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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112181, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676108

RESUMO

Marine ecosystems across the world's largest ocean - the Pacific Ocean - are being increasingly affected by stressors such as pollution, overfishing, ocean acidification, coastal development and warming events coupled with rising sea levels and increasing frequency of extreme weather. These anthropogenic-driven stressors, which operate cumulatively at varying spatial and temporal scales, are leading to ongoing and pervasive degradation of many marine ecosystems in the Pacific Island region. The effects of global warming and ocean acidification threaten much of the region and impact on the socio-cultural, environmental, economic and human health components of many Pacific Island nations. Simultaneously, resilience to climate change is being reduced as systems are overburdened by other stressors, such as marine and land-based pollution and unsustainable fishing. Consequently, it is important to understand the vulnerability of this region to future environmental scenarios and determine to what extent management actions can help protect, and rebuild ecosystem resilience and maintain ecosystem service provision. This Special Issue of papers explores many of these pressures through case studies across the Pacific Island region, and the impacts of individual and cumulative pressures on the condition, resilience and survival of ecosystems and the communities that depend on them. The papers represent original work from across the tropical Pacific oceanscape, an area that includes 22 Pacific Island countries and territories plus Hawaii and the Philippines. The 39 papers within provide insights on anthropogenic pressures and habitat responses at local, national, and regional scales. The themes range from coastal water quality and human health, assessment of status and trends for marine habitats (e.g. seagrass and coral reefs), and the interaction of local pressures (pollution, overfishing) with increasing temperatures and climate variability. Studies within the Special Issue highlight how local actions, monitoring, tourism values, management, policy and incentives can encourage adaptation to anthropogenic impacts. Conclusions identify possible solutions to support sustainable and harmonious environment and social systems in the unique Pacific Island oceanscape.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Mudança Climática , Pesqueiros , Hawaii , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ilhas do Pacífico , Oceano Pacífico , Filipinas , Água do Mar
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112251, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714776

RESUMO

Ships moving species across the oceans mix marine communities throughout latitudes. The introduction of new species may be changing the ecosystems even in remote islands. In tropical Pacific islands where maritime traffic is principally local, eDNA metabarcoding and barcoding revealed 75 introduced species, accounting in average for 28% of the community with a minimum of 13% in the very remote Rangiroa atoll. The majority of non-native species were primary producers -from diatoms to red algae, thus the ecosystem is being transformed from the bottom. Primary producers were more shared among sites than other exotics, confirming ship-mediated dispersal in Pacific marine ecosystems. Limited alien share and an apparent saturation of aliens (similar proportion in ports of very different size) suggests the occurrence of "alien drift" in port communities, or random retention of newly introduced aliens that reminds genetic drift of new mutations in a population.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Navios , Biodiversidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Ilhas , Oceanos e Mares , Ilhas do Pacífico
3.
Sex Health ; 18(1): 41-49, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653504

RESUMO

The 2016 global commitments towards ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 require the Asia-Pacific region to reach the Fast-Track targets by 2020. Despite early successes, the region is well short of meeting these targets. The overall stalled progress in the HIV response has been further undermined by rising new infections among young key populations and the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. This paper examines the HIV situation, assesses the gaps, and analyses what it would take the region to end AIDS by 2030. Political will and commitments for ending AIDS must be reaffirmed and reinforced. Focused regional strategic direction that answers the specific regional context and guides countries to respond to their specific needs must be put in place. The region must harness the power of innovative tools and technology in both prevention and treatment. Community activism and meaningful community engagement across the spectrum of HIV response must be ensured. Punitive laws, stigma, and discrimination that deter key populations and people living with HIV from accessing health services must be effectively tackled. The people-centred public health approach must be fully integrated into national universal health coverage while ensuring domestic resources are available for community-led service delivery. The region must utilise its full potential and draw upon lessons that have been learnt to address common challenges of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics and achieve the goal of ending AIDS by 2030, in fulfillment of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Ásia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Objetivos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Ilhas do Pacífico , Política , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 111922, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632532

