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1.
J Exp Biol ; 224(14)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160050

RESUMO

The predicted rise of global temperatures is of major concern for ectotherms because of its direct impact on their behavior and physiology. As physiological performance mediates a species' resilience to warming exposure, physiological plasticity could greatly reduce the susceptibility to climate change. We studied the degree to which Diplolaemus leopardinus lizards are able to adjust behavioral and physiological traits in response to short periods of temperature change. We used a split cross design to measure the acclimation response of preferred body temperature (Tp), and the thermal performance curve of resting metabolic rate (RMR) and evaporative water loss (EWL). Our results showed that plasticity differs among traits: whereas Tp and EWL showed lower values in warm conditions, the body temperature at which RMR was highest increased. Moreover, RMR was affected by thermal history, showing a large increase in response to cold exposure in the group initially acclimated to warm temperatures. The reduction of EWL and the increase in optimal temperature will give lizards the potential to partially mitigate the impact of rising temperatures in the energy cost and water balance. However, the decrease in Tp and the sensitivity to the warm thermal history of RMR could be detrimental to the energy net gain, increasing the species' vulnerability, especially considering the increase of heat waves predicted for the next 50 years. The integration of acclimation responses in behavioral and physiological traits provides a better understanding of the range of possible responses of lizards to cope with the upcoming climatic and environmental modifications expected as a result of climate change.


Assuntos
Iguanas , Lagartos , Panthera , Aclimatação , Animais , Argentina , Mudança Climática , Temperatura
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242086, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161453

RESUMO

The work aims were to describe the histological and histochemical structure of the gastroesophageal tube of Iguana iguana and verify the occurrence and distribution of immunoreactive serotonin (5-HT) and somatostatin (SS) cells. Fragments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five iguanas were which underwent standard histological and immunohistochemistry technique. Immunoreactive cells for 5-HT and SS were quantified using the STEPanizer. The oesophagus has ciliated columnar pseudostratified epithelium with staining Alcian blue (AB) + and goblet cells highly reactive to periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the cervical oesophagus, the numerical density of 5-HT cells per unit area (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) was 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 and celomatic oesophagus presented QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. The epithelium of the stomach is simple columnar, PAS and AB +. The cranial and middle regions of the stomach presented (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 and the caudal region, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. The SS cells were only observed in the caudal stomach, with numerical density (QA [SS cells]/µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9 In I. iguana, variation was observed in terms of the distribution of mucus secretions and the pattern of occurrence of serotonin and somatostatin-secreting enteroendocrine cells in the TGI, which possibly will result in an interspecific adaptive response.


Assuntos
Iguanas , Serotonina , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estômago
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 815-819, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130430

RESUMO

While herpesviruses are well-known pathogens in a wide variety of chelonian species, they have only sporadically been documented in squamate reptiles. Those that have been described have most often been associated with hepatic disease and oral lesions. During a study on infectious disease in pet reptiles in Poland, herpesviruses were detected in swabs from three green iguanas (Iguana iguana) from two different owners that were presented to two different veterinary clinics in Warsaw. One iguana was presented for abscesses on the head, while the other two were partner animals and remained clinically healthy throughout the course of this study. Virus was detected in oral swabs as well as combined swab samples from the oral cavity and cloaca using a panherpesvirus PCR. PCR products from all three animals were sequenced, and the detected viruses were most closely related to iguanid herpesvirus 2 from a San Esteban chuckwalla (Sauromalus varius) in the United States (GenBank accession No. AY236869.1). The single animal was retested again 1 y later and remained clinically healthy and continued to shed the same herpesvirus. This is the first description of a herpesvirus infection in pet iguanas in Europe. While the clinical relevance of the infection is not known, it is of interest that the infected animals appeared to continue to shed virus over an extended period of time.


Assuntos
Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Iguanas/virologia , Animais , Feminino , Herpesviridae/classificação , Herpesviridae/genética , Filogenia , Polônia
4.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(4): 101730, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957484

RESUMO

Hunters are at a higher risk for exposure to zoonotic pathogens due to their close interactions with wildlife and arthropod vectors. In this study, high throughput sequencing was used to explore the viromes of two tick species, Amblyomma dissimile and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, removed from hunted wildlife in Trinidad and Tobago. We identified sequences from 3 new viral species, from the viral families Orthomyxoviridae, Chuviridae and Tetraviridae in A. dissimile.


