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1.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(5): 523-535, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial discrimination is prevalent among Black Americans, and may increase risk for alcohol use and related problems. Understanding the mediating and moderating factors in the pathways linking racial discrimination to alcohol use outcomes is important for prevention and intervention efforts. We tested depressive symptoms as a mediator and ethnic-racial identity as a moderator in the relation between racial discrimination and alcohol use outcomes among Black American young adults. METHODS: We used data from 2 independent samples of Black American young adults recruited from different regions in the United States. The first sample included 383 Black American young adults (Mage = 20.65, SD = 2.28; 81% female), and the second sample included 165 Black American young adults (Mage = 21.56, SD = 4.92; 75% female). RESULTS: Racial discrimination was associated with alcohol consumption and problems indirectly via depressive symptoms across the 2 independent samples. Moderation was evident for one sample such that high private regard levels buffered the association between racial discrimination and alcohol consumption, whereas high public regard levels exacerbated the association between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Racial discrimination experiences put Black American young adults at risk for alcohol use and related problems through increased depressive symptoms. Ethnic-racial identity may buffer or exacerbate these associations depending on the specific dimension. The findings imply the need to target depressive symptoms and alcohol use simultaneously to promote health and well-being among Black Americans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Depressão , Racismo , Identificação Social , Estudantes , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Dev Psychol ; 57(6): 991-999, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424015

RESUMO

Expecting discrimination in one's future occupation is known to have negative implications for adolescents' career pathways. However, little is known about how such discriminatory expectations emerge. The current contentious sociopolitical climate toward immigrants, especially those of Latinx heritage, has contributed to heightened discrimination against adolescents in this group. The present study examined how experiences of discrimination over time relate to youths' expectations of future occupational barriers among 148 Latinx adolescents at 3 annual waves (82% U.S.-born; 53% female; Mage = 13.54 at Wave 1). Results suggest that Latinx youth report increasing exposure to ethnic-racial discrimination and objectification as a perceived foreigner over time. Moreover, as Latinx youth perceived more ethnic-racial discrimination and foreigner objectification over the course of adolescence they increasingly expected to face racial and ethnic barriers in their future occupations. Implications of these findings for an increasing Latinx youth and working-age population in the United States are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Racismo , Adolescente , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Identificação Social , Estados Unidos
3.
J Behav Addict ; 10(2): 223-233, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280128

RESUMO

Background and aims: Previous studies have reported that stronger avatar identification and negative self-concept are associated with gaming disorder (GD). This study aimed to examine the value and significance of avatars based on firsthand accounts from regular and problematic gamers, and to identify any potential links between avatar-related experiences and excessive gaming. Methods: An online survey of 993 adult gamers yielded 3,972 text responses. Qualitative analysis of 59,059 words extracted 10 categories of avatar-related perspectives. Results: Some problem and non-problem gamers employed sentimental language (e.g., 'dear friend', 'like a child', 'part of my soul') to refer to their avatar. However, most participants perceived avatars as a means of achieving in-game goals and enabling greater interactivity (e.g., socializing). When asked to reflect on hypothetically losing their avatar, participants generally anticipated feeling temporary frustration or annoyance due to lost time and effort invested into the avatar. Although some participants reported that their avatar 'mattered', avatars were often considered as superficial ('just pixels') and peripheral to the primary reinforcement of achieving in-game rewards and objectives. Some broader psychological and identity issues such as gender dysphoria, rather than 'addiction', were cited as motivating persistent avatar-related interactions and attachment. Discussion and conclusions: Participants reported diverse views on the psychological value and function of avatars, but the relationship between avatars and problematic gaming or GD was largely unclear or inconsistent, and refuted by some participants. Future research with clinical samples may lead to a better understanding of player-avatar processes, including whether avatar-stimuli facilitate the development of maladaptive gaming habits, particularly among psychologically vulnerable players. Future investigations should be mindful of 'overpathologizing' avatar-related phenomena and recognize their important role in socializing, storytelling, and creative expression among gamers.


