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1.
Int J Psychol ; 55(5): 779-788, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940935

RESUMO

School belonging is pivotal in enabling sustained task engagement, yet minorities' belonging is contingent on the intergroup context. From a social identity approach, discrimination experiences elicit identity threat, undermining school belonging. Conversely, a positive diversity climate may shield belonging through protecting minority identities. This study addresses minority school belonging and task engagement from the interplay of identity threat and protection in diverse classrooms. We hypothesise that a positive diversity climate can buffer minority disengagement in response to discrimination by protecting school belonging. Drawing on Turkish and Moroccan minority samples (N = 1050) in 274 diverse classrooms in 52 Belgian secondary schools, we test multilevel models with school belonging as mediating process connecting minorities' engagement to the interplay of discrimination experiences with perceived diversity climate. Minority youth who experienced discrimination from teachers reported less school belonging, which in turn predicted lower task engagement. Conversely, minority perceptions of a positive diversity climate predicted more belonging. Moreover, perceived diversity climate buffered minority engagement against personal experiences of discrimination through protecting school belonging. Whereas discrimination experiences undermined minority school belonging and task engagement, minority perceptions of a positive diversity climate protected belonging and engagement against discrimination.


Assuntos
Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo
2.
Acad Med ; 95(8): 1128, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740385
3.
Educ. fis. deporte ; 39(2): https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/educacionfisicaydeporte/article/view/339629, Julio 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104470

RESUMO

A Carta Olímpica exige que, para participar de uma edição dos Jogos Olímpicos, um atleta seja vinculado a um Comitê Olímpico e seja nacional daquela localidade. O que é aparentemente simples, mas que torna- se um elemento importante em tempos de grande mobilidade e circulação de pessoas. Apesar de não ser um fenômeno recente, o aumento no número de atletas naturalizados nas últimas edições olímpicas chama a atenção de gestores e outros personagens envolvidos com o esporte. Este estudo se baseia em uma revisão teórica e em dados sobre a participação de atletas que não nasceram no Brasil e representaram o país nos Jogos Olímpicos, discute o conceito de nacionalidade esportiva e seu diálogo com a nacionalidade estatal ao longo da história, ressaltando que esta é uma temática com grande relevância nos dias atuais.


The Olympic Charter requires that, to participate in an edition of the Olympic Games, an athlete must be linked to an Olympic Committee, and must be a native of that locality. Something apparently simple, but it becomes an important element in times of high mobility and movement of people. Although not being a recent phenomenon, the increase in the number of naturalized athletes in the last Olympic editions commands the attention of managers and other persons involved with the sport. This study, based on theoretical review and data on the participation of athletes who were not born in Brazil and represented the country at the Olympic Games, discusses the concept of sports nationality and its dialogue with state nationality throughout history, emphasizing that it is a theme with great relevance today.


La Carta Olímpica requiere que, para participar en una edición de los Juegos Olímpicos, un atleta debe estar vinculado a un Comité Olímpico y debe ser nativo de ese lugar. Lo que es aparentemente simple, se convierte en un elemento importante en tiempos de gran movilidad y movimiento de personas. A pesar de no ser un fenómeno reciente, el aumento en el número de atletas naturalizados en las últimas ediciones olímpicas atrae la atención de los gerentes y otros personajes involucrados en el deporte. Este estudio, basado en una revisión teórica y datos sobre la participación de atletas que no nacieron en Brasil, y representaron al país en los Juegos Olímpicos, discute el concepto de nacionalidad deportiva y su diálogo con la nacionalidad estatal a lo largo de la historia, enfatizando en que esto es un tema de gran relevancia hoy.


