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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 225: 105521, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973280

RESUMO

The number line estimation task is an often-used measure of numerical magnitude understanding. The task also correlates substantially with broader measures of mathematical achievement. This raises the question of whether the task would be a useful component of mathematical achievement tests and instruments to diagnose dyscalculia or mathematical giftedness and whether a stand-alone version of the task can serve as a short screener for mathematical achievement. Previous studies on the relation between number line estimation accuracy and broader mathematical achievement were limited in that they used relatively small nonrepresentative samples and usually did not account for potentially confounding variables. To close this research gap, we report findings from a population-level study with nearly all Luxembourgish ninth-graders (N = 6484). We used multilevel regressions to test how a standardized mathematical achievement test relates to the accuracy in number line estimation on bounded number lines with whole numbers and fractions. We also investigated how these relations were moderated by classroom characteristics, person characteristics, and trial characteristics. Mathematical achievement and number line estimation accuracy were associated even after controlling for potentially confounding variables. Subpopulations of students showed meaningful differences in estimation accuracy, which can serve as benchmarks in future studies. Compared with the number line estimation task with whole numbers, the number line estimation task with fractions was more strongly related to mathematical achievement in students across the entire mathematical achievement spectrum. These results show that the number line estimation task is a valid and useful tool for diagnosing and monitoring mathematical achievement.


Assuntos
Logro , Cognição , Humanos , Idioma , Luxemburgo , Matemática
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 225: 105493, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007352

RESUMO

Restrictions in the sequencing of sounds (phonotactic constraints) can be represented at the level of sound co-occurrences (e.g., in baF.Pev, F and P co-occur) and at the level of the syllable (e.g., F is syllable-coda/end, P is syllable-onset/start). Can children (5-year-olds) and infants (11-month-olds) represent constraints as sound co-occurrences and/or relative to syllable positions? Participants listened to artificial languages displaying both word-medial consonant restrictions in co-occurrence pairs (e.g., FP or DZ but not FZ) and in the position of consonants within syllables (e.g., P/Z onsets and D/F codas) in words like baF.Pev and tiD.Zek. Children responded similarly to novel words with the same (e.g., FP) versus different (e.g., FZ) co-occurrence pairs, but they were more misled (i.e., responded "heard it before") by novel words with consonants in the same (e.g., onset-P) versus different (e.g., coda-P) syllable positions (Experiment 1). With the same training stimuli, infants had similar orientation times for novel words with the same versus different co-occurrence pairs, but they had longer orientation times for novel words with consonants in the same versus different syllable positions (Experiment 2). Thus, across different methods and ages, syllable-position information was more readily available for generalization than consonant co-occurrence information. The results suggest that when multiple regularities are present simultaneously, some phonotactic constraints (e.g., consonants in particular syllable positions) may be spontaneously represented and generalized by children and infants, whereas others (e.g., consonant co-occurrences) might not be available. The results contribute toward understanding how children and infants represent sound sequences.


Assuntos
Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Generalização Psicológica , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Aprendizagem
3.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 95: 19-26, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252694

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Using constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)-based tractography, we aimed to obtain conjoint analysis of diffusion measures of major language white matter (WM) tracts in post-stroke aphasic patients bilaterally, and to correlate the measures of each tract to the different language deficits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 17 aphasic patients with left hemispheric stroke, at the subacute stage, and ten age- matched controls underwent diffusion MRI examination. CSD-based tractography was performed. Diffusion measures [fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity (AD)] were extracted after dissection of major language tracts bilaterally. Aphasia was assessed using language subset of hemispheric stroke scale. Comparisons of diffusion measures, for all tracts, between the two groups were performed. Partial correlations between the diffusion measures and different language components were obtained. RESULTS: In the left hemisphere, significant lower FA and or higher MD with higher RD of patients' WM tracts compared to the control group. Significant differences of diffusion measures were also evident in the right hemisphere yet, less prominent. All changes reflected damage of the tracts' integrity. Significant correlations were found between comprehension and FA of the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Additionally, a significant correlation was found between MD of the right AF and repetition. CONCLUSION: Conjoint analysis of diffusion measures, based on CSD tractography, can provide important markers for the underlying WM changes bilaterally. Moreover, our findings emphasize that language processing can be mediated by both ventral and dorsal streams and further highlight the contribution of the right AF in repetition.


