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1.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(11): 2217-2224, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107507

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Being able to rise from a chair is paramount for independent living and is strongly influenced by the ability of the lower limbs to exert mechanical power. This study assessed minimal thresholds of lower-limb relative muscle power required to perform the sit-to-stand (STS) task in older adults and its association with mobility limitations and disability. METHODS: A total of 11,583 older adults (age, 60-103 yr) participated in this investigation. The 5-rep and 30-s versions of the STS test were used to assess chair rising ability. Relative power was calculated by the STS muscle power test. The minimum thresholds of power required to perform the STS tests were derived from the minimum values (i.e., "floor" effect) reported in the power tests through regression analyses. Mobility limitations and disability in activities of daily living (ADL) were recorded. RESULTS: For the average older man and woman, the thresholds to complete five STS repetitions were 1.1 and 1.0 W·kg-1, respectively, whereas the thresholds to complete one STS repetition were 0.3 W·kg-1 in both sexes. These thresholds increased linearly with height (5- and 1-rep, respectively: +0.13 and +0.03 W·kg-1 per 10-cm increase; both P < 0.001) and did not differ by sex or testing condition (both P ≥ 0.259). All participants with relative power below the 5-rep threshold presented mobility limitations, and 51%-56% of women and 36%-49% of men also showed disability in ADL (all χ2 ≥ 290.4; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A minimum level of relative muscle power is required to rise from a chair independently, which depends on the individual height and is associated with increased mobility limitations and disability. This information will help interpret data yielded by the STS muscle power test and may contribute to the prevention and treatment of mobility limitations in older people.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Limitação da Mobilidade , Força Muscular , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3192-3201, mar.-abr. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251936

RESUMO

RESUMEN En los adultos mayores existen múltiples enfermedades que afectan su calidad de vida y el logro de una longevidad satisfactoria. Una de ellas es la osteoporosis, enfermedad de elevada incidencia a nivel mundial, lo cual también se refleja en Cuba. Siendo una afección que conlleva a un alto grado de discapacidad, constituye un problema en el campo de la salud y de magnitud epidémica, más aún cuando la supervivencia de la humanidad tiende al aumento. Con el objetivo de estructurar los referentes teóricos sobre la osteoporosis, que contribuyan a la capacitación de médicos y estudiantes de Medicina como promotores de salud en prevención primaria de esta enfermedad, se realizó el siguiente artículo científico. Los factores que predisponen la aparición de la enfermedad son diversos, algunos modificables. Se señaló la importancia de su prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento, así como formas de actuar sobre la misma, para modificar estilos de vida en la comunidad (AU).


ABSTRACT There are many diseases affecting life quality and the achievement of a satisfactory longevity in elder people; osteoporosis, a disease of high incidence around the world that also strikes in Cuba, is found among them. It is an affection leading to a high disability level, being a problem in the health field with an epidemic magnitude, even more when the human kind survival tends to increase. The current scientific article was written with the objective of structuring the theoretical referents on osteoporosis contributing to train Medicine doctors and students as health promoters in the primary prevention of this disease. The factors predisposing the disease's appearance are different, some of them modifiable. It is also stated the importance of its prevention, diagnosis and treatment, and also forms and ways of working on it to modify life styles in the community (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Idoso/fisiologia , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Osteoporose/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Estilo de Vida
3.
Fisioter. Bras ; 21(6): 586-591, Jan 6, 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283720

RESUMO

A tarefa de levantar-se do solo a partir do decúbito dorsal (STS) tem apresentado recursos avaliativos complementares, em termos de julgamento do desempenho motor, físico e funcional em idosos por meio de medidas quantitativas e qualitativas. Especificamente, em medidas de processo (qualitativas) há sete protocolos que categorizam o desempenho do STS em idosos. Objetivo: Determinar o nível de confiabilidade intra e entre avaliadores da análise de processo do STS em idosos, segundo protocolo adaptado de Manini et al. Métodos: 25 idosos (12 mulheres) realizaram a tarefa de levantar-se do solo a partir do decúbito dorsal sem auxílio. Dois codificadores de vídeo, estudantes de graduação no nível superior de educação - tempo de experiência > 2 anos em Educação Física e ± 6 meses de uso do protocolo classificaram o desempenho dos idosos de acordo com o protocolo. A confiabilidade intra-avaliador e entre avaliadores foi considerada moderada (K = 0,533; p = 0,001; K = 0,466; p = 0,001) e substancial para a medida intra-avaliador 2 (K = 0,736; p = 0,001). O nível de confiabilidade intra e entreavaliadores do STS segundo o protocolo adaptado de Manini foi considerado moderado para sujeitos idosos. (AU)