Assuntos
Cervos , Iguanas , Ixodidae/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Trinidad e Tobago , Proteínas Virais/análise
5.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(4): 101723, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857748

RESUMO

This paper presents new data about Rickettsia species detected in ticks collected from wild animals, using 16S rRNA, gltA and ompA. Rickettsia DNA was found in 66 of 101 ticks. Using EZ BioCloud libraries were produced reads that identified Rickettsia aeschlimannii, and Illumina BaseSpace produced reads of Rickettsia rickettsii group, Rickettsia bellii group, and unclassified Rickettsia. Using gltA and ompA gene-specific primers, R. aeschlimannii could not be confirmed, but detection of Rickettsia amblyommatis was achieved in Amblyomma auricularium, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma mixtum, and Amblyomma pacae; R. bellii from Amblyomma dissimile, "Candidatus Rickettsia colombianensi" from A. dissimile, Rickettsia spp. closely related to R. raoultii from A. geayi, Rickettsia tamurae from A. dissimile, and Rickettsia endosymbionts of Ixodes from Ixodes affinis. There were no databases available specifically for 16S rRNA of Neotropical Rickettsia, highlighting the need to use species primers over only 16S rRNA primers to achieve more accurate interpretations and identifications. These findings increase the number of Rickettsia species detected in Panama and highlight the need to establish isolates to further characterize the nature of Rickettsia in the area.


Assuntos
Amblyomma/microbiologia , Iguanas , Ixodes/microbiologia , Mamíferos , Microbiota , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Amblyomma/fisiologia , Animais , Ixodes/fisiologia , Panamá , Rickettsia/classificação , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
6.
Naturwissenschaften ; 108(1): 7, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528676

RESUMO

Gut microorganisms are crucial for many biological functions playing a pivotal role in the host's well-being. We studied gut bacterial community structure of marine iguana populations across the Galápagos archipelago. Marine iguanas depend heavily on their specialized gut microbiome for the digestion of dietary algae, a resource whose growth was strongly reduced by severe "El Niño"-related climatic fluctuations in 2015/2016. As a consequence, marine iguana populations showed signs of starvation as expressed by a poor body condition. Body condition indices (BCI) varied between island populations indicating that food resources (i.e., algae) are affected differently across the archipelago during 'El Niño' events. Though this event impacted food availability for marine iguanas, we found that reductions in body condition due to "El Niño"-related starvation did not result in differences in bacterial gut community structure. Species richness of gut microorganisms was instead correlated with levels of neutral genetic diversity in the distinct host populations. Our data suggest that marine iguana populations with a higher level of gene diversity and allelic richness may harbor a more diverse gut microbiome than those populations with lower genetic diversity. Since low values of these diversity parameters usually correlate with small census and effective population sizes, we use our results to propose a novel hypothesis according to which small and genetically less diverse host populations might be characterized by less diverse microbiomes. Whether such genetically depauperate populations may experience additional threats from reduced dietary flexibility due to a limited intestinal microbiome is currently unclear and calls for further investigation.


Assuntos
El Niño Oscilação Sul , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Iguanas/microbiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Equador
7.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247010, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606766

RESUMO

The Blue Iguana Recovery Programme maintains a captive breeding and head-starting program for endangered Grand Cayman blue iguanas (Cyclura lewisi) on Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands. In May 2015, program staff encountered two lethargic wild Grand Cayman blue iguanas within the Queen Elizabeth II Botanic Park (QEIIBP). Spiral-shaped bacteria were identified on peripheral blood smears from both animals, which molecular diagnostics identified as a novel Helicobacter species (provisionary name Helicobacter sp. GCBI1). Between March 2015 and February 2017, 11 Grand Cayman blue iguanas were identified with the infection. Two of these were found dead and nine were treated; five of the nine treated animals survived the initial infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene suggests Helicobacter sp. GCBI1 is most closely related to Helicobacter spp. in chelonians. We developed a Taqman qPCR assay specific for Helicobacter sp. GCBI1 to screen tissue and/or blood samples from clinical cases, fecal and cloacal samples from clinically healthy Grand Cayman blue iguanas, including previously infected and recovered iguanas, and iguanas housed adjacent to clinical cases. Fecal and/or cloacal swab samples were all negative, suggesting that Grand Cayman blue iguanas do not asymptomatically carry this organism nor shed this pathogen per cloaca post infection. Retrospective analysis of a 2014 mortality event affecting green iguanas (Iguana iguana) from a separate Grand Cayman location identified Helicobacter sp. GCBI1 in two of three cases. The source of infection and mode of transmission are yet to be confirmed. Analysis of rainfall data reveal that all infections occurred during a multi-year dry period, and most occurred shortly after the first rains at the end of seasonal drought. Additionally, further screening has identified Helicobacter sp. GCBI1 from choanal swabs of clinically normal green iguanas in the QEIIBP, suggesting they could be asymptomatic carriers and a potential source of the pathogen.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Infecções por Helicobacter/mortalidade , Iguanas/microbiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Cruzamento , RNA Ribossômico 16S
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 933-947, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480574

