figs by gibbons and helmeted hornbills is aleatory and rare. Given that seed deposition determines the fate of hemi-epiphytic figs, the defecatory habits of binturongs, depositing feces on specific microsites in the canopy, is the most reliable dispersal method, compared to scattering feces from the air or upper canopy. We showed that reliable directed dispersal of hemi-epiphytic figs occurs in high and uneven canopy of Bornean rainforests. This type of dispersal is limited to specific animal species, and therefore it may become one of the main factors regulating low-success hemi-epiphytic fig recruitment in Bornean rainforests.


Assuntos
Germinação/fisiologia , Dispersão de Sementes/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Animais , Aves , Bornéu , Ecossistema , Ficus , Florestas , Frutas , Hylobates , Floresta Úmida , Árvores/fisiologia , Viverridae
5.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 282: 113210, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228419

RESUMO

Gibbons of the genus Nomascus exhibit strong sexual dichromatism in fur color. Change of fur color in sub-adult wild Nomascus females is associated with the onset of puberty and the time of their dispersal. The variability in fur change may be influenced by social factors. In this study, we determined whether in captive females of crested gibbons begin reproductive maturity prior to dispersing and with association to their fur color. We collected 287 fecal extracts to analyze pregnandiol -3- glucuronide and 17ß estradiol profiles of 4 sub-adult females (Nomascus leucogenys and Nomascus gabriellae) and 183 samples from their mothers, using enzyme immunoassays. The sub-adult females were monitored from 4 years of age. Their hormone profiles showed the onset of ovulatory cycling between 4.6 and 5.8 years. Based on the information about the estrogen influence to the secondary sex characteristic (fur color of female) the positive link between estrogen concentration and age of the sub-adult females was found. However, the amount of the estrogen can apparently be influenced by the presence of mother. If the mother was presented, the level of estrogen was higher than if the mother was missing. Our findings suggest that the probability of changing to beige fur color by the sub-adult females increased with increased age and if they were without mother. This initial study presents the maternal influence as a possible social factor affecting the fur color change of female offspring.


Assuntos
Pelo Animal/fisiologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Hylobates/fisiologia , Hylobatidae/fisiologia , Pigmentação , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual
6.
Virus Genes ; 55(3): 421-424, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877415

RESUMO

A novel gamma-retroviral sequence (7912 bp), inclusive of both partial 5' and 3' long terminal repeat regions, was identified from the brain of a black flying-fox (Pteropus alecto), Queensland, Australia. The sequence was distinct from other retroviral sequences identified in bats and showed greater identity to Koala, Gibbon ape leukaemia, Melomys burtoni and Woolly monkey retroviruses, forming their own phylogenetic clade. This finding suggests that these retroviruses may have an unknown common ancestor and that further investigation into the diversity of gamma-retroviruses in Australian Pteropus species may elucidate their evolutionary origins.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Hylobates/virologia , Phascolarctidae/virologia , Retroviridae/genética , Animais , Austrália , Quirópteros/genética , Hylobates/genética , Vírus da Leucemia do Macaco Gibão/genética , Phascolarctidae/genética , Filogenia , Vírus do Sarcoma do Macaco-Barrigudo/genética
7.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 90(3): 153-161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870856

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine selected characteristics of hair originating from adult females of three primate species: lar gibbon, crested black macaque and common chimpanzee. The research material consisted of 300 hairs collected from the top of the head. The analysis included the length, diameter, strength, breaking load, elongation and cross-section area of the hairs, and the hair index. Additionally, the scale number per 1 mm of hair length was determined using scanning electron microscope images. Lar gibbon hairs were the thinnest and the longest, while common chimpanzee hairs were the thickest and the shortest, and concurrently the least resistant. Hairs from various primate species differ in terms of their morphological structure and histological features and thus can be used for differentiation and identification of species.


Assuntos
Cabelo/anatomia & histologia , Hylobates/anatomia & histologia , Macaca/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/anatomia & histologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Polônia
8.
Am J Primatol ; 81(1): e22940, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604890