Assuntos
Esportes , Identificação Social , Grupos Étnicos , Migração Humana , Construção Social da Identidade Étnica
5.
AIDS Rev ; 22(2): 123-124, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628222

RESUMO

The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has risen a number of clinical situations where the principles of the medical act, the singularity of the patient-physician relationship and the need for revitalizing the medical vocation have all become at front line. Original articles, viewpoints, and perspectives addressing these aspects have appeared in major medical journals. Never before but perhaps with AIDS in the eighties, a disease awakened such feelings of commitment in medicine. Herein, we discuss some of these very sensitive issues for physicians that emerged during the past months of global COVID-19 crisis.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Pandemias/ética , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ética Médica , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Casas de Saúde , Papel do Médico , Relações Médico-Paciente , Médicos/ética , Médicos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial , Identificação Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Triagem/ética
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235931, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706771

RESUMO

Three studies have tested the hypothesis that intermediate-status groups are more oriented to ally with outgroups when their social position is under threat. In study 1, participants believed that their ingroup was intermediate in status and social stratification was manipulated as either stable or status-detrimental unstable. Results indicated that participants were more likely to seek alliances a) with a high-status group and b) when social stratification was status-detrimental unstable. Study 2 showed that participants were more likely to seek alliances with a lower status group when social stratification was status-detrimental unstable rather than stable, while they were supportive of policies helping disadvantaged groups regardless of the stability of social stratification. Study 3 showed that when social stratification was status-detrimental unstable, intermediate-status group members were more oriented to ally with a low-status group, equally supportive of policies helping disadvantaged groups, but less oriented to supplying direct help to a low-status group.


Assuntos
Identificação Social , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , Predomínio Social , Percepção Social
8.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S171-S173, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525393

RESUMO

The physical and social isolation measures associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, although certainly necessary to contain the spread of the virus, represent a particularly distressing aspect that might accentuate the fears and pain associated with the disease, especially for patients, their family members, and health-care professionals. Affiliative responses to the crises are emerging as ad hoc or formally endorsed practices within COVID-19 facilities in Italy, aimed at establishing links of communication between patients and family members by using new communication technologies. Tending to the emotional needs of patients and mending the affiliative connections interrupted by the disease are good examples of interdisciplinary cohesion and affiliative responses to the COVID-19 emergency. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Identificação Social , Isolamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Itália , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Trauma Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234540, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584831

RESUMO

The importance of social connection to well-being is underscored by individuals' reactivity to events highlighting the potential for rejection and exclusion, which extends even to observing the social exclusion of others ("vicarious ostracism"). Because responses to vicarious ostracism depend at least in part on empathy with the target, and individuals tend to empathize less readily with outgroup than ingroup members, the question arises as to whether there is a boundary condition on vicarious ostracism effects whereby individuals are relatively immune to observing ingroup-on-outgroup ostracism. Of particular interest is the case where members of a dominant ethnic group observe fellow ingroup members ostracize a member of a disadvantaged ethnic minority group, as here there is a compelling potential alternative: Perceived violation of contemporary social norms condemning prejudice and discrimination might instead lead dominant group members to be especially upset by "dominant-on-disadvantaged" ostracism. Accordingly, the present research examines, across four studies and 4413 participants, individuals' affective reactions to observing dominant-on-disadvantaged versus dominant-on-dominant ostracism. In each study, dominant group members (White/Europeans) observed dominant group members include or ostracize a fellow dominant group member or a disadvantaged ethnic minority group member (a Black individual) in an online Cyberball game. Results revealed that dominant group members felt more guilt, anger, and sadness after observing severe ostracism of a disadvantaged as opposed to dominant group member. Although no direct effects emerged on behavioral outcomes, exploratory analyses suggested that observing ostracism of a disadvantaged (versus dominant) group member had indirect effects on behavior via increased feelings of anger. These results suggest that observing ostracism may be a sufficiently potent and relatable experience that when it occurs across group boundaries it awakens individuals' sensitivity to injustice and discrimination.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Distância Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Preconceito , Identificação Social , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234621, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544207

RESUMO

Recent studies on water demand management show that providing visual information on water usage along with social comparisons with neighbouring households resulted in more efficient water usage. However, social comparisons can be discomforting for participants, especially in the case of downward or negative evaluations. To avoid this, some studies promote the use of social identity, a social norm approach that avoids comparisons. Past studies using social comparison used infographics, whereas other study types have used only textual (non-graphic) information. Therefore, in this study, we created a visualisation of water usage to highlight the importance of water as a shared resource, that is, as a public good, and feedback over six months according to the participants' water usage. A difference-in-difference analysis indicated that the feedback was marginally significant in decreasing water consumption immediately and continuously, especially for the middle and low use households, during the summer months, which is a period of perceived water shortage. From the questionnaire survey, we found that households felt that they determined their water usage based on their preference and were satisfied with the outcome.