The Supine-To-Stand task (STS) has presented complementary assessment resources, in terms of motor, physical and functional assessment in the elderly through quantitative and qualitative measures. Specifically, in process measures (qualitative) seven protocols categorize the performance of STS in the elderly. Objective: To determine the level of reliability within and between evaluators of the STS process analysis in the elderly, according to a protocol adapted from Manini et al. Methods: 25 elderly (12 female) performed the task of rising from the ground from the supine position without assistance. Two video encoders, graduate students at the higher education level - time of experience >2 years in Physical Education and ± 6 months in use of the protocol classified the performance of the elderly according to this protocol. Intra-rater and between rater reliability was considered moderate (K = 0.533; p = 0.001; K = 0.466; p = 0.001) and substantial for intra-rater 2 (K = 0.736; p = 0.001). The level of intra- and inter-rater reliability of the STS according to the adapted protocol of Manini was considered moderate for elderly subjects. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso/fisiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Destreza Motora , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(1): 153-162, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945566

RESUMO

The study aim was to explore associations between sedentary behavior (SB) bouts and physical function in 1360 community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years old). SB was measured using an ActiGraph wGT3X + accelerometer for seven consecutive days at the dominant hip and processed accordingly. Various SB bout lengths were assessed including: 1- to 9-minutes; 10- to 29-minutes; 30- to 59-minutes; and ≥60-minutes, as well as maximum time spent in a SB bout. Total SB time was adjusted for within the SB bout variables used (percentage SB time in the SB bout length and number of SB bouts per total SB hour). Physical function was assessed using the 2-minute walk test (2MWT), 5-times sit-to-stand (chair stand) test, and unipedal stance test (UST). Hierarchical linear regression models were utilized. Covariates such as moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), demographic and health characteristics were controlled for. Lower percentage time spent in ≥60-minute SB bouts was significantly (P < .05) associated with longer 2MWT distance while lower numbers of ≥60-minute SB bouts were associated with longer 2MWT distance, shorter chair stand time and longer UST time. There were mixed associations with physical function for 10- to 29-minute SB bouts. In a large cohort of European older adults, prolonged SB bouts lasting ≥60-minutes appear to be associated with reduced physical function after controlling for MVPA and numerous other important covariates. Besides reducing SB levels, these findings suggest there is a need to regularly interrupt prolonged SB to improve physical function in older adults.


Assuntos
Idoso/fisiologia , Idoso/psicologia , Vida Independente , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(1): 48-53, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315640

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The world's population is ageing. Although regional anaesthesia is well established, it seems there is limited evidence to support its use over general anaesthesia in the elderly. This review aims to examine recent publications of regional anaesthesia in relation to this specific patient subgroup. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a paucity of evidence specifically relating to regional anaesthesia in the elderly patient. Studies tend to be small, retrospective and can combine assessment of multiple surgical and anaesthetic techniques in single studies. Surgical stimulus and the associated stress response are linked with an increased risk of morbidity in elderly patients. Regional anaesthesia is associated with reduced morbidity, improved pain scores, improved patient satisfaction and reduced resource allocation. Regional anaesthesia can potentially offset some of the surgical stress response and should be considered as part of a multimodal and, where possible, the primary approach to anaesthesia and analgesia in the elderly patient. SUMMARY: Undoubtedly, peripheral nerve blocks improve analgesia and reduce opioid consumption and their associated side effects. This is beneficial in the perioperative care of elderly patients who may have less physiologic reserve to withstand these side effects. Future large prospective trials are required to evaluate the duration of action and safety profile of local anaesthetic agents and adjunct agents in the older patient.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso , Idoso/fisiologia , Anestesia por Condução/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Humanos
6.
J Sport Health Sci ; 9(6): 651-656, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the associations between urban design attributes and older adults' physical function. Especially, it is not well known how built-environment attributes may influence physical function in Asian cities. The aim of this study was to examine associations between objectively measured environmental attributes of walkability and objectively assessed physical function in a sample of Japanese older adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional data collected in 2013 from 314 older residents (aged 65-84 years) living in Japan were used. Physical function was estimated from objectively measured upper- and lower-body function, mobility, and balance by a trained research team member. A comprehensive list of built-environment attributes, including population density, availability of destinations, intersection density, and distance to the nearest public transport station, were objectively calculated. Walk Score as a composite measure of neighborhood walkability was also obtained. RESULTS: Among men, higher population density, availability of destinations, and intersection density were significantly associated with better physical function performance (1-legged stance with eyes open). Higher Walk Score was also marginally associated with better physical function performance (1-legged stance with eyes open). None of the environmental attributes were associated with physical function in elderly women. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that environmental attributes of walkability are associated with the physical function of elderly men in the context of Asia. Walking-friendly neighborhoods can not only promote older adults' active behaviors but can also support their physical function.