Assuntos
Afasia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Substância Branca , Humanos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Idioma , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Vias Neurais , Afasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Afasia/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Dent Clin North Am ; 67(1): 187-198, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404078

RESUMO

Clear and effective communication is vital to quality patient care. More than 66 million Americans (21.5%) speak a language other than English at home, with more than 25 million (8.2%) speaking English "less than very well." Addressing language differences in the orofacial pain setting is of utmost importance to care quality, treatment outcomes, and overall health equity. In the case presented, language-related communication challenges affect the diagnosis and management of a patient with orofacial pain. This case highlights the significance of language discordance in the clinical setting and demonstrates the need for greater language access in the orofacial pain field.


Assuntos
Dor Facial , Idioma , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Dor Facial/diagnóstico , Dor Facial/etiologia , Dor Facial/terapia , Comunicação , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
5.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105570, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332433

RESUMO

Statistical learning (SL) is defined as our ability to use statistics (e.g., frequencies or transitional probabilities) to detect implicit regularities in the environment. Limited research has examined the developmental trajectory of SL across domains and modalities, and no previous research has made systematic comparisons across domains, modalities, and languages using comparable tasks. The current study investigated the development of SL ability across 9-, 11-, and 13-year-old native Chinese-speaking children in non-linguistic visual and auditory SL, first-language Chinese visual and auditory SL, and second-language English visual and auditory SL. Results showed that children across the three age groups achieved all types of SL, and they performed better in visual modality than in auditory modality. Furthermore, while visual SL constantly improved from 9- to 11- to 13-year-olds, auditory SL improved only from 11- to 13-year-olds but not from 9- to 11-year-olds, which could be explained by the discrepancy in developmental trajectory between auditory language and working memory. This pattern of age and modality interaction was similar across non-linguistic Chinese and English SL. A significant interaction between modality and language type also showed that better learning was achieved in visual SL as compared with auditory SL in both non-linguistic and English stimuli. However, children performed similarly across the two modalities in Chinese, possibly due to the contribution of tonal information. Together, our findings point to the joint function of age, modality, and language type in SL development.


Assuntos
Inteligência , Idioma , Criança , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Aprendizagem Espacial , Asiáticos
6.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105569, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332436

RESUMO

Joint Attention (JA) in parent-infant interaction has been demonstrated to contribute to infants' language outcomes. A limited number of studies have investigated the characteristics of JA episodes during parent-toddler interaction in relation to toddlers' language development. The majority of these studies were conducted with mothers, whereas JA with fathers remains understudied. The current study investigated JA episodes during interactions with mothers and fathers separately as well as longitudinal associations with child language outcomes. A total of 31 toddlers (18 girls) and their mothers and fathers participated in the study at ages 2 years (M = 24.07 months, SD = 1.45) and 3 years (M = 37.44 months, SD = 1.72). JA episodes were observed during free play interactions at age 2 and were coded microanalytically; receptive and expressive language skills were assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition at ages 2 and 3. No significant differences in JA episodes were found between mother-toddler and father-toddler dyads. Whereas JA characteristics with mothers were not found to be significantly associated with toddlers' language outcomes, multiple linear regression analyses showed that paternal education and parent-followed JA episodes during father-toddler interaction at age 2 explained a significant amount of variance in toddlers' expressive language skills at age 3. Findings suggest that JA episodes during interactions with fathers might benefit toddlers' expressive language development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Feminino , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Linguagem Infantil , Cognição , Atenção
7.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105580, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347070

