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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801910

RESUMO

The heavy metal (HM) pollution in sediment is of serious concern, particularly in the Red Sea environment. This study aimed to review and compile data on the concentrations of four HMs (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the coastal surface sediments from the Red Sea, mainly from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Yemen, published in the literature from 1992 to 2021. The coastal sediments included those from mangrove, estuaries, and intertidal ecosystems. It was found that the mean values of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in coastal Red Sea sediments were elevated and localized in high human activity sites in comparison to the earth upper continental crust and to reference values for marine sediments. From the potential ecological risk index (PERI) aspect, 32 reports (47.1%) were categorized as 'considerable ecological risk' and 23 reports (33.8%) as 'very high ecological risk'. From the human health risk assessment (HHRA) aspect, the non-carcinogenic risk (NCR) values (HI values < 1.0) of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn represented no NCR for the ingestion and the dermal contact routes for sediments from the Red Sea countries. The reassessment of the HM data cited in the literature allowed integrative and accurate comparisons of the PERI and HHRA data, which would be useful in the management and sustainable development of the Red Sea area, besides being a helpful database for future use. This warrants extensive and continuous monitoring studies to understand the current and the projected HM pollution situation and to propose possible protective and conservative measures in the future for the resource-rich Red Sea ecosystem.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Ecossistema , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Arábia Saudita , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Iêmen
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 269, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, represents a significant public health problem in many endemic countries including Yemen. The ongoing armed conflict that started in March 2015 has had a negative impact on the entire healthcare system as well as on infectious disease control programmes. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to assess knowledge and attitude towards CL among rural endemic communities in southwestern Yemen. METHODS: Five hundred households in five areas of Shara'b district of Taiz governorate were randomly selected to participate in a quantitative survey. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data on the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, their knowledge and attitude towards CL and their knowledge on the sand fly vector. RESULTS: The analysis was conducted on a final sample of 466 individuals (62.7% males and 37.3% females) aged between 18 and 70 years. Among the participants, 21.5% were non-educated while 39.7 and 20.8% had completed secondary school and tertiary education, respectively. Although the participants were aware of CL, about three quarters (77.7%) of them had poor overall knowledge about disease transmission, clinical presentation, treatment, and prevention. Interestingly, approximately half of the participants (49.1%) were able to differentiate sand flies from other flies and mosquitoes. However, only 14.8% of the participants knew about the role of the phlebotomine sand fly in the transmission of CL. Only 36.6% believed that CL can be prevented and 49.6% had a negative attitude towards the disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age and gender were the significant determinants of knowledge about CL and the sand fly vector among the studied population. CONCLUSION: A poor level of knowledge about the different epidemiological aspects of CL was found among rural CL-endemic communities in Taiz. This factor, together with the major collapse of the healthcare infrastructure due to the ongoing civil war in Yemen, may be contributing to the continued endemicity of CL in the governorate. It is therefore recommended that health education on CL transmission and prevention should be provided to the targeted communities.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of COVID-19 in low-income and conflict-affected countries remains unclear, largely reflecting low testing rates. In parts of Yemen, reports indicated a peak in hospital admissions and burials during May-June 2020. To estimate excess mortality during the epidemic period, we quantified activity across all identifiable cemeteries within Aden governorate (population approximately 1 million) by analysing very high-resolution satellite imagery and compared estimates to Civil Registry office records. METHODS: After identifying active cemeteries through remote and ground information, we applied geospatial analysis techniques to manually identify new grave plots and measure changes in burial surface area over a period from July 2016 to September 2020. After imputing missing grave counts using surface area data, we used alternative approaches, including simple interpolation and a generalised additive mixed growth model, to predict both actual and counterfactual (no epidemic) burial rates by cemetery and across the governorate during the most likely period of COVID-19 excess mortality (from 1 April 2020) and thereby compute excess burials. We also analysed death notifications to the Civil Registry office over the same period. RESULTS: We collected 78 observations from 11 cemeteries. In all but one, a peak in daily burial rates was evident from April to July 2020. Interpolation and mixed model methods estimated ≈1500 excess burials up to 6 July, and 2120 up to 19 September, corresponding to a peak weekly increase of 230% from the counterfactual. Satellite imagery estimates were generally lower than Civil Registry data, which indicated a peak 1823 deaths in May alone. However, both sources suggested the epidemic had waned by September 2020. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first instance of satellite imagery being used for population mortality estimation. Findings suggest a substantial, under-ascertained impact of COVID-19 in this urban Yemeni governorate and are broadly in line with previous mathematical modelling predictions, though our method cannot distinguish direct from indirect virus deaths. Satellite imagery burial analysis appears a promising novel approach for monitoring epidemics and other crisis impacts, particularly where ground data are difficult to collect.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Cemitérios , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Imagens de Satélites , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Iêmen/epidemiologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24419, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592890