Assuntos
Idoso/fisiologia , Ambiente Construído , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Caminhada , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(6): 2560-2574, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150037

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad es la enfermedad infecciosa que conlleva una mayor mortalidad en los países desarrollados. El diagnóstico pasa por varios momentos, el cuadro clínico, la analítica y las imágenes. Objetivos: realizar la validación externa de un modelo matemático predictivo de mortalidad en pacientes ingresados por neumonía grave adquirida en la comunidad. Material y métodos: estudio longitudinal prospectivo (cohorte) con un grupo, con todos los pacientes que ingresaron en la Unidad de Cuidados intensivos emergentes con el diagnóstico de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en el Hospital Militar Dr. Carlos J. Finlay, de febrero de 2018 hasta marzo del 2019. El universo estuvo constituido por 160 pacientes y no se tomó muestra alguna. Resultados: índice de Kappa K=1. Test Hosmer Lemenshow 0,650 con elevado ajuste. Resultados del modelo con sensibilidad= 79%. Especificidad: 91% con (VPP): 80 y (VPN)= 91. RR: 9,1. Área bajo la Curva = 0997. Porcentaje de aciertos en la regresión logística de 88,4 %. Conclusiones: el modelo propuesto constituyo una herramienta útil en la detección temprana de pacientes con riesgo de muerte a corto plazo. Permitió unificar en una sola variable el resultado de otras que aparentemente no tienen relación entre ellas; con lo que se hace más fácil la interpretación de los resultados, toda vez que este refleja, el conjunto y no la individualidad (AU).


SUMMARY Introduction: community-acquired pneumonia is the infectious disease leading to higher mortality in developed countries. The diagnosis goes through several moments, clinical symptoms, analytics, and images. Objective: to perform the external validation of a predictive mathematical model of mortality in patients admitted by serious community-acquired pneumonia. Methods: longitudinal prospective (cohort) study with a group formed with all patients who were admitted to the Emergent Intensive Care Unit in the Military Hospital ¨Dr. Carlos Juan Finlay¨ with the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, from February 2018 to March 2019. The universe was formed by 160 patients and no sample was chosen. Results: Kappa index K= 1. Hosmer Lemenshow test= 0.650 with a high adjustment. Result of the model with sensibility= 79 %. Specificity= 91 % with (APV) = 80 and (NPV) = 91. RR= 9.1. Area under the curve= 0997. Percentage of correctness in logistic regression of 88.4 %. Conclusions: The proposed model was a useful tool in the early detection of patients at near-term death risk. It allowed to unite in an only variant the result of others that apparently are not related one to another, making it easier the interpretation of the results, since it reflects the whole and not the individuality (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Idoso/fisiologia , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Previsões/métodos , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos
9.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(5): 2248-2261, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144731

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: la salud bucal juega un papel importante para mantener la calidad de vida en la tercera edad. Objetivo: determinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre salud bucal de los adultos mayores. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva, de corte transversal. Se estudió un universo constituido por 209 adultos mayores. Pertenecientes al Consultorio 10 del Policlínico "Tomas Romay", durante el año 2017 al 2018. La recolección de los datos se realizó mediante una encuesta. Resultados: el 41,6 % fueron evaluados de mal, seguidos de los de regular. El 41,1 % fueron de 60 a 69 años, el 39,2 % pertenecían al sexo masculino y el 60,8 % al femenino. El 46,8 % tienen un nivel medio de escolaridad. Resultaron jubilados el 51,4 % de los evaluados de regular. Las familias extensas representaron el 45,5 % y el 67,9 % eran disfuncionales. Conclusiones: prevalecieron los adultos mayores evaluados de mal, las féminas y las edades comprendidas entre los 60 y 69 años. Sobresalieron los adultos con nivel medio de escolaridad. En los evaluados de regular predominaron los jubilados. Imperaron las familias extensas y disfuncionales (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: oral health plays an important role to keep life quality in elder people. Objective: to determine the knowledge level of elder people on oral health. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional descriptive research was carried out. The authors studied a universe of 209 elder people belonging to Family Physician's Office 10 of the "Tomas Romay" Polyclinic during the period 2017 - 2019. Data were collected in an inquiry. Results: 41.6 % got bad qualifications, followed by fair. 41.1. % of patients was in the 60-69 age group, 39.2 % were male and 60.8 % ere female. 46.8 % has a high school scholarship. 51.4 % of those who got fair qualification were retired. Extensive families represented 45.5 % and 67.9 % of them were dysfunctional. Conclusions: elder people with bad qualifications, women, and the 60-69-age-group prevailed. Elders with high school scholarship stood out. Among those who got fair qualification predominated retired people. Extensive, dysfunctional families were the most commonly found (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso/fisiologia , Saúde Bucal/educação , Higiene Bucal/educação , Consultórios Médicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Conhecimento
10.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(3): e1105, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144554