RESUMO

The blue iguana (Cyclura lewisi) is an endangered rock iguana species native to Grand Cayman, in the Cayman Islands. Health assessments were conducted on captive and free-roaming iguanas in 2001 and 2003-2014 and were performed in the summer wet season (June-July) of 2003-2004 and 2010-2014 and in the winter dry season (November-December) of 2001 and 2005-2009. Morphometric data were recorded from iguanas when blood samples were collected: 903 samples were collected and data from 890 samples from 775 iguanas were included. Samples were analyzed for hematology, plasma biochemistry, protein electrophoresis, mineral panels, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and testosterone. Reference intervals were created for captive subadults, captive adults, and free-roaming adults when data were sufficient. Significant differences among these groups were described, as were differences on the basis of sex, season, and origin (captive vs free-roaming). In captive iguanas, most analytes were significantly different between subadults and adults, mature heterophils and copper were significantly higher in the dry season, zinc levels were significantly higher in the wet season, and cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher in adult females than adult males. Testosterone in adult males was significantly higher in the dry season. These results will aid in future health assessments and disease investigations in wild and captive populations of blue iguanas and are of comparative value for other Cyclura species that are free-roaming, captive, and, especially, in similar conservation release programs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Eletroforese/veterinária , Contagem de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Hematócrito/veterinária , Iguanas/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Amilases/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Glicemia , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Cloretos/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Eletrólitos/sangue , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Minerais/sangue , Valores de Referência , Índias Ocidentais
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242935, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296401

RESUMO

Most species of modern iguanas (Iguania, Iguanidae) dig burrows for dwelling and nesting, yet neither type of burrow has been interpreted as trace fossils in the geologic record. Here we describe and diagnose the first known fossil example of an iguana nesting burrow, preserved in the Grotto Beach Formation (Early Late Pleistocene, ~115 kya) on San Salvador Island, The Bahamas. The trace fossil, located directly below a protosol, is exposed in a vertical section of a cross-bedded oolitic eolianite. Abundant root traces, a probable land-crab burrow, and lack of ghost-crab burrows further indicate a vegetated inland dune as the paleoenvironmental setting. The trace fossil matches dimensions and overall forms of burrows made by modern iguanas, and internal structures indicate active backfilling consistent with modern iguana nesting burrows. The trace fossil is also located on an island with a modern native species of rock iguana (Cyclura riyeli riyeli), suggesting a presence of iguanas on San Salvador since the Late Pleistocene. This nesting burrow may provide a search image for more fossil iguana burrows in The Bahamas and other places with long-established iguana species and favorable geological conditions for preserving their burrows.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Iguanas , Animais , Bahamas , Sedimentos Geológicos , Comportamento de Nidação
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21607, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303852

RESUMO

Defining conservation units is an important step in species management and requires interpretation of the genetic diversity and ecological function of the taxon being considered. We used the endemic Cuban Rock Iguanas (Cyclura nubila nubila) as a model to highlight this challenge and examined patterns of its intraspecific genetic diversity across Cuba. We evaluated nuclear (microsatellite loci) and mitochondrial diversity across eight populations from the island and its off-shore cays, and applied the population genetics results for assignment of Management Unit (MU) status and Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs) based on phylogeographic and time of divergence information. We identified at least six distinct Cuban Rock Iguana MUs, encompassing demographically isolated and genetically differentiated populations across Cuba, most with low effective population size, declining populations, and with high risk of inbreeding and genetic drift. Hence, each MU should be considered of urgent conservation priority. Given the key ecological seed dispersal role of C. n. nubila, the disappearance of any MU could trigger the loss of local ecological functional diversity and major negative impacts on their ecosystems. Two divergent ESUs were also identified, exhibiting an historical east-west geographic separation on Cuba. Based on a Caribbean phylogeographic assessment, our findings strengthen the conclusion that all geographically and evolutionarily differentiated Cyclura species and subspecies across the archipelago warrant ESU distinction.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Iguanas/classificação , Animais , Cuba , Ecossistema , Genética Populacional , Iguanas/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogeografia
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22105, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328521