Assuntos
Gestão da Saúde da População , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Economia , Humanos , Identificação Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Med Care ; 58(7): 594-600, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research has found that adverse events have significant negative consequences for the patients (first victim) and caregivers (second victim) involved such as burnout. However, research has yet to examine the consequences of adverse events on members of caregiving units. We also lack research on the effects of the personal and job resources that shape the context of how adverse events are experienced. OBJECTIVES: We test the relationship between job demands (the number of adverse events on a hospital nursing unit) and nurses' experience of burnout. We further explore the ways in which personal (workgroup identification) and job (safety climate) resources amplify or dampen this relationship. Specifically, we examine whether, and the conditions under which, adverse events affect nurse burnout. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of survey data on nurse burnout linked to hospital incident reporting system data on adverse event rates for the year before survey administration and survey data on workgroup identification and safety climate. SUBJECTS: Six hundred three registered nurses from 30 nursing units in a large, urban hospital in the Midwest completed questionnaires. RESULTS: Multilevel regression analysis indicated that adverse events were positively associated with nurse burnout. The effects of adverse events on nurse burnout were amplified when nurses exhibited high levels of workgroup identification and attenuated when safety climate perceptions were higher. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse events have broader negative consequences than previously thought, widely affecting nurse burnout on caregiving units, especially when nurses strongly identify with their workgroup. These effects are mitigated when leaders cultivate safety climate.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Gestão da Segurança/normas , Identificação Social , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/complicações , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Erros Médicos/psicologia , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Cultura Organizacional , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Gestão da Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/normas , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Educ Prim Care ; 31(4): 200-204, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589524

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically impacted undergraduate medical studies. Whilst challenges for knowledge and clinical skills are being actively addressed, wider considerations such as the impact on professional identity development have been mostly neglected thus far. A robust professional identity is linked to professional behaviour and has been shown to reduce burnout and be an important factor for general practice career choice amongst medical students. The Communities of Practice Model is a sociocultural approach that conceptualises the formation of professional identity through student engagement within a community. We argue the current suspension of clinical placements holds the potential to negatively influence such identity acquisition. In this commentary we explore how the Communities of Practice Model may inform professional identity development of medical students within the COVID-19 environment, considering digital communities and volunteering roles within primary care. We further encourage educators and institutions to consider professional identity in future planning to address the challenges posed by the current situation, both in terms of placement loss but also changes in the way primary care is delivered. Such considerations will be essential if we are to avoid problems relating to poor medical student professional identity development in future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Papel Profissional , Identificação Social , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Voluntários
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545496

RESUMO

The main objective of this research is to evaluate the influence of job involvement over job satisfaction mediated through the professional skill use and moderated by group identification. The sample of the current research was composed of 420 subjects. The main results showed that job involvement was strongly related to skill use and group identification. Moreover, the interaction of job involvement and group identification is negatively related with skill use. Our results show that there is no statistically significant relationship between job involvement and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the use of skills is strongly related to job satisfaction. Lastly, we found that a strong group identification tends to harm job satisfaction values.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Identificação Social , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(3): 584-593, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474966

RESUMO

In the face of a novel infectious disease, changing our collective behaviour is critical to saving lives. One determinant of risk perception and risk behaviour that is often overlooked is the degree to which we share psychological group membership with others. We outline, and summarize supporting evidence for, a theoretical model that articulates the role of shared group membership in attenuating health risk perception and increasing health risk behaviour. We emphasize the importance of attending to these processes in the context of the ongoing response to COVID-19 and conclude with three recommendations for how group processes can be harnessed to improve this response.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Processos Grupais , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Identificação Social , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pandemias , Percepção , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Confiança/psicologia
15.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 83, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503531

RESUMO

The association between contextual factors and health inequalities is well documented, also in Brazil. However, questions about how contextual factors actually affect health and well-being persist. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how contextual factors-i.e., social stratification and neighborhood opportunity structures-are manifested in the lives of the residents of a vulnerable district in Brazil. We used a Constructivist Grounded Theory approach based on 12 in-depth interviews. The core category constructing social identity through multiple "us and them" is supported by eight main categories that characterize different pairs of "us and them", based on internal and external aspects of the social processes involved. Our findings strengthen and support the links between contextual factors and health inequalities, highlighting the relevance of downward social comparison, territorial segregation and stigmatization and erosion of social capital in the construction of social identities and the manifestation of social hierarchies and neighborhood structures in the Brazilian context. Ultimately, these create shame and stress but also pride and empowerment, which are recognized determinants of health inequities.