Assuntos
Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia , Desempenho de Papéis , Autoimagem , Identificação Social , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 389, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Professional identity formation is nurtured through socialization, driven by interaction with role models, and supported through early clinical exposure (ECE) programmes. Non-healthcare professionals form part of the hospital community but are external to the culture of medicine, with their potential as role models unexplored. We employed text mining of student reflective assignments to explore the impact of socialization with non-healthcare professionals during ECE. METHODS: Assignments from 259 first-year medical students at Fukushima Medical University, Japan, underwent hierarchical cluster analysis. Interrelationships between the most-frequently-occurring words were analysed to create coding rules, which were applied to elucidate underlying themes. RESULTS: A shift in terms describing professional characteristics was detected, from "knowledge/skill" towards "pride [in one's work]" and "responsibility". Seven themes emerged: contribution of non-healthcare professionals, diversity of occupation, pride, responsibility, teamwork, patient care and gratitude. Students mentioning 'contribution of non-healthcare professionals' spoke of altruistic dedication and strong sense of purpose. These students expressed gratitude towards non-healthcare professionals for supporting clinical work, from a doctor's perspective. CONCLUSION: Socialization with non-healthcare professionals provides important insights into the hospital working environment and cultural working norms. Through role modelling altruism and responsibility, non-healthcare professionals positively influenced student professional identity formation, promoting self-conceptualisation as a doctor.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Mineração de Dados , Humanos , Japão , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Identificação Social
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209850

RESUMO

In the contemporary business environment where business ethics is critical for organizational performance, the importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is increasing. By investigating the mechanism of the effects of CSR on counterproductive work behavior (CWB), the present study suggests that CSR decreases negative employee behavior. Based on social identity theory and context-attitude-behavior framework, this research examines the underlying process and its contingent factor of the association between CSR and CWB. Specifically, this study hypothesizes that CSR decreases CWB by enhancing employees' organizational identification and that moral identity positively moderates the relationship between CSR and organizational identification. Using three-wave online survey data from 368 employees in Korean firms, this paper tested our hypotheses by conducting moderated mediation analysis with structural equation modeling. The results showed that CSR is negatively related to CWB through organizational identification and that moral identity positively moderates the relationship between CSR and organizational identification. The current study's findings have crucial theoretical and practical implications in CSR literature.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Organizações , Identificação Social , Responsabilidade Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299825

RESUMO

Organizational scholars concur that job security can attach employees to a workplace and improve their job quality. The relationship between job security and employees' deviant behaviors in the workplace, such as counterproductive work behavior (CWB), lacks insights into how or why this occurs, especially in a diversified employment context. To address these limitations, we developed a theoretical model of job security impact on employees' CWB from the perspective of social identity. Analysis of employees (N = 208) and their supervisors in a China state-owned company were used to test the hypothesis. Results confirmed the negative relationship between job security and CWB; organizational identification partly mediates the relationship between job security and CWB. Moderated mediation analyses further indicate that the indirect effect of job security on CWB via organizational identification are stronger for temporary employees than for permanent employees. This article contributes to the understanding of job security's impact on employees' deviant behavior, practical implications and research aspects are discussed.


Assuntos
Identificação Social , Local de Trabalho , Criatividade , Emprego , Humanos , Organizações
7.
J Soc Psychol ; 161(4): 435-451, 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251994

RESUMO

The research presented here examined the relationship between the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, social group identity, intergroup contact, and prejudice. Utilizing a common ingroup identity approach, two datasets, which were composed of data from university students collected via online questionnaires before and after the onset of COVID-19, were combined (N = 511). Participants identified as either one of two subordinate student identities: domestic (i.e. U.S. citizen or permanent resident) or international (i.e. non-U.S. citizen or foreign resident), then reported on the strength of their subordinate and superordinate identity (university identity). Participants also reported on their contact experiences with outgroup members, outgroup stereotypes, and completed a novel intergroup bias task. Results indicated that after the onset of the pandemic, participants more strongly identified with the superordinate group, which predicted greater perceived intergroup contact and lower intergroup bias. Theoretical implications and future directions are discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Preconceito/psicologia , Identificação Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e045520, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand identity tensions experienced by health professionals when patient partners join a quality improvement committee. DESIGN: Qualitative ethnographic study based on participatory observation. SETTING: An interdisciplinary quality improvement committee of a Canadian urban academic family medicine clinic with little previous experience in patient partnership. PARTICIPANTS: Two patient partners, seven health professionals (two family physicians, two residents, one pharmacist, one nurse clinician and one nurse practitioner) and three members of the administrative team. DATA COLLECTION: Data collection included compiled participatory observations, logbook notes and semi-structured interviews, collected between the summer of 2017 to the summer of 2019. DATA ANALYSIS: Ghadiri's identity threats theoretical framework was used to analyse qualitative material and to develop conceptualising categories, using QDA Miner software (V.5.0). RESULTS: All professionals with a clinical care role and patient partners (n=9) accepted to participate in the ethnographic study and semi-structured interviews (RR=100%). Transforming the 'caregiver-patient' relationship into a 'colleague-colleague' relationship generated identity upheavals among professionals. Identity tensions included competing ideals of the 'good professional', challenges to the impermeability of the patient and professional categories, the interweaving of symbols associated with one or the other of these identities, and the inner balance between the roles of caregiver and colleague. CONCLUSION: This research provides a new perspective on understanding how working in partnership with patients transform health professionals' identity. When they are called to work with patients outside of a simple therapeutic relationship, health professionals may feel tensions between their identity as caregivers and their identity as colleague. This allows us to better understand some underlying tensions elicited by the arrival of different patient engagement initiatives (eg, professionals' resistance to working with patients, patients' status and remuneration, professionals' concerns toward patient 'representativeness'). Partnership with patients imply the construction of a new relational framework, flexible and dynamic, that takes into account this coexistence of identities.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem , Participação do Paciente , Canadá , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Identificação Social
9.
Body Image ; 38: 334-345, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087543