RESUMO

Coral reefs in the tropical Pacific region are exposed to a range of anthropogenic local pressures. Climate change is exacerbating local impacts, causing unprecedented declines in coral reef habitats and bringing negative socio-economic consequences to Pacific communities who depend heavily on coral reefs for food, income and livelihoods. Continued increases in greenhouse gas emissions will drive future climate change, which will accelerate coral reef degradation. Traditional systems of resource governance in Pacific island nations provide a foundation to address local pressures and build reef resilience to climate change. Management and adaptation options should build on the regional diversity of governance systems and traditional knowledge to support community-based initiatives and cross-sectoral cooperation to address local pressures and minimize climate change impacts. Such an inclusive approach will offer enhanced opportunities to develop and implement transformative adaptation solutions, particularly in remote and regional areas where centralized management does not extend.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Ilhas do Pacífico
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112131, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607453

RESUMO

Systematic Conservation Planning (SCP) offers concepts and toolboxes to make spatial decisions on where to focus conservation actions while minimizing a variety of costs to stakeholders. Thirty-four studies of Pacific Ocean Tropical Islands were scrutinized to categorize past and current types of applications. It appeared that scenarios were often built on a biodiversity representation objective, opportunity costs for fishers was the most frequent cost factor, and an evolution from simple to sophisticated scenarios followed the need to maximize resilience and connectivity while mitigating climate change impacts. However, proxies and models were often not validated, pointing to data quality issues. Customary management by local communities motivated applications specific to the Pacific region, but several island features remained ignored, including invertebrate fishing, ciguatera poisoning and mariculture. Fourteen recommendations are provided to enhance scenarios' robustness, island specificities integration, complex modelling accuracy, and better use of SCP for island management.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Ilhas , Ilhas do Pacífico , Oceano Pacífico
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111951, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472138

RESUMO

The resilience of coastal ecosystems and communities to poor environmental and health outcomes is threatened by cumulative anthropogenic pressures. In Kiribati, a developing Pacific Island country where human activities are closely connected with the ocean, both people and environment are particularly vulnerable to coastal pollution. We present a survey of environmental and human health water quality parameters around urban South Tarawa, and an overview of their impacts on the semi-enclosed atoll. Tarawa has significant water quality issues and decisions to guide improvements are hindered by a persistent lack of appropriate and sufficient observations. Our snapshot assessment identifies highest risk locations related to chronic focused and diffuse pollution inputs, and where mixing and dilution with ocean water is restricted. We demonstrate the importance of monitoring in the context of rapidly changing pressures. Our recommendations are relevant to other atoll ecosystems where land-based activities and ocean health are tightly interlinked.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Qualidade da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Micronésia , Ilhas do Pacífico
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111936, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360525

RESUMO

Seagrasses are globally important, but their extent is decreasing due to the impact of human activities and changing climatic conditions. Seagrass meadows provide vital services, but their condition and distribution are not yet well known, particularly in many small tropical Pacific islands. In 2018, observations and samples were collected from intertidal seagrasses of Efate Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific). Observations included canopy height, percentage cover, growth rate and species variety. Water quality samples were also collected in some locations. Our seagrass metrics suggested more challenging conditions for the seagrasses near Port Vila, the main urban area in the island, where water quality analyses indicated higher levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and suspended solids.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Qualidade da Água , Humanos , Ilhas , Ilhas do Pacífico , Vanuatu
9.
Health Syst Reform ; 6(1): e1847991, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337274

RESUMO

Pacific Island countries (PIC) have emerged as among the most at-risk globally from the collateral economic damage resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, despite being largely spared its direct health effects so far. Current projections indicate that all PIC will experience an economic contraction in 2020, ranging from -1.0% in Tuvalu to -21.7% in Fiji, worse than most countries globally on average. Given that more than 80% of financing for health in the Pacific comes from domestic and external public sources, the net impact of the economic contraction on resources for health will depend on whether overall public spending can offset the decline in economic activity and how health will be prioritized in government budgets relative to other sectors. Without active reprioritization, most countries could see a slowdown or even decline in per capita levels of public spending for health in the region, risking gains made in advancing universal health coverage in recent years. If health ministries do not act quickly and in consort with other ministries (particularly ministries of finance), including by taking active steps to improve the efficient use of existing resources and other measures to mitigate the economic effects of the crisis on resources for health, it is likely that current economic circumstances will result in unplanned changes. These changes may not deliver the health outcomes that the health ministries would select themselves and may result in a reversal of hard-fought health gains.