RESUMO

Face mask wearing was an important preventative strategy for the transmission of the COVID-19 virus. However, the effects that occluding the mouth and nose area with surgical masks could have on young children's language processing and emotion recognition skills have received little investigation. To evaluate the possible effects, the current study recruited a sample of 74 children from the North West of England (aged 4-8 years). They completed two computer-based tasks with adults wearing or not wearing surgical face masks to assess (a) language processing skills and (b) emotion recognition ability. To control for individual differences, age, sex, receptive vocabulary, early reading skills, and parent-reported social-emotional competence were included in analyses. The findings from the study highlighted that although younger children were less accurate than older children, face masks did not significantly impair basic language processing ability. However, they had a significant effect on the children's emotion recognition accuracy-with masked angry faces more easily recognized and masked happy and sad faces less easily recognized. Children's age and social-emotional skills also played a role. The findings suggest that the effects of face masks should continue to be evaluated.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Máscaras , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Idioma , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Habilidades Sociais , Emoções
8.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105571, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356558

RESUMO

Studies on German and English have shown that children and adults can rely on phonological and orthographic information from the parafovea during reading, but this reliance differs between ages and languages. In the current study, we investigated the development of phonological and orthographic parafoveal processing during silent reading in Russian-speaking 8-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm. The participants read sentences with embedded nouns that were presented in original, pseudohomophone, control for pseudohomophone, transposed-letter, and control for transposed-letter conditions in the parafoveal area to assess phonological and orthographic preview benefit effects. The results revealed that all groups of participants relied only on orthographic but not phonological parafoveal information. These findings indicate that 8-year-old children already preprocess parafoveal information similarly to adults.


Assuntos
Linguística , Leitura , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Federação Russa
9.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105565, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228533

RESUMO

Verb meaning is challenging for children to learn across varied events. This study examined how the taxonomic semantic similarity of the nouns in novel verb learning events in a progressive alignment learning condition differed from the taxonomic dissimilarity of nouns in a dissimilar learning condition in supporting near (similar) and far (dissimilar) verb generalization to novel objects in an eye-tracking task. A total of 48 children in two age groups (23 girls; younger: 21-24 months, Mage = 22.1 months; older: 27-30 months: Mage = 28.3 months) who differed in taxonomic vocabulary size were tested. There were no group or learning condition differences in near generalization. The younger group demonstrated better far generalization of verbs learned with semantically dissimilar nouns. The older group demonstrated the opposite pattern, with better far generalization of verbs learned with semantically similar nouns in the progressive alignment condition. These patterns were associated with children's in-category vocabulary knowledge more than other vocabulary measures, including verb vocabulary size. Taxonomic vocabulary knowledge differentially affects verb learning and generalization across development.


Assuntos
Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Vocabulário , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Semântica , Aprendizagem Verbal , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
10.
Cognition ; 230: 105265, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095902

RESUMO

An important feature of language production is the flexibility of lexical selection; producers could refer to an animal as chimpanzee, chimp, ape, she, and so on. Thus, a key question for psycholinguistic research is how and why producers make the lexical selections that they do. Information theoretic approaches have argued that producers regulate the uncertainty of the utterance for comprehenders, for example using longer words like chimpanzee if their messages are likely to be misunderstood, and shorter ones like chimp when the message is easy to understand. In this work, we test for the relative contributions of the information theoretic approach and an approach more aligned with psycholinguistic models of language production. We examine the effect on lexical selection of whole utterance-level factors that we take as a proxy for register or style in message-driven production accounts. Using a modern machine learning-oriented approach, we show that for both naturalistic stimuli and real-world corpora, producers prefer words to be longer in systematically different contexts, independent of the specific message they are trying to convey. We do not find evidence for regulation of uncertainty, as in information theoretic approaches. We offer suggestions for modification of the standard psycholinguistic production approach that emphasizes the need for the field to specify how message formulation influences lexical choice in multiword utterances.