RESUMO

Introducción: El progresivo envejecimiento poblacional se estima a nivel mundial como un indicador de mejora de la salud. No obstante, al vivir más años se le asocian problemas sanitarios que se van posicionando en el tiempo, y uno de ellos es la sarcopenia, la que se considera una condición común en los adultos mayores y se asocia a la inactividad física, baja resistencia, baja velocidad de marcha y disminución de la movilidad. Estos factores contribuyen a un aumento del riesgo de caída y a una disminución de la funcionalidad y de la calidad de vida. Objetivo: Mostrar evidencia actualizada respecto a los resultados del entrenamiento de fuerza con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo en población adulto mayor con sarcopenia, como estrategia costo-efectiva para la dependencia asociada al envejecimiento. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en bases de datos científicas EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect, Web of Science y en el buscador PubMed. Se utilizaron los siguientes términos de búsqueda: entrenamiento con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo, sarcopenia, adulto mayor. Los artículos analizados incluyeron revisiones y artículos de investigación, principalmente ensayos clínicos controlados y revisiones sistemáticas con metanálisis. Conclusiones: El entrenamiento con restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo en el adulto mayor surge como una herramienta útil para intervenir en la sarcopenia asociada al envejecimiento, constituyendo una alternativa para inducir la ganancia de fuerza muscular, con la disminución de los riesgos del entrenamiento de alta intensidad. Además, es una técnica económica y fácil de implementar en centros de salud de asistencia masiva(AU)


Introduction: Progressive population aging is estimated globally as an indicator of health improvement. However, when living is extended, health issues appear; one of them is sarcopenia, which is consider a common condition in older adults and it is associated to physical inactivy, low resistance, low walk speed and a decrease in mobility. These factors contribute to an increase of falls risk and to a decrease of functionality and life quality. Objective: To show updated evidence on the results of the strength training with partial restriction of blood flow in older adults populations with sarcopenia, as a cost-effective strategy for dependence associated to aging. Methods: Search was done in scientific databases as EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and PubMed searcher. Following terms were used: training with partial restriction of blood flow, sarcopenia, older adult. The analyzed articles included reviews and research articles, mainly controlled clinical trials and systematic reviews with meta-analysis. Conclusions: Training with partial restriction of the blood flow in older adults emerges as an useful tool to intervene in sarcopenia associated to aging, being an alternative to induce muscle force´s gain, and decreasing the risks of high intensity training. In addition, it is an economic and easy to implement technique in health centers with massive audiences(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Idoso/fisiologia
11.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(8): 1737-1744, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102053

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the independent and combined associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular strength (MS) with arterial stiffness (AS), a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease, in older adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 405 older adults (mean age, 72 yr). Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by time (s) to complete a 400-m walking test and MS by maximal handgrip strength (kg). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was used to assess AS. High AS was defined as a pulse wave velocity of ≥10 m·s, a previously established threshold for increased cardiovascular risk. Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of having high AS across sex-specific tertiles of CRF and MS. Muscular strength and CRF were further dichotomized into either "weak" or "unfit" (lower one third for each), or "strong" or "fit" (upper two thirds for each) to investigate the combined associations of CRF and MS with high AS. All analyses were adjusted for potential confounders, including MS for CRF and CRF for MS. RESULTS: Sixty-nine (17%) participants had high AS. Compared with lower CRF, PR (95% CI) of having high AS were 0.53 (0.30-0.95) and 0.69 (0.38-1.23) for middle and upper CRF, respectively. Compared with lower MS, PR (95% CI) of having high AS were 0.81 (0.49-1.34) and 0.52 (0.29-0.92) for middle and upper MS, respectively. In the joint analysis, compared with the "unfit and weak" group, PR (95% CI) of having high AS were 0.72 (0.38-1.35), 0.58 (0.29-1.16), and 0.46 (0.25-0.85) for "unfit and strong," "fit and weak," and "fit and strong" groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of CRF and MS were independently associated with lower (healthier) levels of AS in older adults.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Força Muscular , Rigidez Vascular , Idoso/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Artérias Carótidas/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/fisiologia , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco
12.
Res Sports Med ; 28(4): 563-571, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050791

RESUMO

This study sought to compare the biomechanical parameters of the lower extremities during a countermovement jump in elderly people who are engaged in frequent practice of tai chi chuan (TCG) and in the general population of healthy elderly people (HG). Each group included 12 participants. Ten Vicon Motion System infrared cameras and two Kistler force plates were employed for measurement. The jump height, duration, centre of mass (COM) displacement, joint ROM, and upward velocity were analysed in this study. Motion analysis and force platform data were combined to calculate joint moments and powers during the takeoff phase. The data were analysed using independent sample t-tests. The results showed that the tai chi chuan practitioner group (0.13 m) achieved 44% higher jump heights (p < 0.05). The COM displacement during squatting was lower in the TCG (0.25 m) than in the HG (0.19 m) (p < 0.05). The knee and ankle ROMs of the TCG were higher than those of the HG (p < 0.05). Peak knee moment 23% and peak knee power 32% higher in TCG compared to the HG (p < 0.05), suggesting that frequent practice of tai chi chuan may slow the rate of knee degeneration.