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to better understand how individuals with craniofacial conditions experience living with visible differences and make sense of appearance-altering surgery. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 11 adults with Goldenhar or Crouzon syndrome. Interviews were analysed using a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach to thematic analysis. Our analysis revealed the following overarching theme, To see myself as other people see me, which encompassed three main themes: a) Striving to fit in, b) Altering the way I look and c) Support from family and friends. The participants' sense of their own appearance seemed to be connected to how they perceived others to evaluate their appearance. All had experienced negative reactions from others. They experienced themselves as different and had a desire to belong. All participants had undergone appearance-altering surgery, hoping that by changing appearance, they would reduce negative reactions and feel more connected to and accepted by other people. The process of undergoing appearance-changing surgery was experienced as challenging, and participants wished for a dialogue with surgeons which included psychological and emotional aspects of changing appearance. A better understanding of how to strengthen positive identity processes and feelings of belongingness should be a key focus of future research.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Anormalidades Craniofaciais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Identificação Social , Adulto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/psicologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/cirurgia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/psicologia
11.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30 Suppl 1: 1445-1455, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137149

RESUMO

The lived experience workforce has moved from being a grassroots support and activist movement to become the fastest growing workforce within mental health. As lived experience work becomes assimilated within mainstream mental health service delivery, it faces mounting pressure to become more professionalized. Professionalization has evoked both optimism and fear, with diverging views within the lived experience workforce. In this paper, an assessment of the existing professionalization of the lived experience workforce is undertaken by drawing on theoretical positions and indices of what constitutes a profession. The arguments for and against professionalization are explored to identify the risks, benefits, and considerations for the lived experience workforce. The drive for professionalization has largely occurred due to the clinically focused mental health systems' valuing of professional identity. The argument in favour of professionalization is motivated by a need for credibility within the views of that system, as well as greater regulation of the workforce. However, tensions are acknowledged with concerns that professionalization to appeal to the clinically focused system may lead to erosion of the values and uniqueness of lived experience work and nullify its effectiveness as an alternative and complementary role. Given mental health nurses are increasingly colleagues and often line managers of lived experience workers, it is important at this stage of lived experience workforce development that mental health nurses understand and are able to advocate for lived experience roles as a distinct professional discipline to help avoid the risks of co-option to more dominant clinical practice.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Identificação Social , Recursos Humanos
12.
NASN Sch Nurse ; 36(4): 191-193, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060931

RESUMO

The effect on students from the COVID-19 pandemic, violence related to racism, and loss of customary school routines may cause loss of both school connection and a sense of belonging. School nurses can positively influence student belonging and school connection as they encounter students throughout in-person school and virtual school environments. School nurses build connections with students whom they know and outreach to students whom they identify as vulnerable in the areas of belonging and school connectedness. With a mind-set of the Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice and in collaboration with a school team implementing a multitiered system of support, school nurses intentionally outreach and cultural sensitivity to grow positive school climate that benefits students.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Mentores/psicologia , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar/organização & administração , Identificação Social , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Liderança , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
13.
Dev Psychol ; 57(5): 662-677, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166013