RESUMO

We develop a time budget model for the hylobatid family with the aim of assessing the extent to which their contemporary and historical biogeographic distributions might be explained by ecological constraints. The model uses local climate to predict time budgets, and from this the limiting size of social group that animals could manage at a given location. The model predicts maximum group sizes that vary between 3 and 15 within the taxon's current distribution, indicating that the combination of their dietary and locomotor styles with the kinds of habitats they inhabit radically constrain group size. Beyond the edges of their current distribution, sustainable group size rapidly tends to zero, although if they had been able to bypass some of these areas, they would have found very suitable habitats in southern India and beyond the Wallace Line. While travel time would be a major constraint on group size at larger group sizes, as it is in great apes, the main factor limiting the gibbon's current distribution is the time they need to spend resting that is imposed on them by the environment. The model also indicates that gibbons would not now be able to survive in regions of central and southeastern China where they are known to have occurred within historical times, perhaps because historical climate change following the Little Ice Age of the C18th made these regions uninhabitable for them. Finally, our results indicate that gibbons have the ecological capacity to live in larger groups than they do, making it unlikely that their adoption of monogamy reflects purely ecological constraints.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Hylobates/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Clima , Modelos Teóricos , Comportamento Social , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 168(2): 364-369, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575018

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Semenogelin 1 and 2 (SEMG1 and SEMG2) are known as semen coagulating proteins in primates with a repetitive structure of 60-amino acids. The number of repeats varies among species and is hypothesized to be related to the level of primate sperm competition. Gibbons until recently were thought to be monogamous primates, but it is now known that gibbon social structure is flexible. Thus, hypotheses of the relationship between the SEMGs evolution and mating systems were tested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sequences of the exon 2 of the SEMG1 and SEMG2 were obtained from 50 captive gibbons comprising six species belonging to three genera (Hylobates, Symphalangus, and Nomascus). Then we quantified the levels of polymorphism and estimated rates of protein evolution by calculating d N /d S ratio. RESULTS: Several mutations that create a premature stop codon in the SEMG1 and a reduction in the repeats of the SEMG2 in the genus Hylobates were observed and may alter the coding properties for these proteins. We also found different level of nucleotide diversity in each gene and between genera. Strikingly, in Nomascus leucogenys we discovered a high d N /d S ratio in the SEMG1 and SEMG2. The Nomascus SEMG2 also showed significantly lower nucleotide diversity than the other two genera. DISCUSSION: These results are consistent with the presence of a strong positive selection in the Nomascus lineage even if the exact selective forces acting on these genes are not yet conclusively known. We were not able to demonstrate, among gibbons, unambiguous relationships between the SEMGs evolution and mating systems.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Hylobates/genética , Reprodução/genética , Proteínas Secretadas pela Vesícula Seminal/genética , Animais , Antropologia Física , Feminino , Masculino
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 516, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whipworms (Nematoda: Trichuridae), among the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), can cause the socioeconomically important disease trichuriasis in various mammalian hosts including humans and non-human primates. For many years, Trichuris from non-human primates has been assigned to the same species as the one infecting humans Trichuris trichiura. More recently, several molecular reports challenged this assumption following recognition of a Trichuris species complex observed in humans and non-human primates. A refined concept for species limits within Trichuris contributes to an understanding of diversity and the potential (zoonotic) transmission among humans and non-human primates. In this study, we expanded previous investigations by exploring the diversity of Trichuris among eight primates including three Asian autochthonous species (i.e. Rhinopithecus roxellana, Rhinopithecus bieti and Nomascus leucogenys). Species-level identification, whether novel or assignable to known lineages of Trichuris, was based on analyses of nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes. RESULTS: In total, seven genetically distinct subgroups of whipworms were determined to be present among the primates sampled. Most Trichuris lineages, including Subgroups 1, 1', 3, 5 and 6, showed a broad host range and were not restricted to particular primate species; in addition to T. trichiura, a complex of Trichuris species was shown infecting primates. Furthermore, it was assumed that Trichuris spp. from either N. leucogenys and P. hamadryas or R. roxellana and R. bieti, respectively, were conspecific. Each pair was indicated to be a discrete lineage of Trichuris, designated, respectively, as Subgroups 1 or 1' and 2, based on integrated genetic and phylogenetic evidence. CONCLUSION: These results emphasise that the taxonomy and genetic variations of Trichuris are more complicated than previously acknowledged. These cumulative molecular and phylogenetic data provide a better understanding of the taxonomy, genetics and evolutionary biology of the whipworms.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Tricuríase/veterinária , Trichuris/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cercopithecidae , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Hylobates , Masculino , Filogenia , Primatas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Trichuris/classificação , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 144(2): 698, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180677