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Childhood malnutrition is a serious public health problem in Yemen. However, there is a limited information regarding association of malnutrition with different socio-economic factors. This study examines the correlates of socioeconomic and maternal behavioral factors on malnutrition in Yemeni children under 5 years of age.Our study focuses on the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, and uses the data provided by the cross-sectional study namely Yemen National Demographic and Health Survey. Three anthropometric indicators: stunting, wasting, and underweight were selected for the evaluation of malnutrition. Independent variables include personal and maternal characteristics, socioeconomic and behavioral factors, and illness conditions. The study used the Chi-Squared test to test the significant association between independent variables and logistic regression to estimate the odds of being malnourished.A total of 13,624 Yemeni children under 5 years of age were included in the study. The results show the high malnutrition level - the prevalence of stunting was 47%, wasting was 16%, and underweight was 39%. There is a statistically significant association between socioeconomic status, behavioral factors, and child malnutrition. The odds of malnutrition decreased with the increase in the level of mother's education, economic status, and frequency of prenatal visits. The odds of malnutrition were least for children whose mothers had highest level of education (OR = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.55-0.76), who belonged to highest wealth index (OR = 0.41; 95%CI = 0.36-0.47). Moreover, the likelihood of malnutrition was less among the children whose mother had highest number of prenatal visits during the pregnancy (OR = 0.67; 95%CI = 0.59-0.76).The high prevalence of stunting, wasting, and undernutrition were found in Yemeni children. Different factors such as regional variations, socio-economic disparities, and maternal education and health care utilization behavior are found to be associated with high malnutrition. These findings provide important policy implications to improving childhood malnutrition in Yemen.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Iêmen/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0233279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315866

RESUMO

The first documented Rift Valley hemorrhagic fever outbreak in the Arabian Peninsula occurred in northwestern Yemen and southwestern Saudi Arabia from August 2000 to September 2001. This Rift Valley fever outbreak is unique because the virus was introduced into Arabia during or after the 1997-1998 East African outbreak and before August 2000, either by wind-blown infected mosquitos or by infected animals, both from East Africa. A wet period from August 2000 into 2001 resulted in a large number of amplification vector mosquitoes, these mosquitos fed on infected animals, and the outbreak occurred. More than 1,500 people were diagnosed with the disease, at least 215 died, and widespread losses of domestic animals were reported. Using a combination of satellite data products, including 2 x 2 m digital elevation images derived from commercial satellite data, we show rainfall and potential areas of inundation or water impoundment were favorable for the 2000 outbreak. However, favorable conditions for subsequent outbreaks were present in 2007 and 2013, and very favorable conditions were also present in 2016-2018. The lack of subsequent Rift Valley fever outbreaks in this area suggests that Rift Valley fever has not been established in mosquito species in Southwest Arabia, or that strict animal import inspection and quarantine procedures, medical and veterinary surveillance, and mosquito control efforts put in place in Saudi Arabia following the 2000 outbreak have been successful. Any area with Rift Valley fever amplification vector mosquitos present is a potential outbreak area unless strict animal import inspection and quarantine proceedures are in place.


Assuntos
Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Febre do Vale de Rift/história , África Oriental/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Arábia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/patogenicidade , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Iêmen/epidemiologia
7.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(12): 1374-1379, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378278