Assuntos
Nomes , Pan troglodytes , Feminino , Animais , Idioma , Psicolinguística
11.
Cognition ; 230: 105252, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115201

RESUMO

According to the language marker hypothesis language has provided homo sapiens with a rich symbolic system that plays a central role in interpreting signals delivered by our sensory apparatus, in shaping action goals, and in creating a powerful tool for reasoning and inferencing. This view provides an important correction on embodied accounts of language that reduce language to action, perception, emotion and mental simulation. The presence of a language system has, however, also important consequences for perception, action, emotion, and memory. Language stamps signals from perception, action, and emotional systems with rich cognitive markers that transform the role of these signals in the overall cognitive architecture of the human mind. This view does not deny that language is implemented by means of universal principles of neural organization. However, language creates the possibility to generate rich internal models of the world that are shaped and made accessible by the characteristics of a language system. This makes us less dependent on direct action-perception couplings and might even sometimes go at the expense of the veridicality of perception. In cognitive (neuro)science the pendulum has swung from language as the key to understand the organization of the human mind to the perspective that it is a byproduct of perception and action. It is time that it partly swings back again.


Assuntos
Emoções , Idioma , Humanos , Simulação por Computador
12.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 144: 108898, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270197

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Motivational interviewing (MI) theory and process research highlights the role of therapist technical and relational behaviors in predicting client in-session statements for or against behavior change (i.e., change and sustain talk, respectively). These client statements, in turn, have been shown to predict intervention outcomes. The current study examines sequential associations between therapist behaviors and client change and sustain talk in a sample of Latinx individuals who engage in heavy alcohol consumption. DATA: Data are from a completed randomized clinical trial of a culturally adapted (CAMI) versus unadapted MI targeting alcohol use and consequences among Latinx individuals. METHOD: The study collected observational coding data with the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC 2.5, i.e., therapist behaviors and global ratings) and the Client Language Assessment - Proximal/Distal (CLA-PD, i.e., client language). Frequentist and Bayesian sequential analyses examined the relationship among nine different categories of therapist behaviors and three different categories of client language (i.e., change talk, sustain talk, neutral). We examined odds ratios and conditional probabilities for the direction, magnitude, and significance of the association between the use of MI technical behaviors and subsequent client statements about change. The study compared these same transitional associations between low/average (i.e., <4) and high (i.e., ≥4) MI Spirit sessions. RESULTS: The pattern of results was replicated across both analytic frameworks. Questions and reflections about change talk versus sustain talk versus neutral statements showed greater odds of predicting the intended client response (i.e., change talk, sustain talk, neutral, respectively) compared to other possible client responses. Conditional probabilities for these transitions were high, ranging from 0.55 to.88. The magnitude of certain technical transitions significantly differed between low/average and high MI Spirit sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Analyses supported the hypothesized associations between therapist use of technical MI behaviors and client change language within this Latinx sample. Analyses of MI Spirit as a moderator of these transitions showed partial support.


Assuntos
Entrevista Motivacional , Adulto , Humanos , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Idioma
13.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105545, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126586

RESUMO

Rapid processing of spoken language is aided by the ability to predict upcoming words using both semantic and syntactic cues. However, although children with hearing loss (HL) can predict upcoming words using semantic associations, little is known about their ability to predict using syntactic dependencies such as subject-verb (SV) agreement. This study examined whether school-aged children with hearing aids and/or cochlear implants can use SV agreement to predict upcoming nouns when processing spoken language. Although they did demonstrate prediction with plural SV agreement, they did so more slowly than their normal hearing (NH) peers. This may be due to weaker grammatical representations given that function words and grammatical inflections typically have lower perceptual salience. Thus, a better understanding of morphosyntactic representations in children with HL, and their ability to use these for prediction, sheds much-needed light on the online language processing challenges and abilities of this population.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez , Perda Auditiva , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico
14.
Cognition ; 230: 105176, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36442955