Assuntos
Idoso/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Exercício Pliométrico , Tai Ji , Acidentes por Quedas , Fatores Etários , Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
13.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 14-22, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089378

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Tinnitus is present in a large part of chronic health complaints, and it is considered a public health problem injurious to the individual's quality of life. Considering the increase of the world population associated with an increase of life expectancy, tinnitus remains a cause for medical concern, since during aging the occurrence of auditory impairments due to the deterioration of the peripheral auditory structures and central impairs the quality of life. Objective The aim of the present study was to analyze the applicability of real ear measurements for audiological intervention of tinnitus through specific evaluation, selection, verification and validation of the hearing aids combined with the sound generator. Methods Forty individuals of both genders with hearing loss and tinnitus complaints were deemed eligible to compose the sample. They were enrolled according to clinical symptoms and submitted to the following procedures: anamnesis and previous complaint history, high frequency audiometry, immittanciometry and acuphenometry with the research of psychoacoustic thresholds of pitch, loudness and minimum masking threshold, sound generator, in addition to the application of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and Visual Analog Scale tools. The entire sample was adapted with Siemens hearing aids and a sound generator, participated in a counseling session with support of digital material and evaluated in two situations: Initial Assessment (before the hearing aids and sound generator adaptation) and Final Assessment (6 months, after adaptation). The statistical analyzes were descriptive and inferential, adopted a significance level of 5% and the T-Paired Test and the Spearman Correlation test were performed. Results The results showed that there was a benefit with the use of hearing aids combined with a sound generator from the statistically significant values and strong correlations between the sound generator verification data regarding acuphenometry and the nuisance/severity questionnaires. Regarding the verification of the sound generator, it is important to highlight that the entire sample selected the effective acoustic stimulation based on the comfort levels, which was proved in the present study to be a sufficient intensity for positive prognosis, whereas the users' noises were found below the psychoacoustic thresholds of acuphenometry. Conclusion The present study concluded that the audiological intervention with any level of sound stimulus is enough to obtain a positive prognosis in the medium term. Data that specifies that the verification of sound generator was effective at the real ear measurements are important in the evaluation and intervention of the complaint. In addition, it points out that the greater the tinnitus perception, the greater its severity, and the greater the nuisance, the higher the psychoacoustics thresholds of frequency and the minimum threshold of masking.


Resumo Introdução O zumbido está presente em grande parte das queixas crônicas de saúde, é considerado um problema de saúde pública, prejudicial à qualidade de vida do indivíduo. Considerando o aumento da população mundial associado ao aumento da expectativa de vida, a tendência é que o zumbido permaneça como um motivo de preocupação, uma vez que com a idade a ocorrência de prejuízos auditivos decorrentes da deterioração das estruturas auditivas periféricas e centrais ocasiona grande impacto negativo na qualidade de vida. Objetivo Analisar a aplicabilidade das medidas da orelha real para a intervenção audiológica do zumbido através de avaliação específica, seleção, verificação e validação do aparelho de amplificação sonora individual combinada ao gerador de som. Método Quarenta indivíduos de ambos os sexos com perda auditiva e queixa de zumbido foram considerados elegíveis para compor a amostra. Eles foram atendidos conforme a demanda clínica e submetidos aos seguintes procedimentos: anamnese e história pregressa da queixa, audiometria de alta frequência, imitanciometria e acufenometria com pesquisa dos limiares psicoacústicos de pitch, loudness e limiar mínimo de mascaramento, gerador de som, além da aplicação das ferramentas tinnitus handicap inventory e escala visual analógica. Toda a amostra recebeu aparelho de amplificação sonora individual e gerador de som, ambos da marca Siemens, participaram de uma sessão de aconselhamento com apoio de material digital e foram avaliados em duas situações: Avaliação inicial (antes da adaptação dos aparelhos de amplificação sonora individual e gerador de som) e Avaliação final (6 meses após a adaptação). As análises estatísticas foram descritivas e inferenciais, adotou-se um nível de significância de 5% com a realização do teste t pareado e o teste de correlação de Spearman. Resultados Os resultados mostraram que houve benefício com o uso de aparelho de amplificação sonora individual combinado ao gerador de som com base nos valores estatisticamente significantes e fortes correlações entre os dados da verificação do gerador de som em relação à acufenometria e os questionários de incômodo/gravidade. Em relação à verificação do gerador de som, é importante destacar que toda a amostra selecionou a estimulação acústica efetiva baseada nos níveis de conforto e no presente estudo demonstraram ser de intensidade suficiente para o prognóstico positivo, enquanto que os ruídos dos usuários estavam abaixo dos limiares psicoacústicos da acufenometria. Conclusão A intervenção audiológica com qualquer nível de estímulo sonoro é suficiente para obter um prognóstico positivo em médio prazo. Os dados que demonstram que a verificação do gerador de som foi efetiva nas medidas da orelha real são importantes na avaliação e intervenção da queixa. Além disso, mostram que quanto maior a percepção do zumbido, maior a sua gravidade; e quanto maior o incômodo, maiores os limiares de frequência psicoacústica e o limiar mínimo de mascaramento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Zumbido/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Idoso/fisiologia , Audição/fisiologia , Audiometria , Percepção Auditiva , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/reabilitação , Som , Zumbido/reabilitação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/reabilitação
14.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(2): 441-448, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939912