RESUMO

The Dominican Republic is a uniquely valuable context in which to study children's racial stereotyping and prejudice, in part because multiracial individuals comprise the majority of the population and race is viewed largely as a continuous rather than dichotomous construct. In two studies, we use developmental and social theories to ground an exploration of Dominican children's racial biases. In studies 1 (n = 54; ages 6-11) and 2 (n = 122; ages 6-11), children were given measures of racial identity, preference, stereotyping, and/or status. As expected, children identified their own race in a manner consistent with others (e.g., their teachers). Across a variety of tasks, children failed to consistently favor members of a specific racial group-as indicated by differing levels of racial stereotyping and associations of social status with different races. They did, however, sometimes systematically express greater liking of individuals of mixed racial heritage, a finding that was contingent on the modality of assessment (i.e., whether race was framed as a continuous vs. dichotomous category, and measured via nonforced vs. forced-choice methods). Implications for current theories of racial attitude development are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atitude , Racismo , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais , República Dominicana , Humanos , Identificação Social , Estereotipagem
14.
Dev Psychol ; 57(5): 783-795, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166021

RESUMO

Neighborhood social processes may have important implications for parenting processes and ethnic-racial identity (ERI) processes and content in adolescence. Past research suggests that adolescents whose parents engaged in more cultural socialization, an important aspect of parental racial socialization, had higher levels of ERI processes and content. Parenting, however, is also situated within neighborhood contexts and can be influenced by resources available in neighborhoods. For example, having neighbors who share mutual values, trust one another, and appreciate/celebrate one's heritage culture may be a resource that promotes parents' efforts to engage in cultural socialization. We prospectively examined (from x¯age = 10.9-15.8 years) a model in which U.S. Mexican parents' perceptions of neighborhood social and cultural cohesion supported parents' engagement in higher levels of cultural socialization and in turn promoted adolescents' ethnic-racial identity processes and content. We tested a longitudinal mediation model with a sample of 749 U.S. Mexican adolescents (30% Mexico born; 48.9% female) and their parents. Mother-adolescent models suggest mothers' perception of neighborhood social and cultural cohesion in late childhood promoted middle adolescents' ERI affirmation via intermediate increases in maternal cultural socialization. Similar patterns were observed for ERI resolution, but only for adolescents whose mothers were born in the United States. We did not find evidence for mediation in the father-adolescent models. Findings are discussed in the context of the promoting nature of socially and culturally supportive neighborhood environments for U.S. Mexican families and adolescents. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Mexicanos , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Estudos Prospectivos , Identificação Social , Socialização , Estados Unidos
15.
Anal Chem ; 93(28): 9711-9718, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190551