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently one of the most important public health crises affecting the global human population. It continues to spread widely, as the world still lacks specific treatments and a vaccine for the virus. The scenario of COVID-19 in Yemen seems obscure due to the lack of adequate data, therefore, we developed an electronic questionnaire and distributed it online among Yemeni people. The aim of this study was to understand the COVID-19 epidemiological situation in Yemen better since there is currently limited published data and limited availability of COVID-19 testing. METHODOLOGY: A 34-question web-based survey was distributed on social media outlets targeting people in Yemen. Data aggregation, analysis, and visualization were performed using Tableau and Microsoft Excel. RESULTS: 2,341 individuals reported symptoms concerning for COVID-19 infection, with 25.4% reporting a chronic medical condition. Diabetes, hypertension, asthma, and immune deficiency were associated with increased severity of the disease, while obesity, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and liver disease were not. Only 37 individuals (1.6%) had a confirmatory COVID-19 PCR test. The presence of high fever, dyspnea, chest pain, and dysphagia were symptoms that tended to be correlated to worse clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some important information about the early overspread of COVID-19 within the Yemeni community in May, June, and July of 2020. It shows that online questionnaires may help in collecting data about pandemics in resource-limited countries where testing availability is limited.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Mídias Sociais , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(11): e1435-e1443, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In conflict settings, data to guide humanitarian and development responses are often scarce. Although geospatial analyses have been used to estimate health-care access in many countries, such techniques have not been widely applied to inform real-time operations in protracted health emergencies. Doing so could provide a more robust approach for identifying and prioritising populations in need, targeting assistance, and assessing impact. We aimed to use geospatial analyses to overcome such data gaps in Yemen, the site of one of the world's worst ongoing humanitarian crises. METHODS: We derived geospatial coordinates, functionality, and service availability data for Yemen health facilities from the Health Resources and Services Availability Monitoring System assessment done by WHO and the Yemen Ministry of Public Health and Population. We modelled population spatial distribution using high-resolution satellite imagery, UN population estimates, and census data. A road network grid was built from OpenStreetMap and satellite data and modified using UN Yemen Logistics Cluster data and other datasets to account for lines of conflict and road accessibility. Using this information, we created a geospatial network model to deduce the travel time of Yemeni people to their nearest health-care facilities. FINDINGS: In 2018, we estimated that nearly 8·8 million (30·6%) of the total estimated Yemeni population of 28·7 million people lived more than 30-min travel time from the nearest fully or partially functional public primary health-care facility, and more than 12·1 million (42·4%) Yemeni people lived more than 1 h from the nearest fully or partially functional public hospital, assuming access to motorised transport. We found that access varied widely by district and type of health service, with almost 40% of the population living more than 2 h from comprehensive emergency obstetric and surgical care. We identified and ranked districts according to the number of people living beyond acceptable travel times to facilities and services. We found substantial variability in access and that many front-line districts were among those with the poorest access. INTERPRETATION: These findings provide the most comprehensive estimates of geographical access to health care in Yemen since the outbreak of the current conflict, and they provide proof of concept for how geospatial techniques can be used to address data gaps and rigorously inform health programming. Such information is of crucial importance for humanitarian and development organisations seeking to improve effectiveness and accountability. FUNDING: Global Financing Facility for Women, Children, and Adolescents Trust Fund; Development and Data Science grant; and the Yemen Emergency Health and Nutrition Project, a partnership between the World Bank, UNICEF, and WHO.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Socorro em Desastres , Análise Espacial , Iêmen
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1541, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growing incidence of coronavirus (COVID-19) continues to cause fear, anxiety, and panic amongst the community, especially for healthcare providers (HCPs), as the most vulnerable group at risk of contracting this new SARS-CoV-2 infection. To protect and enhance the ability of HCPs to perform their role in responding to COVID-19, healthcare authorities must help to alleviate the level of stress and anxiety amongst HCPs and the community. This will improve the knowledge, attitude and practice towards COVID-19, especially for HCPs. In addition, authorities need to comply in treating this virus by implementing control measures and other precautions. This study explores the knowledge, attitude, anxiety, and preventive behaviours among Yemeni HCPs towards COVID-19. METHODS: A descriptive, web-based-cross-sectional study was conducted among 1231 Yemeni HCPs. The COVID-19 related questionnaire was designed using Google forms where the responses were coded and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software package (IBM SPSS), version 22.0. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were also employed in this study. A p-value of < 0.05 with a 95% confidence interval was considered as statistically significant. The data collection phase commenced on 22nd April 2020, at 6 pm and finished on 26th April 2020 at 11 am. RESULTS: The results indicated that from the 1231 HCPs participating in this study, 61.6% were male, and 67% were aged between 20 and 30 years with a mean age of 29.29 ± 6.75. Most (86%) held a bachelor's degree or above having at least 10 years of work experience or less (88.1%). However, while 57.1% of the respondents obtained their information via social networks and news media, a further 60.0% had never attended lectures/discussions about COVID-19. The results further revealed that the majority of respondents had adequate knowledge, optimistic attitude, moderate level of anxiety, and high-performance in preventive behaviours, 69.8, 85.10%, 51.0 and 87.70%, respectively, towards COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Although the Yemeni HCPs exhibited an adequate level of knowledge, optimistic attitude, moderate level of anxiety, and high-performance in preventive behaviours toward COVID-19, the results highlighted gaps, particularly in their knowledge and attitude towards COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241260, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119720