RESUMO

Acoustic signals serve important functions in mate choice, resource defense, and species recognition. Quantifying patterns and sources of variation in acoustic signals can advance understanding of the evolutionary processes that shape behavioral diversity more broadly. Animal vocalization datasets are inherently multivariate and hierarchical, wherein multiple features are estimated from calls of many individuals across different recording locations. Patterns of variation within different hierarchical levels-notwithstanding the challenges they present for modeling and inference-can provide insight into processes shaping vocal variation. The current work presents a multivariate, variance components model to investigate three levels of variance (within-female, between-female, and between-site) in Bornean gibbon calls. For six of the eight features estimated from call spectrograms, between-female variance was the most important contributor to total variance. For one feature, trill rate, there were site-level differences, which may be related to geographic isolation of certain gibbon populations. There was also a negative relationship between trill rate and duration of the introduction, suggesting trade-offs in the production of gibbon calls. Given substantial inter-individual variation in gibbon calls, it seems likely that there has been selection to confer information regarding caller identity, but mechanisms leading to site-level variation in trill rate remain to be determined.


Assuntos
Hylobates/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Percepção Auditiva , Feminino , Comportamento Social
12.
Gene ; 678: 318-323, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096459

RESUMO

Retrogenes are a class of functional genes derived from the mRNA of various intron-containing genes. PIPSL was created through a unique mechanism, whereby distinct genes were assembled at the RNA level, and the resulting chimera was then reverse transcribed and integrated into the genome by the L1 retrotransposon. Expression of PIPSL RNA via its transcription start sites (TSSs) has been confirmed in the testes of humans and chimpanzee. Here, we demonstrated that PIPSL RNA is expressed in the testis of the white-handed gibbon. The 5'-end positions of gibbon RNAs were confined to a narrow range upstream of the PIPSL start codon and overlapped with those of orangutan and human, suggesting that PIPSL TSSs are similar among hominoid species. Reporter assays using a luciferase gene and the flanking sequences of human PIPSL showed that an upstream sequence exhibits weak promoter activity in human cells. Our findings suggest that PIPSL might have acquired a promoter at an early stage of hominoid evolution before the divergence of gibbons and ultimately retained similar TSSs in all of the lineages. Moreover, the upstream sequence derived from the phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, alpha 5' untranslated region and/or neighboring repetitive sequences in the genome possibly exhibits promoter activity. Furthermore, we observed that a TATA-box-like sequence has emerged by nucleotide substitution in a lineage leading to humans, with this possibly responsible for a broader distribution of the human PIPSL TSSs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Hominidae/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Testículo/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Evolução Molecular , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hylobates/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Ativação Transcricional
13.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 167(1): 108-123, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Facial expressions are an important component of primate communication that functions to transmit social information and modulate intentions and motivations. Chimpanzees and macaques, for example, produce a variety of facial expressions when communicating with conspecifics. Hylobatids also produce various facial expressions; however, the origin and function of these facial expressions are still largely unclear. It has been suggested that larger facial expression repertoires may have evolved in the context of social complexity, but this link has yet to be tested at a broader empirical basis. The social complexity hypothesis offers a possible explanation for the evolution of complex communicative signals such as facial expressions, because as the complexity of an individual's social environment increases so does the need for communicative signals. We used an intraspecies, pair-focused study design to test the link between facial expressions and sociality within hylobatids, specifically the strength of pair-bonds. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The current study compared 206 hr of video and 103 hr of focal animal data for ten hylobatid pairs from three genera (Nomascus, Hoolock, and Hylobates) living at the Gibbon Conservation Center. Using video footage, we explored 5,969 facial expressions along three dimensions: repertoire use, repertoire breadth, and facial expression synchrony [FES]. We then used focal animal data to compare dimensions of facial expressiveness to pair bond strength and behavioral synchrony. RESULTS: Hylobatids in our study overlapped in only half of their facial expressions (50%) with the only other detailed, quantitative study of hylobatid facial expressions, while 27 facial expressions were uniquely observed in our study animals. Taken together, hylobatids have a large facial expression repertoire of at least 80 unique facial expressions. Contrary to our prediction, facial repertoire composition was not significantly correlated with pair bond strength, rates of territorial synchrony, or rates of behavioral synchrony. We found that FES was the strongest measure of hylobatid expressiveness and was significantly positively correlated with higher sociality index scores; however, FES showed no significant correlation with behavioral synchrony. No noticeable differences between pairs were found regarding rates of behavioral or territorial synchrony. Facial repertoire sizes and FES were not significantly correlated with rates of behavioral synchrony or territorial synchrony. DISCUSSION: Our study confirms an important role of facial expressions in maintaining pair bonds and coordinating activities in hylobatids. Data support the hypothesis that facial expressions and sociality have been linked in hylobatid and primate evolution. It is possible that larger facial repertoires may have contributed to strengthening pair bonds in primates, because richer facial repertoires provide more opportunities for FES which can effectively increase the "understanding" between partners through smoother coordination of interaction patterns. This study supports the social complexity hypothesis as the driving force for the evolution of complex communication signaling.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Hylobates/fisiologia , Ligação do Par , Animais , Antropologia Física
14.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 89(3-4): 287-294, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874638