RESUMO

Language processing in humans has long been proposed to rely on sophisticated learning abilities including statistical learning. Endress and Johnson (E&J, 2021) recently presented a neural network model for statistical learning based on Hebbian learning principles. This model accounts for word segmentation tasks, one primary paradigm in statistical learning. In this discussion paper we review this model and compare it with the Hebbian model previously presented by Tovar and Westermann (T&W, 2017a; 2017b; 2018) that has accounted for serial reaction time tasks, cross-situational learning, and categorization paradigms, all relevant in the study of statistical learning. We discuss the similarities and differences between both models, and their key findings. From our analysis, we question the concept of "forgetting" in the model of E&J and their suggestion of considering forgetting as the critical ingredient for successful statistical learning. We instead suggest that a set of simple but well-balanced mechanisms including spreading activation, activation persistence, and synaptic weight decay, all based on biologically grounded principles, allow modeling statistical learning in Hebbian neural networks, as demonstrated in the T&W model which successfully covers learning of nonadjacent dependencies and accounts for differences between typical and atypical populations, both aspects that have not been fully demonstrated in the E&J model. We outline the main computational and theoretical differences between the E&J and T&W approaches, present new simulation results, and discuss implications for the development of a computational cognitive theory of statistical learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos , Simulação por Computador , Idioma , Tempo de Reação
15.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(4): 54, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326954

RESUMO

This paper examines the efforts in evolution research to understand form's structure that developed in Italy during the first half of the twentieth century. In particular, it analyzes how the organic approach in biology and the study of organic form merged in the morphological research agendas of Giuseppe Colosi (1892-1975) and Giuseppe Levi (1872-1965). These biologists sought to understand form's inner composition and structure. First, I will briefly outline the morphological practices and frameworks used to study form changes and structures in the early twentieth century. Second, I will discuss what the Italian biologist Antonio Pensa (1874-1970) called the morphological problem. Third, I will examine Colosi's response to the morphological problem. Fourth, I will analyze Levi's morphological research program. As a result, this paper paves the way for a more nuanced and varied picture of the so-called "organicism movement" in the first half of the twentieth century by calling attention to morphology as practiced in Italian-speaking biology. In fact, alongside dialectical materialism and holistic biology, two of the main strands within organicism, the architectural approach to evolution as practiced in Italy and elsewhere had a profound impact on twentieth- and twenty-first-century organicism specifically and on evolutionary biology generally.


Assuntos
Biologia , Idioma , História do Século XX , Itália , Biologia/história
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277250, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327343

RESUMO

Analyzing texts and items regarding their linguistic features might be important for researchers to investigate the effects of the linguistic presentation as well as for practitioners to estimate the readability of a text or an item. The Linguistic Analyzer for Text and Item Characteristics (LATIC) is a software that enables users to analyze texts and items more efficiently. LATIC offers a multitude of features at three different reading levels and can be used for texts and items in four different languages: English, French, German, and Spanish. It is open source, free to use and designed to be user-friendly. In this study, we investigated LATIC's performance: LATIC achieves highly accurate results, while being extremely time saving compared to human raters. While developing LATIC, the respective features are tested continuously to ensure a high accuracy of results in the future.