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Yemen was one of the last countries in the world to declare the first case of the pandemic, on 10 April 2020. Fear and concerns of catastrophic outcomes of the epidemic in Yemen were immediately raised, as the country is facing a complex humanitarian crisis. The purpose of this report is to describe the epidemiological situation in Yemen during the first 2 months of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. METHODS: We analyzed the epidemiological data from 18 February to 05 June 2020, including the 2 months before the confirmation of the first case. We included in our analysis the data from 10 out of 23 governorates of Yemen, located in southern and eastern part of the country. RESULTS: A total of 469 laboratory confirmed, 552 probable and 55 suspected cases with onset of symptoms between 18 February and 5 June 2020 were reported through the surveillance system. The median age among confirmed cases was 46 years (range: 1-90 years), and 75% of the confirmed cases were male. A total of 111 deaths were reported among those with confirmed infection. The mean age among those who died was 53 years (range: 14-88 years), with 63% of deaths (n = 70) occurring in individuals under the age 60 years. A total of 268 individuals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were hospitalized (57%), among whom there were 95 in-hospital deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The surveillance strategy implemented in the first 2 months of the SARS CoV 2 in the southern and eastern governorates of Yemen, captured mainly severe cases. The mild and moderate cases were not self-reported to the health facilities and surveillance system due to limited resources, stigma, and other barriers. The mortality appeared to be higher in individuals aged under 60 years, and most fatalities occurred in individuals who were in critical condition when they reached the health facilities. It is unclear whether the presence of other acute comorbidities contributed to the high death rate among SARS-CoV-2 cases. The findings only include the southern and eastern part of the country, which is home to 31% of the total population of Yemen, as the data from the northern part of the country was inaccessible for analysis. This makes our results not generalizable to the rest of the country.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Zootaxa ; 4853(4): zootaxa.4853.4.8, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056363

RESUMO

Two new species of the genus Neoheterospilus Belokobylskij, 2006, N. (N.) alkowdi sp. nov. and N. (N.) yemenus sp. nov., are described and illustrated from Yemen. An updated key for determination of the Neoheterospilus (Neoheterospilus s. str.) species is provided.


Assuntos
Vespas , Animais , Iêmen
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756558

RESUMO

New World archaeologists have amply demonstrated that fluted point technology is specific to Terminal Pleistocene American cultures. Base-fluted, and rarer tip-fluted, projectile points from the Americas have been well-documented by archaeologists for nearly a century. Fluting is an iconic stone tool manufacturing method and a specific action that involves the extraction of a channel flake along the longitudinal axis of a bifacial piece. Here we report and synthesize information from Neolithic sites in southern Arabia, demonstrating the presence of fluting on a variety of stone tool types including projectile points. Fluted projectile points are known from both surface sites and stratified contexts in southern Arabia. Fluting technology has been clearly identified at the Manayzah site (Yemen) dating to 8000-7700 cal. BP. Examination of fluted points and channel flakes from southern Arabia enable a reconstruction of stone tool manufacturing techniques and reduction sequences (chaines opératoires). To illustrate the technological similarities and contrasts of fluting methods in Arabia and the Americas, comparative studies and experiments were conducted. Similarities in manufacturing approaches were observed on the fluting scars of bifacial pieces, whereas technological differences are apparent in the nature and localization of the flute and, most probably, the functional objective of fluting in economic, social and cultural contexts. Arabian and American fluted point technologies provide an excellent example of convergence of highly specialized stone tool production methods. Our description of Arabian and American fluting technology demonstrates that similar innovations and inventions were developed under different circumstances, and that highly-skilled and convergent production methods can have different anthropological implications.


Assuntos
Tecnologia/história , América , Arábia , Arqueologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Invenções/história , Indústria Manufatureira/história , Iêmen
15.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 53(4): 289-292, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752599