RESUMO

Light/dark cycle affects the physiology of vertebrates and hypothalamic orexin neurons (ORX) are involved in this function. The breathing pattern of the green iguana changes from continuous to episodic across the light/dark phases. Since the stimulatory actions of ORX on breathing are most important during arousal, we hypothesized that ORX regulates changes of breathing pattern in iguanas. Thus, we: (1) Localized ORX neurons with immunohistochemistry; (2) Quantified cyclic changes in plasma orexin-A levels by ELISA; (3) Compared breathing pattern at rest and during hypoxia and hypercarbia; (4) Evaluated the participation of the ORX receptors in ventilation with intracerebroventricular microinjections of ORX antagonists during light and dark phases. We show that the ORX neurons of I. iguana are located in the periventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Orexin-A peaks during the light/active phase and breathing parallels these cyclic changes: ventilation is higher during the light phase than during the dark phase. However, inactivation of ORX-receptors does not affect the breathing pattern. Iguanas increase ventilation during hypoxia only during the light phase. Conversely, CO2 promotes post-hypercarbic hyperpnea during both phases. We conclude that ORXs potentiate the post-hypercarbic (but not the hypoxic)-drive to breathe and are not involved in light/dark changes in the breathing pattern.


Assuntos
Iguanas/fisiologia , Orexinas/genética , Fotoperíodo , Respiração/genética , Animais , Iguanas/sangue , Iguanas/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeos/sangue , Receptores de Orexina , Orexinas/sangue
12.
Integr Comp Biol ; 60(3): 581-593, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974642

RESUMO

Reptiles with continuous tooth replacement, or polyphyodonty, replace their teeth in predictable, well-timed waves in alternating tooth positions around the mouth. This process is thought to occur irrespective of tooth wear or breakage. In this study, we aimed to determine if damage to teeth and premature tooth extraction affects tooth replacement timing long-term in juvenile green iguanas (Iguana iguana). First, we examined normal tooth development histologically using a BrdU pulse-chase analysis to detect label-retaining cells in replacement teeth and dental tissues. Next, we performed tooth extraction experiments for characterization of dental tissues after functional tooth (FT) extraction, including proliferation and ß-Catenin expression, for up to 12 weeks. We then compared these results to a newly analyzed historical dataset of X-rays collected up to 7 months after FT damage and extraction in the green iguana. Results show that proliferation in the dental and successional lamina (SL) does not change after extraction of the FT, and proliferation occurs in the SL only when a tooth differentiates. Damage to an FT crown does not affect the timing of the tooth replacement cycle, however, complete extraction shifts the replacement cycle ahead by 4 weeks by removing the need for resorption of the FT. These results suggest that traumatic FT loss affects the timing of the replacement cycle at that one position, which may have implications for tooth replacement patterning around the entire mouth.


Assuntos
Iguanas/cirurgia , Odontogênese , Extração Dentária/veterinária , Dente/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Dente/cirurgia
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15734, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978416

RESUMO

Fossil identifications made in a phylogenetic framework are beholden to specific tree hypotheses. Without phylogenetic consensus, the systematic provenance of any given fossil can be volatile. Paleobiogeographic and divergence time hypotheses are contingent on the accurate systematic placement of fossils. Thus, fossil diagnoses should consider multiple topologies when phylogenetic resolution or clear apomorphies are lacking. However, such analyses are infrequently performed. Pleurodonta (Squamata: Iguania) is an ancient and frequently-studied lizard clade for which phylogenetic resolution is notoriously elusive. I describe a skull fossil of a new pleurodontan lizard taxon from the Eocene deposits of the Willwood Formation, Wyoming, and use the new taxon as a case-study to explore the effects of phylogenetic uncertainty on fossil identification. The relationships of the new taxon differ considerably among analyses, and resulting interpretations are correspondingly disparate. These results illustrate generalizable and severe issues with fossil interpretations made without consideration of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses.