RESUMO

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a ubiquitous spectroscopic technique. Spectral interpretation is a time-consuming process, but it yields important information about functional groups present in compounds and in complex substances. We develop a generalizable model via a machine learning (ML) algorithm using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to identify the presence of functional groups in gas-phase FTIR spectra. The ML models reduce the amount of time required to analyze functional groups and facilitate interpretation of FTIR spectra. Through web scraping, we acquire intensity-frequency data from 8728 gas-phase organic molecules within the NIST spectral database and transform the data into spectral images. We successfully train models for 15 of the most common organic functional groups, which we then determine via identification from previously untrained spectra. These models serve to expand the application of FTIR measurements for facile analysis of organic samples. Our approach was done such that we have broad functional group models that infer in tandem to provide full interpretation of a spectrum. We present the first implementation of ML using image-based CNNs for predicting functional groups from a spectroscopic method.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Identificação Social , Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
16.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(2): 152-164, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Perceptions of the legitimacy of a society's legal system help explain individual responses to courts and legal actors. Normative considerations such as fair and respectful treatment as well as social identification have demonstrated the ability to enhance perceived legal legitimacy and future cooperation. Veterans treatment courts (VTCs) are a rapidly disseminating and understudied intervention. Their targeting of a socially esteemed group presents an interesting venue to explore normative theories of justice. The present study tested a modified version of Tyler's theory of procedural justice in this setting. HYPOTHESES: We hypothesized that procedural justice, social bonds, and receipt of gratitude for military service would be positively associated with veteran identity and legal legitimacy. We further hypothesized that participants' identification as veterans would mediate the relationships between the three independent variables and legitimacy. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample (N = 191) of participants in two VTCs. Analyses controlled for race, ethnicity, recidivism risk, and combat exposure. RESULTS: Perceptions of procedural justice, social bonds, and receipt of gratitude were positively associated with veteran identity and perceptions of legal legitimacy. Further, veteran identity was found to be a significant mediator between the first three constructs and legal legitimacy. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the importance of procedural justice in explaining perceptions of legal legitimacy in a novel context that is rapidly proliferating and understudied and has unique social identity considerations. The addition of gratitude and veteran identity to Tyler's model raises implications for VTC practice and further inquiry. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Direito Penal/organização & administração , Identificação Social , Serviços de Saúde para Veteranos Militares/organização & administração , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Emoções Manifestas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Mediação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Social , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 359, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Professionalism represents a cornerstone of the medical profession, prompting medical educators to actively develop instruments to measure professional identity formation among medical students. A quantitative approach to this problem has been lacking. Hence in this study, we investigate the validity and reliability of using Brown et al.'s [1986] Professional Identity Questionnaire (PIQ) to measure professional identity among medical students. METHODS: We used the American Psychological Association's account of validity and reliability to examine the PIQ in terms of its internal structure, its relation to a validated motivation scale, its content, and its internal consistency. To this end, we performed two factor analyses, a Pearson's correlation test, an expert evaluation and measured Cronbach's alpha, respectively.. RESULTS: Factor analysis revealed two latent factors underlying the items of the PIQ. We found a negative to positive spectrum of Pearson's correlations corresponding to increasingly internal qualities of motivation. Experts unanimously rated four out of ten of the PIQ's items as relevant, reliability analysis yielded a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.82. CONCLUSION: Despite poor ratings by experts in the field, these results illustrate the PIQ as a valid and reliable quantitative measure of medical students' professional identity; its two factors reflecting the measure of attached and detached attitudes towards the medical profession. Educators may use the instrument as a tool for monitoring PIF among their students, as well as for designing and evaluating their medical curriculum. Future research might build on the current findings by investigating other dimensions of the PIQ's validity, including response process validity, predictive validity and consequential validity.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Identificação Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(2): e20200293, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to analyze the experiences of management nurses over the primary socialization process that contributed to their professional choice and identity. METHODS: qualitative and explanatory study grounded in Dubar's theory, carried out with 11 management nurses. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, transcribed, and categorized by applying discourse analysis. RESULTS: the motivations for the professional choice and identity of management nurses were found. They were related to family influence in childhood, nursing representations, perception of care practices experienced in a health-related situation in the family, choice of nursing given its academic titles, lack of knowledge about the nursing profession, and assertive choice of this profession. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: professional choice was closely linked to initial social processes in people's lives and the idea of a socially and uniquely built professional identity.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Socialização , Humanos , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Identificação Social
19.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(7): 1333-1352, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085185

RESUMO

Ethnic-racial identity (i.e., individuals' beliefs about their ethnic-racial group membership and the processes through which they develop those beliefs) is a developmental competency that can promote adolescents' adjustment; however, the extant literature has largely focused on how distinct dimensions of ethnic-racial identity are associated with adjustment (i.e., variable-centered approaches), potentially obscuring a more holistic understanding of this developmental competency. The current study utilized latent profile analysis, a person-centered approach, to examine profiles of ethnic-racial identity among Black (n = 325; Mage = 15.94, SD = 1.14) and Latinx (n = 370; Mage = 16.13, SD = 1.10) adolescents as well as links between profile membership and adjustment. Three ethnic-racial identity profiles emerged: Diffuse & Low Regard (n = 55; lower development, lower self-concept); Diffuse & High Regard (n = 160; lower development, higher self-concept); and Developed & Idealized (n = 477; higher development, higher self-concept). The profile highest in ethnic-racial identity across all indicators reported the highest levels of adjustment. The findings highlight the synergistic benefits of ethnic-racial identity development and positive self-concept for adolescents' psychosocial and academic adjustment.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Ajustamento Emocional , Adolescente , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Identificação Social
20.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253195, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111233

RESUMO

With the COVID-19 pandemic still raging and the vaccination program still rolling out, there continues to be an immediate need for public health officials to better understand the mechanisms behind the deep and perpetual divide over face masks in America. Using a random sample of Americans (N = 615), following a pre-registered experimental design and analysis plan, we first demonstrated that mask wearers were not innately more cooperative as individuals than non-mask wearers in the Prisoners' Dilemma (PD) game when information about their own and the other person's mask usage was not salient. However, we found strong evidence of in-group favouritism among both mask and non-mask wearers when information about the other partner's mask usage was known. Non-mask wearers were 23 percentage points less likely to cooperate than mask wearers when facing a mask-wearing partner, and 26 percentage points more likely to cooperate than mask wearers when facing a non-mask-wearing partner. Our analysis suggests social identity effects as the primary reason behind people's decision whether to wear face masks during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Identificação Social , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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