RESUMO

Yemen has been faced with the worst cholera epidemic of modern times, with more than 1 million suspected cases and 3000 deaths at the time of writing. This problem is largely due to the longstanding civil war between pro-government forces and the Houthi armed movement, which has severely damaged already vulnerable sanitation and healthcare facilities and systems in the country. It is further compounded by a dire lack of basic amenities, chronic malnutrition, and unfavourable weather conditions. Another contributory component may be aerial transfer by cholera-infected chironomid insects. To contain the spread of cholera in Yemen, a nation-wide armistice should be negotiated, and national and local committees must be convened to coordinate efforts on the ground. Community isolation facilities with proper sanitation, reliable disposal systems, and a clean water supply should be set up to isolate and treat sick patients. The continuity of vaccination programmes should be ensured. Public health campaigns to educate local communities about good hygiene practices and nutrition are also necessary. The One Health paradigm emphasizes a multi-sectoral and transdisciplinary understanding and approach to prevent and mitigate the threat of communicable diseases. This paradigm is highly applicable to the ongoing cholera crisis in Yemen, as it demands a holistic and whole-of-society approach at the local, regional, and national levels. The key stakeholders and warring parties in Yemen must work towards a lasting ceasefire during these trying times, especially given the extra burden from the mounting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak worldwide.


Assuntos
Cólera/prevenção & controle , Epidemias , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Saúde Única , Saúde Pública/métodos , Cólera/diagnóstico , Cólera/terapia , Humanos , Iêmen
16.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(10): 948-953, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730784

RESUMO

In 2019, a Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology Commission on accelerating the elimination of viral hepatitis reported on the status of 11 viral hepatitis policy indicators in 66 countries and territories with the heaviest burden by global region. Policies were reported as being either in place, in development, or not in place. This study uses the Commission findings to estimate hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) policy scores and rankings for these 66 countries and territories. We applied a multiple correspondence analysis technique to reduce data on policy indicators into a weighted summary for the HBV and HCV policies. We calculated HBV and HCV policy scores for each country. Countries and territories that received higher scores had more policies in place and in development than did countries with lower scores. The highest scoring country for HBV was Australia, whereas Somalia had the lowest score. For the HCV policy score, Australia and New Zealand had perfect scores, whereas Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen had the lowest scores, all having no policy indicators in place.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Erradicação de Doenças/legislação & jurisprudência , Carga Global da Doença/economia , Política de Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde/tendências , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Somália/epidemiologia , Sudão/epidemiologia , Iêmen/epidemiologia
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 36765-36781, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572745

RESUMO

Currently, the renewable energy sectors have dynamically revolved around targeting green turbulence, mainly due to increased customer environmental awareness. Therefore, this paper investigates green initiatives. The results show barriers and explain the strategies for adopting green renewable energy sources in Yemen. The political barrier has the highest weight of 0.191, while technical barrier sored the second highest weight of 0.181. The weights of managerial and information energy were found to be 0.18 and 0.17, respectively. Market barrier weighed the lowest score of 0.12, while economic barrier (0.15 weight) is the barrier to develop renewable energy road map. The research developed a comprehensive decision making framework to identify major barriers, sub-barriers, and develop plans for green energy in Yemen. Fuzzy analytical hierarchal process (FAHP) results indicate that the category of political obstacles is more important than other obstacles. Yemen has undergone power reforms and achieved better energy efficiency, compared to the countries that have applied imperfect. Economic efficiency in Yemen is the lowest among the considered barriers. Twenty-five percent of the considered barriers were identified with an alarming efficiency of 0.5%. The effects of FTOPSIS show that the planned explanation "developing research methods to achieve green innovation in renewable" energy is significant to address the obstacles to green innovation in renewable energy.


Assuntos
Energia Renovável , Iêmen
20.
Health Secur ; 18(2): 125-131, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324073

RESUMO

The cholera epidemic in Yemen, which began in October 2016 and reached its peak in 2017, was the largest disease outbreak in modern history. Suspected cases topped 1 million, and there were more than 2,000 confirmed deaths in the first 8 months of the outbreak. Although cholera is an ancient disease, and there were other countries around the globe experiencing outbreaks at the same time as the outbreak in Yemen, Yemen's outbreak had a number of unique features. The outbreak spread at an unprecedented pace and has been directly linked to the country's ongoing armed conflict. In this article we ask: What does the recent cholera outbreak in Yemen teach us about the relationship between conflict and infectious disease? Is the intentional targeting of infrastructure, as is occurring in Yemen, the new face of modern warfare? And what implications does a strategy of infrastructure destruction have for global health security? To answer these questions, we examined the history of the conflict in Yemen, the relationship between conflict and infectious disease, the intentional destruction of infrastructure throughout Yemen, and the resulting cholera outbreak. We discuss health as a weapon of war and seek to understand whether this indirect form of biological warfare is a new standard war tactic. Lastly, we address what the weaponization of health means for both global health security and US national security.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Guerra , Saúde Global , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Abastecimento de Água , Iêmen/epidemiologia
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