Assuntos
Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/história , Iguanas/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , História Antiga , Iguanas/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Incerteza , Wyoming
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14314, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868803

RESUMO

The only known population of Conolophus marthae (Reptilia, Iguanidae) and a population of C. subcristatus are syntopic on Wolf Volcano (Isabela Island, Galápagos). No gene flow occurs suggesting that effective reproductive isolating mechanisms exist between these two species. Chemical signature of femoral pore secretions is important for intra- and inter-specific chemical communication in squamates. As a first step towards testing the hypothesis that chemical signals could mediate reproductive isolation between C. marthae and C. subcristatus, we compared the chemical profiles of femoral gland exudate from adults caught on Wolf Volcano. We compared data from three different years and focused on two years in particular when femoral gland exudate was collected from adults during the reproductive season. Samples were processed using Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). We identified over 100 different chemical compounds. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (nMDS) was used to graphically represent the similarity among individuals based on their chemical profiles. Results from non-parametric statistical tests indicate that the separation between the two species is significant, suggesting that the chemical profile signatures of the two species may help prevent hybridization between C. marthae and C. subcristatus. Further investigation is needed to better resolve environmental influence and temporal reproductive patterns in determining the variation of biochemical profiles in both species.


Assuntos
Secreções Corporais/química , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Iguanas , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Animais , Equador , Glândulas Exócrinas , Feminino , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 41: 100463, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823162

RESUMO

Green iguanas are arboreal lizards, common as pet animals and in captivity. Knowledge of neoplasms in iguanas is scarce, and a challenge to their prevention, treatment, and prognosis. A captive green iguana showed a pigmented nasal exophytic neoplasm. Tumor cells were spindle-shaped to epithelioid with a variable amount of dark-brown or black granular melanin within the cytoplasm, and also presented cytoplasmic positivity for Melan-A and S100. Transmission electron microscopy evidenced intracytoplasmic melanosomes and premelanosomes and provided a definitive diagnosis of a nasal melanophoroma. Full characterization of the clinicopathological and ultrastructural features of the melanophoroma may contribute to the limited knowledge concerning cutaneous neoplasms in green iguanas.


Assuntos
Iguanas , Neoplasias Nasais/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Neoplasias Nasais/patologia , Neoplasias Nasais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Nasais/ultraestrutura
17.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 19(9): 1523-1532, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581039

RESUMO

Communication between individuals via molecules, termed chemosignaling, is widespread among animal and plant species. However, we lack knowledge on the specific functions of the substances involved for most systems. The femoral gland is an organ that secretes a waxy substance involved in chemical communication in lizards. Although the lipids and volatile substances secreted by the femoral glands have been investigated in several biochemical studies, the protein composition and functions of secretions remain completely unknown. Applying a proteomic approach, we provide the first attempt to comprehensively characterize the protein composition of femoral gland secretions from the Galápagos marine iguana. Using samples from several organs, the marine iguana proteome was assembled by next-generation sequencing and MS, resulting in 7513 proteins. Of these, 4305 proteins were present in the femoral gland, including keratins, small serum proteins, and fatty acid-binding proteins. Surprisingly, no proteins with discernible roles in partner recognition or inter-species communication could be identified. However, we did find several proteins with direct associations to the innate immune system, including lysozyme C, antileukoproteinase (ALP), pulmonary surfactant protein (SFTPD), and galectin (LGALS1) suggesting that the femoral glands function as an important barrier to infection. Furthermore, we report several novel anti-microbial peptides from the femoral glands that show similar action against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis such as oncocin, a peptide known for its effectiveness against Gram-negative pathogens. This proteomics data set is a valuable resource for future functional protein analysis and demonstrates that femoral gland secretions also perform functions of the innate immune system.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Iguanas/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Proteoma/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Apoproteínas/genética , Apoproteínas/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fatores Quimiotáticos/genética , Fatores Quimiotáticos/metabolismo , Equador , Endopeptidases/genética , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Galectinas/genética , Galectinas/metabolismo , Coração/fisiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Iguanas/genética , Iguanas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Pulmão/metabolismo , Muramidase/genética , Muramidase/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/imunologia , Proteômica , Proteínas Associadas a Surfactantes Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Associadas a Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transcriptoma/genética
18.
J Exp Biol ; 223(Pt 12)2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366690