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Study objective was to determine feasibility and compliance with a 3-month exercise intervention in older adults, and if peripheral quantitative computed tomography muscle measures and jumping mechanography could detect changes in muscle mass and function. METHODS: A parallel group, nonblinded, pilot trial with individuals 70 yr or older randomized to control group of walking-only (WALK) or an intervention group of walking combined with exercises to improve balance and strength (W + EX). Both groups attended similar weekly nutrition education sessions. Body composition, muscle density, intramuscular adipose tissue area, and muscle function were assessed before and after the intervention using dual-energy x-ray, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, functional tests, and mechanography. RESULTS: Eighty-five (90%) of 94 individuals enrolled completed (41WALK, 44W + EX). Eighty-six percent of participants attended seven or more nutrition sessions, and log sheets, used to assess exercise compliance, were returned by 66% of participants, and of those, 88% logged activity on 50%+ days. Sixty-seven percent of participants stated that they increased activity levels, and 82% stated that they felt better overall. Both groups increased lean and lost fat mass, resulting in decreases in fat percentage (all, P < 0.05). Intramuscular adipose tissue area decreased and muscle density increased among WALK (P < 0.05 and P = 0.056, respectively) but were not different between groups. Improvement in force efficiency and chair-rise power were greater among W + EX group than WALK (5.9% ± 1.8% vs -1.2% ± 2.0% [P = 0.01] and 0.25 ± 0.19 W·kg and -0.37 ± 0.23 W·kg [P = 0.04], respectively). Differences in mechanography results became greater in a per-protocol analysis. CONCLUSIONS: A larger trial is feasible, and the program was well accepted. Both groups showed improvements, the program that included strength and balance lead to greater jump force efficiency and power than walking only. Whether these differences lead to differences in fall rates need to be determined in a larger trial.


Assuntos
Idoso/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Composição Corporal , Dieta Saudável , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Projetos Piloto , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Caminhada/fisiologia
15.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 20(8): 1131-1139, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726952

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed to determine the optimal accelerometer wear-site specific cut-points for discrimination of the sedentary time, light physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in older adults. Twenty-three adults (14 females) aged 55-77 years wore a GENEActiv accelerometer on their non-dominant wrist, dominant wrist, waist and dominant ankle whilst undertaking eight, five-minute bouts of activity: lay supine, seated reading, slow walking, medium walking, fast walking, folding laundry, sweeping and stationary cycling. VO2 was assessed concurrently using indirect calorimetry. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to derive wear-site specific cut-points for classifying intensity. Indirect calorimetry indicated that being lay supine and seated reading were classified as sedentary (<1.5 METs), laundry as light (1.51-2.99 METs) and sweeping, slow, medium and fast walking and cycling all classified as moderate intensity (>3 METs). Areas under ROC curves indicated that the classification of sedentary activity was good for the non-dominant wrist and excellent for all other wear sites. Classification of MVPA was excellent for the waist and ankle, good for the waist and poor for the dominant and non-dominant wrists. Overall, the ankle location performed better than in other locations. Ankle-worn accelerometry appears to provide the most suitable wear-site to discriminate between sedentary time and MVPA in older adults.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Idoso/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Tornozelo , Calorimetria Indireta , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Quadril , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Punho
16.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(9): 1671-1679, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693736