Assuntos
Idioma , Linguística , Humanos , Compreensão , Software
17.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 23(1): 458, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomedical named entity recognition (BioNER) is a basic and important task for biomedical text mining with the purpose of automatically recognizing and classifying biomedical entities. The performance of BioNER systems directly impacts downstream applications. Recently, deep neural networks, especially pre-trained language models, have made great progress for BioNER. However, because of the lack of high-quality and large-scale annotated data and relevant external knowledge, the capability of the BioNER system remains limited. RESULTS: In this paper, we propose a novel fully-shared multi-task learning model based on the pre-trained language model in biomedical domain, namely BioBERT, with a new attention module to integrate the auto-processed syntactic information for the BioNER task. We have conducted numerous experiments on seven benchmark BioNER datasets. The proposed best multi-task model obtains F1 score improvements of 1.03% on BC2GM, 0.91% on NCBI-disease, 0.81% on Linnaeus, 1.26% on JNLPBA, 0.82% on BC5CDR-Chemical, 0.87% on BC5CDR-Disease, and 1.10% on Species-800 compared to the single-task BioBERT model. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate our model outperforms previous studies on all datasets. Further analysis and case studies are also provided to prove the importance of the proposed attention module and fully-shared multi-task learning method used in our model.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Redes Neurais de Computação , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Benchmarking , Idioma , Atenção
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1314, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally oral health care is unequally accessible or utilised within culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant communities. Yet much remains unknown about CALD mothers and their oral healthcare experiences in Australia. Hence, this paper explores the oral health care attitudes and experiences of CALD mothers within the Australian context with the broader objective to reduce oral health inequalities. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted from a social constructivism paradigm. Participants were foreign country born, spoke language/s other than English and have a child. Purposive snowball sampling and recruitment was conducted through CALD organisations and social media. Participants were interviewed for their attitudes and experiences to dental care and frequency of utilisation in Australia and the home country. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and grounded analysis (Strauss and Corbin) performed. Researcher bias was reduced through reflexivity and triangulation. RESULTS: The participants (n = 33) included 20 CALD mothers born in India and 13 from either China, Fiji, Nepal, Macedonia and Israel. The theme, experiences with health workforce personnel revealed positive attitudes toward CALD providers from similar cultural and/or linguistic backgrounds. We coin these CALD providers as the 'dental diaspora'. The dental diaspora facilitated CALD mothers through culture and/or language factors, alleviating cost barriers and flexibility in appointments. Dental travel to the home country was affirmed, however family visitation was the foremost reason for travel. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the dental diaspora plays a significant role in promoting oral health care utilisation for first generation CALD mothers in Australia. This paper brings to light the phenomenon of the 'dental diaspora' as an essential health workforce that contributes to addressing inequities in oral healthcare utilisation within CALD migrant communities. Universal health coverage in oral health is further affirmed, as aligned to the WHO policy context.


Assuntos
Idioma , Saúde Bucal , Criança , Humanos , Austrália , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Migração Humana , Diversidade Cultural
19.
J Med Philos ; 47(4): 503-515, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333930

RESUMO

This article provides analysis of the mechanisms and outputs involved in language-use mediated by a neuroprosthetic device. It is motivated by the thought that users of speech neuroprostheses require sufficient control over what their devices externalize as synthetic speech if they are to be thought of as responsible for it, but that the nature of this control, and so the status of their responsibility, is not clear.


Assuntos
Idioma , Fala , Humanos
20.
Cogn Sci ; 46(11): e13205, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334010

RESUMO

The vocabulary for describing odors in English natural language is not well understood, as prior studies of odor descriptions have often relied on preselected descriptors and odor ratings. Here, we present a data-driven approach that automatically identifies English odor descriptors based on their degree of olfactory association, and derive their semantic organization from their distributions in natural texts, using a distributional-semantic language model. We identify 243 descriptors that are much more strongly associated with olfaction than English words in general. We then derive the semantic organization of these olfactory descriptors, and find that it is captured by four clusters that we name Offensive, Malodorous, Fragrant, and Edible. The semantic space derived from our model primarily differentiates descriptors in terms of pleasantness and edibility along which our four clusters are positioned, and is similar to a space derived from perceptual data. The semantic organization of odor vocabulary can thus be mapped using natural language data (e.g., online text), without the limitations of odor-perceptual data and preselected descriptors. Our method may thus facilitate research on olfaction, a sensory system known to often elude verbal description.


Assuntos
Semântica , Vocabulário , Humanos , Odorantes , Idioma , Olfato
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