RESUMO

Our aim in this study was to analyse the effects of early social isolation on the behaviour of a white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) and at the same time to improve his level of welfare. The subject was a 6-year-old male, isolated from conspecific as well as other non-human primates since he was 3 months old. We presented the gibbon with a series of species-specific vocalisations, and we then introduced a 23-year-old conspecific female into his cage. Our subject did not respond to playbacks, whereas he immediately interacted positively with the conspecific female. After 2 days of presentation, the pair started to spend time in proximity to each other and initiated grooming through the wire-mesh dividing the cages. Four days later we recorded vocal duets. No obvious ste-reotypic behaviours were observed, and the prolonged isolation did not seem to compromise the ability of the young gibbon to socialise with the female conspecific. It appears that prolonged isolation does not always compromise the possibility of recovering socially in a satisfactory manner.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Hylobates/fisiologia , Isolamento Social , Animais , Masculino
15.
Science ; 360(6395): 1346-1349, 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930136

RESUMO

Although all extant apes are threatened with extinction, there is no evidence for human-caused extinctions of apes or other primates in postglacial continental ecosystems, despite intensive anthropogenic pressures associated with biodiversity loss for millennia in many regions. Here, we report a new, globally extinct genus and species of gibbon, Junzi imperialis, described from a partial cranium and mandible from a ~2200- to 2300-year-old tomb from Shaanxi, China. Junzi can be differentiated from extant hylobatid genera and the extinct Quaternary gibbon Bunopithecus by using univariate and multivariate analyses of craniodental morphometric data. Primates are poorly represented in the Chinese Quaternary fossil record, but historical accounts suggest that China may have contained an endemic ape radiation that has only recently disappeared.


Assuntos
Extinção Biológica , Hylobates , Animais , Antropologia , Biodiversidade , Fósseis , Humanos , Hylobates/anatomia & histologia , Hylobates/classificação , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
16.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 167(1): 61-71, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: It has long been recognized that in gibbons both sexes disperse from the natal group. However, the fate of dispersed individuals was rarely documented. Here we provide the first detailed information on sex differences in dispersal patterns by analyzing the spatial genetic structure of a well-known white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosomal haplotypes, and autosomal microsatellite genotypes were determined for individuals of the Mo Singto study site, Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Mantel tests for the three genetic marker types were performed for 17 gibbon groups comprising 23 adult males and 18 adult females. RESULTS: Significant positive Mantel correlations were observed for spatial distance and both autosomal microsatellite-based as well as Y-chromosomal haplotype-based genetic distance among adult males. Neighboring adult males tended to be genetically related and share Y-chromosomal haplotypes. Conversely, no significant Mantel correlations were observed either in autosomal microsatellites or mtDNA among adult females. DISCUSSION: Our results confirm, at a genetic level, hypotheses from long-term demographic observations that white-handed gibbon males of the Mo Singto population primarily disperse into adjacent groups. Instead, females disperse more opportunistically either to adjacent or more distant groups. This sex-specific difference reflects an apparent greater tolerance between males than between females. The higher tolerance of adult males allows the formation of stable multimale groups and facilitates male dispersal into an adjacent group. Stable multifemale groups have never been documented for white-handed gibbons probably due to feeding competition between females.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Hylobates/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Antropologia Física , Feminino , Hylobates/classificação , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Tailândia
17.
Elife ; 72018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29809137

RESUMO

Given that complex behavior evolved multiple times independently in different lineages, a crucial question is whether these independent evolutionary events coincided with modifications to common neural systems. To test this question in mammals, we investigate the lateral cerebellum, a neurobiological system that is novel to mammals, and is associated with higher cognitive functions. We map the evolutionary diversification of the mammalian cerebellum and find that relative volumetric changes of the lateral cerebellar hemispheres (independent of cerebellar size) are correlated with measures of domain-general cognition in primates, and are characterized by a combination of parallel and convergent shifts towards similar levels of expansion in distantly related mammalian lineages. Results suggest that multiple independent evolutionary occurrences of increased behavioral complexity in mammals may at least partly be explained by selection on a common neural system, the cerebellum, which may have been subject to multiple independent neurodevelopmental remodeling events during mammalian evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/anatomia & histologia , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/classificação , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/fisiologia , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Bovinos/classificação , Bovinos/fisiologia , Cerebelo/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Hylobates/anatomia & histologia , Hylobates/classificação , Hylobates/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta/anatomia & histologia , Macaca mulatta/classificação , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos/classificação , Tamanho do Órgão , Leões-Marinhos/anatomia & histologia , Leões-Marinhos/classificação , Leões-Marinhos/fisiologia , Ursidae/anatomia & histologia , Ursidae/classificação , Ursidae/fisiologia
18.
Primates ; 59(4): 339-346, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691702