Assuntos
Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Identificação Social , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the process of professional identity construction in undergraduate nursing students during their education. METHOD: qualitative research, anchored in the Historical-Cultural framework. Twenty-three undergraduate nursing students took part. Data were collected through individual interviews, with a semi-structured script. Thematic Analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: the following four themes were obtained, "The subject in movement to become a nurse: from previous experiences to entering the courses"; "The nursing professor in the construction of the undergraduate's professional identity: a two-way mirror"; "Pedagogical relationship: instrument for constructing the student's professional identity" and "Historical-cultural conditions: space for the construction of the student's professional identity". CONCLUSION: the construction of the students' professional identity is limited to the material conditions of existence, translating appropriation to the intrapsychic scope of elements that occur, first, in the inter-psychological space of interactions. Nursing professors can become a paradoxical mirror, with one face to be imitated and the other, which materializes meanings of a model not to be followed. This construction is also influenced by the conditions of professional practice and university education.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Identificação Social
17.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S156-S158, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463285

RESUMO

The present article assesses the effects of shattered social identity and moral injuries experienced by health care professionals (HCPs) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Professional expertise and emotional-cognitive demands as key aspects of HCPs' social identity are introduced, and the effects of moral injuries-in terms of violation of medical-ethical and social-ethical norms-on the mental health of HCPs are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Ética Médica , Pessoal de Saúde , Princípios Morais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Trauma Psicológico , Identificação Social , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Trauma Psicológico/etiologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Autoeficácia
18.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S249-S251, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463288

RESUMO

This article describes an integrative social psychological framework within which human reactions to COVID-19 can be understood and predicted. It is argued that social representations of COVID-19 (and its mitigation strategies) must resonate among diverse communities, not be too threatening, and provide clear pathways for action and engagement. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autoimagem , Identificação Social , Isolamento Social , Adulto , Humanos , Teoria Psicológica , Reino Unido
19.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e70, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349818

RESUMO

Tomasello's account of the origins and nature of moral obligation rightly emphasises the key roles of social relations and a cooperative sense of "we." However, we suggest that it overlooks the complexity of those social relations and the resulting prevalence of a divided "we" in moral social groups. We argue that the social identity dynamics that arise can lead to competing obligations in a single group, and this has implications for the evolution of obligation.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Identificação Social
20.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(7): 2240-2242, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410125

RESUMO

The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) has skyrocketed, as providers don masks, glasses, and gowns to protect their eyes, noses, and mouths from COVID-19. Yet these same facial features express human individuality, and are crucial to nonverbal communication. Isolated ICU patients may develop "post intensive-care syndrome," which mimics PTSD with sometimes debilitating consequences. While far from a complete solution, PPE Portraits (disposable portrait picture stickers - 4" × 5") have the potential to humanize care. Preparing for a larger effectiveness evaluation on patient and provider experience, we collected initial qualitative implementation insights during Spring 2020's chaotic surge preparation. Front-line providers reported more comfort with patient interactions while wearing PPE Portraits: "It makes it feel less like a disaster zone [for the patient]." A brief pilot showed signs of significant adoption: a participating physician requested PPE Portraits at their clinic, shift nurses had taken PPE Portraits with them to inpatient services, and masked medical assistant team-members requested PPE Portraits to wear over scrubs. We believe PPE Portraits may support patient care and health, and even potentially healthcare team function and provider wellness. While we await data on these effects, we hope hospitals can use our findings to speed their own implementation testing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pessoal de Saúde , Pandemias , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral , Retratos como Assunto , Roupa de Proteção , Identificação Social , Transtornos Relacionados a Trauma e Fatores de Estresse/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/ética , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/tendências , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
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