RESUMO

Quantification of biological aging has been proposed for population surveillance of age-related decline in system integrity and evaluation of geroprotective therapies. However, methods of quantifying biological aging have been little studied in geriatric populations. We analyzed three clinical-biomarker-algorithm methods to quantify biological aging. Klemera-Doubal method Biological Age and homeostatic dysregulation algorithms were parameterized from analysis of U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) data (N = 36,207) based on published methods. Levine method Biological Age was adapted from published analysis of NHANES data. Algorithms were applied to biomarker data from the Duke Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (Duke-EPESE) cohort of older adults (N = 1,374, aged 71-102 years, 35% male, 52% African American). We tested associations of biological aging measures with participant reported Activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) dependencies, and mortality. We evaluated the sensitivity of results to the demographic composition of reference samples and biomarker sets used to develop biological aging algorithms. African American and white Duke-EPESE participants with more advanced biological aging reported dependence in more ADLs and IADLs and were at increased risk of death over follow-up through 2017. Effect sizes were similar across algorithms, but were strongest for Levine method Biological Age (per-quintile increase in ADL incidence rate ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval [1.17-1.37], IADL incidence rate ratio = 1.23 [1.15-1.32], mortality hazard ratio = 1.12 [1.08-1.16]). Results were insensitive to demographic composition of reference samples, but modestly sensitive to the biomarker sets used to develop biological aging algorithms. Blood-chemistry-based quantifications of biological aging show promise for evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to extend healthy life span in older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Pessoas com Deficiência , Mortalidade , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol ; 86(1): 14-22, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337103

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is present in a large part of chronic health complaints, and it is considered a public health problem injurious to the individual's quality of life. Considering the increase of the world population associated with an increase of life expectancy, tinnitus remains a cause for medical concern, since during aging the occurrence of auditory impairments due to the deterioration of the peripheral auditory structures and central impairs the quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to analyze the applicability of real ear measurements for audiological intervention of tinnitus through specific evaluation, selection, verification and validation of the hearing aids combined with the sound generator. METHODS: Forty individuals of both genders with hearing loss and tinnitus complaints were deemed eligible to compose the sample. They were enrolled according to clinical symptoms and submitted to the following procedures: anamnesis and previous complaint history, high frequency audiometry, immittanciometry and acuphenometry with the research of psychoacoustic thresholds of pitch, loudness and minimum masking threshold, sound generator, in addition to the application of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and Visual Analog Scale tools. The entire sample was adapted with Siemens hearing aids and a sound generator, participated in a counseling session with support of digital material and evaluated in two situations: Initial Assessment (before the hearing aids and sound generator adaptation) and Final Assessment (6 months, after adaptation). The statistical analyzes were descriptive and inferential, adopted a significance level of 5% and the T-Paired Test and the Spearman Correlation test were performed. RESULTS: The results showed that there was a benefit with the use of hearing aids combined with a sound generator from the statistically significant values and strong correlations between the sound generator verification data regarding acuphenometry and the nuisance/severity questionnaires. Regarding the verification of the sound generator, it is important to highlight that the entire sample selected the effective acoustic stimulation based on the comfort levels, which was proved in the present study to be a sufficient intensity for positive prognosis, whereas the users' noises were found below the psychoacoustic thresholds of acuphenometry. CONCLUSION: The present study concluded that the audiological intervention with any level of sound stimulus is enough to obtain a positive prognosis in the medium term. Data that specifies that the verification of sound generator was effective at the real ear measurements are important in the evaluation and intervention of the complaint. In addition, it points out that the greater the tinnitus perception, the greater its severity, and the greater the nuisance, the higher the psychoacoustics thresholds of frequency and the minimum threshold of masking.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Idoso/fisiologia , Audição/fisiologia , Zumbido/fisiopatologia , Audiometria , Percepção Auditiva , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/reabilitação , Feminino , Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/reabilitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Som , Zumbido/reabilitação
18.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(5): 1057-1067, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876667

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is unclear if high-intensity interval training (HIIT) elicits superior improvements in brachial artery (BA) flow-mediated dilation (FMD) responses (i.e., endothelial-dependent vasodilation) than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or resistance training (RT) in otherwise healthy older adults. Whether HIIT enhances lower-limb FMD responses and/or augments low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC) (endothelial-dependent vasoconstriction) responses more than MICT or RT is also unknown. We tested the hypothesis that HIIT would improve BA and popliteal artery (POP) FMD and L-FMC responses more than MICT or RT in healthy older adults. METHODS: Thirty-eight older adults (age, 67 ± 6 yr) performed 6 wk of either HIIT (2 × 20 min bouts alternating between 15-s intervals at 100% of peak power output [PPO] and passive recovery [0% PPO]; n = 12), MICT (34 min at 60% PPO; n = 12), or whole-body RT (8 exercises, 2 × 10 repetitions; n = 14). The L-FMC and FMD were measured before and after training using high-resolution ultrasound and quantified as the percent change in baseline diameter during distal cuff occlusion and after cuff release, respectively. RESULTS: Resting BA blood flow and vascular conductance (both, P < 0.003) were greater after HIIT only. The HIIT and MICT similarly increased BA-FMD (pre-post: both, P < 0.001), but only HIIT improved BA L-FMC (P < 0.001). Both HIIT and MICT similarly enhanced POP FMD and L-FMC responses (both, P < 0.045). Resistance training did not impact FMD or L-FMC responses in either artery (all, P > 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: HIIT and MICT, but not RT, similarly improved lower-limb vasodilator and vasoconstrictor endothelial function in older adults. Although HIIT and MICT groups enhanced BA vasodilator function, only HIIT improved resting conductance and endothelial sensitivity to low-flow in the BA. In the short-term, HIIT may be most effective at improving peripheral vascular endothelial function in older adults.