RESUMO

This study measured the nutritional composition of foods consumed by the northern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus annamensis) in northeastern Cambodia. One group of N. annamensis was studied, and focal animal sampling was used to observe their feeding behavior. The study was conducted for 4 months (January-April 2015) in the dry season and 69 foods were collected for nutritional analyses. N. annamensis fed on 37 plant species, but only seven species made up more than 80% of feeding time. N. annamensis spent the majority of their time feeding on fruit (60.36%), followed by young leaves (22.60%), flowers (13.74%), and mature leaves (3.30%). Fruit had the highest concentrations of total non-structural carbohydrates, while young leaves had the highest concentration of crude protein compared to other food items. All food items had similar concentrations of lipids, except young leaves, which had lower levels than fruit and flowers. All plant parts consumed by N. annamensis had similar amounts of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin. Thirty-two percent of all food items contained condensed tannins, and they had a similar level of it. All foods also had similar energy contents. This study adds to our knowledge of the feeding ecology of N. annamensis by providing baseline data on the make-up of the foods they eat and may contribute to captive feeding programs, ultimately assisting the conservation of this species.


Assuntos
Dieta , Preferências Alimentares , Hylobates/fisiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Animais , Camboja , Feminino , Masculino
19.
Zool Res ; 39(5): 356-363, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29616678

RESUMO

Gibbons and siamangs (Hylobatidae) are well-known for their rapid chromosomal evolution, which has resulted in high speciation rate within the family. On the other hand, distinct karyotypes do not prevent speciation, allowing interbreeding between individuals in captivity, and the unwanted hybrids are ethically problematic as all gibbon species are endangered or critically endangered. Thus, accurate species identification is crucial for captive breeding, particularly in China where studbooks are unavailable. Identification based on external morphology is difficult, especially for hybrids, because species are usually similar in appearance. In this study, we employed G-banding karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as well as a PCR-based approach to examine karyotypic characteristics and identify crested gibbons of the genus Nomascus from zoos and nature reserves in China. We characterized and identified five karyotypes from 21 individuals of Nomascus. Using karyotypes and mitochondrial and nuclear genes, we identified three purebred species and three hybrids, including one F2 hybrid between N. gabriellae and N. siki. Our results also supported that N. leucogenys and N. siki shared the same inversion on chromosome 7, which resolves arguments from previous studies. Our results demonstrated that both karyotyping and DNA-based approaches were suitable for identifying purebred species, though neither was ideal for hybrid identification. The advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed. Our results further highlight the importance of animal ethics and welfare, which are critical for endangered species in captivity.


Assuntos
Hylobates/genética , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Núcleo Celular/genética , China , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Genes/genética , Hylobates/classificação , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem , Mitocôndrias/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
20.
Zool Res ; 39(4): 255-265, 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29551759

RESUMO

Gibbons in China represent the northernmost margin of present day gibbon species distribution (around N25°). Compared to tropical habitats, northern gibbon habitats are characterized by low temperatures and remarkable seasonal variation in fruit abundance. How gibbons adapt to their cold and seasonal habitats and what ecological factors affect their sociality are key questions for understanding their ecology and social system evolution, the elucidation of which will contribute to the conservation of these special populations/species. According to preliminary short-term studies, northern gibbons consume more leaves and use larger home ranges than tropical gibbons. Interestingly, some Nomascus groups consist of more than one adult female. However, these preliminary results are not well understood or incorporated into current socio-ecological theories regarding gibbon species. To better understand northern gibbons, our team has systematically studied three habituated groups of Nomascus concolor, three groups of N. nasutus, and two habituated groups of Hoolock tianxing since 2002. In this paper, we stress the challenges facing gibbons living in northern habitats and summarize their behavioral adaptations to their harsh environments. We also describe the northern gibbon social system and discuss the potential relationships between their ecology and sociality. Finally, we highlight future research questions related to northern gibbons in China.


Assuntos
Hylobates , Comportamento Social , Animais , Ecologia , Florestas , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Hylobates/psicologia
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