RESUMO

In ectotherms, temperature exerts a strong influence on the performance of physiological and ecological traits. One approach to understanding the impact of rising temperatures on animals and their ability to cope with climate change is to quantify variation in thermal-sensitive traits. Here, we examined the thermal biology, temperature dependence and thermal plasticity of bite force (endurance and magnitude) in Diplolaemus leopardinus, an aggressive and territorial lizard endemic to Mendoza province, Argentina. Our results indicate that this lizard behaves like a moderate thermoregulator that uses the rocks of its environment as the main heat source. Bite endurance was not influenced by head morphometry and body temperature, whereas bite force was influenced by head length and jaw length, and exhibited thermal dependence. Before thermal acclimation treatments, the maximum bite force for D. leopardinus occurred at the lowest body temperature and fell sharply with increasing body temperature. After acclimation treatments, lizards acclimated at higher temperatures exhibited greater bite force. Bite force showed phenotypic plasticity, which reveals that leopard iguanas are able to maintain (and even improve) their bite force under a rising-temperature scenario.


Assuntos
Iguanas , Lagartos , Panthera , Aclimatação , Animais , Argentina , Força de Mordida , Temperatura
19.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 294: 113468, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201233

RESUMO

Ecological factors, such as habitat quality, influence the survival and reproductive success of free-living organisms. Urbanization, including roads, alters native habitat and likely influences physiology, behavior, and ultimately Darwinian fitness. Some effects of roads are clearly negative, such as increased habitat fragmentation and mortality from vehicle collision. However, roads can also have positive effects, such as decreasing predator density and increased vegetation cover, particularly in xeric habitats due to increased water run-off. Glucocorticoids are metabolic hormones that reflect baseline metabolic needs, increase in response to acute challenges, and may mediate endogenous resource trade-offs between survival and reproduction. Here we examined circulating concentrations of corticosterone (baseline and stress-induced) in desert iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) in relation to the distance from a major anthropogenic disturbance, a high-traffic road in Palm Springs, CA. Additionally, we analyzed body condition and population density as additional predictors of glucocorticoid physiology. Surprisingly, we found lower baseline CORT levels closer to the road, but no effect of distance from road on stress-induced CORT or stress responsiveness (difference between baseline and stress-induced concentrations). Both population density and body condition were negative predictors of baseline CORT, stress-induced CORT, and stress responsiveness. Given the known effect of roads to increase run-off and vegetation density, increased water availability may improve available forage and shade, which may then increase the carrying capacity of the habitat and minimize metabolic challenges for this herbivorous lizard. However, it is important to recognize that surfaces covered by asphalt are not usable habitat for iguanas, likely resulting in a net habitat loss.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Atividades Humanas , Iguanas/metabolismo , Animais , Corticosterona/sangue , Feminino , Iguanas/sangue , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Estresse Fisiológico
20.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 947-955, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926527

RESUMO

Feces (n = 226; 2004-2015) from healthy captive and wild blue iguanas (Cyclura lewisi) from Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, were examined for endoparasites. Parasites identified included Nyctotherus sp. and Entamoeba sp. cysts and trophozoites, trichomonad trophozoites, and oxyurid and trichostrongylid eggs. Endoparasites from postmortem examinations (n = 13) included adult and larval nematodes: Ozolaimus megatyphlon, Ozolaimus monhystera, Alaeuris travassosi, Atractis mega, and an unidentified species of Oswaldocruzia. Entamoeba spp. were more likely in captive juveniles of both sexes than captive or wild adults of either sex; Entamoeba spp. were more likely in captive adult females than captive adult males; trichomonad trophozoites were more likely in adult captive and wild iguanas of both sexes than in captive juveniles of either sex; and Nyctotherus spp. were more likely in juvenile captive males than captive adult males or females and more likely in adult wild males than captive juvenile males. Trichostrongylid eggs were more likely in adult wild females than adult captive females and more likely in captive and wild adults of both sexes than in captive juveniles of both sexes. Oxyurid eggs were more likely in adult captive and wild iguanas of both sexes than captive juveniles of either sex. Blue iguanas have a variety of endoparasites regardless of age, sex, or captive vs wild status, with no type found exclusively in either captive or wild populations. Ectoparasites from wild adults included adult ticks (Amblyomma torrei) and a single adult mite (Hirstiella trombidiformis). All are new host records for this species and Grand Cayman. Knowledge of parasite status of captive and wild populations is important to evaluate the relative risk of introduction of captive animals into wild populations.


Assuntos
Iguanas/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
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