Assuntos
Idoso/fisiologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artéria Braquial/fisiologia , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Poplítea/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea , Vasoconstrição , Vasodilatação
19.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 167: 73-88, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753158

RESUMO

Clinical evaluation of neurologic disorders in the elderly requires seeking a thorough history and performing an age-appropriate neurologic examination with special attention to changes that occur with normal aging. The history should be obtained from the patient as well as collateral sources close to the patient to ensure accuracy and should include contextual elements such as medical history, social, economic, and psychological background, as well as an assessment of current functional state beyond activities of daily living. The safety of the patient, including the presence of physical, psychological, and financial threats, should be addressed during the interview. The neurological examination in older adults may need to be modified to circumvent disabilities such as hearing and visual impairment. Some elements of the neurological examination are expected to be affected by the process of aging, including pupillary reactivity, presbyopia, difficulty with ocular pursuit and up-gaze, reduced or absent distal reflexes, slower motor speed, and reduced ability to tandem walk, among others. In addition to a screening neurological assessment, evaluation of older adults with a particular complaint may require additional interview queries and examination manoeuvres. Common symptoms in the elderly include cognitive difficulties, balance and gait disorders, tremors, and neuropathy. A specialized approach to patients with cognitive difficulties must include assessment of each cognitive domain, including attention, executive function, learning and memory, perceptual-motor function, and social cognition. Balance and gait are essential parts of the neurological examination, and in patients with a history of falls or mobility issues, should become a central part of the evaluation. In patient with tremors, careful observation of the tremor quality (amplitude, frequency, and alleviating/exacerbating factors such as rest, movement, and posture) can aid diagnosis. Evaluation of neuropathy includes determining modality (numbness, tingling, pain, and weakness) and the distribution of symptoms in order to localize the site of nerve injury, which can be supplemented with nerve conduction studies/electromyography, to guide further diagnostic workup and treatment. A combination of detailed history and examination often will suggest a likely underlying neurodegenerative disorder and guide further diagnostic workup to establish a specific diagnosis.


Assuntos
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais/fisiologia , Idoso/fisiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(Suppl 3): 168-179, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assistance systems serving the locomotion of older people interact in many ways with the culture of a society. Since early modern times at the latest, walking aids were tantamount to human frailty; however, the cane also symbolized governmental power or reputation. Nowadays, the cane, the wheelchair, and the rollator have not only a functional significance in terms of a better mobility, they also enable people to take an active part in social life. OBJECTIVE: This study aimes at tracing back these provisional insights into the history of civilization and thereby analyze the roots, new forms and pictures of the handling and metaphors of these assistance systems. The goal in the context of this special issue is to decipher a central textual and pictorial symbol of old age, comparing it with more recent symbols of assistance in old age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methodologically, the text combines approaches of philology and history of medicine with those of the history of art. It analyzes (after a brief retrospection of ancient times and the Middle Ages) by means of textual and pictorial sources from the sixteenth to the twenty-first centuries the historical development of these aids of locomotion for older people. Additionally, it explores the cultural relevancy of these assistance systems. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In history the medical profession paid relatively late and then only minor attention to the assistive systems analyzed here. Its semantic diversity is closely related to the age roles and stereotypes of age prevailing in certain epochs. The more the respective assistive tool is used by old people, the more suitable it is as a symbol of old age and the more biased and negative the semantic connotation seems to be. The development of a symbol of age connoting frailty, at present symbolized most clearly by the rollator, tends to refer to a pejorative image of age in a society. The cultural historical analysis suggests that a contrasting development will only be possible when the assistive systems will again fulfil a diversity of alternative functions and semantics.


Assuntos
Bengala , Características Culturais , Andadores , Caminhada , Idoso/fisiologia , Idoso/psicologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cultura , Humanos , Locomoção , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Semântica
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