Assuntos
/economia , Recessão Econômica , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Ilhas do Pacífico/epidemiologia
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111651, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181931

RESUMO

Nearshore deterioration of water quality in Pacific coastal waters is a growing problem, associated with increasing urban and industrial sewage discharges, and agricultural runoff. Published water quality studies in the Pacific region are limited in both number and scope, making it difficult to resolve the extent of the issue or quantify the variability of water quality across Pacific islands and countries. This study collected water quality measurements over three years in the coastal waters around the Island of Efate (Vanuatu) with majority of work carried out in Port Vila, its capital. Port Vila is the key urban centre for Vanuatu where the increasing population and pollution inputs are placing substantial pressure on the coastal environment. Highest concentrations of dissolved nutrients and suspended sediments were measured adjacent or near the urban drains that enter the coastal areas along the capital's seafront, highlighting many of the issues around anthropogenic inputs are linked to the increasing urbanisation in Port Vila Bay. We provide baseline data that explores variability of coastal water quality and these types of datasets for Pacific islands are a first step towards facilitating development of long-term monitoring programmes and informing coastal zone management decision making.


Assuntos
Urbanização , Qualidade da Água , Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ilhas do Pacífico , Vanuatu
11.
Zootaxa ; 4833(1): zootaxa.4833.1.1, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056141

RESUMO

In this study, the clearwing moths (Sesiidae) of Australia, New Guinea and the Pacific Islands are reviewed. A total of 58 species belonging to 18 genera are recognized as native to this region. This includes the following new species and genera: Lophocnema mackeyi spec. nov. (Australia), Oligophlebia insurgia spec. nov. (New Guinea), Micrecia capillaria spec. nov. (New Guinea), Micrecia kuukuyau spec. nov. (Australia), Micrecia hawkei spec. nov. (Australia), Lamellisphecia sanguinea spec. nov. (New Guinea), Specodoptera hiltoni spec. nov. (New Guinea), Specodoptera hiltoni hibernia spec. nov., ssp. nov. (New Guinea), Aegerosphecia rufea spec. nov. (New Guinea), Melittia flanneryi spec. nov. (New Guinea), Melittia pyroptella spec. nov. (Australia), Archaeosesia milleri gen. nov. et spec. nov. (New Guinea), Nokona kungkay spec. nov. (Australia), Nokona bipora spec. nov. (New Guinea), Pseudosesia muyuae spec. nov. (New Guinea), Pseudosesia sumoensis spec. nov. (New Guinea), Pseudosesia sepikensis spec. nov. (New Guinea), Paranthrenella terminalia spec. nov. (New Guinea), Paranthrenella brandti spec. nov. (New Guinea), Paranthrenella lelatensis sp. nov. (New Guinea). Furthermore, 35 new combinations and each four new generic and species synonyms are introduced, while two genera and three species are resurrected from synonymy. Each 4 taxa at the species and genus levels are considered new synonyms. Six species are listed that originally derive from Africa, Europe, Northern Africa or Central America and were introduced into Australia or some of the Pacific Islands accidentally or deliberately.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Austrália , Nova Guiné , Ilhas do Pacífico
12.
Zootaxa ; 4851(1): zootaxa.4851.1.6, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056741

RESUMO

Three new species of the bopyrid genus Scyracepon Tattersall, 1905 are described from crabs collected on Pacific Islands: Scyracepon polynesiensis n. sp. from the Society Islands, S. pseudoliomerae n. sp. from the Mariana Islands, and S. biglobosus n. sp. from the Line Islands. The first two were found infesting Xanthias lamarckii and Pseudoliomera sp. (Xanthidae), a new host family for species of Scyracepon, and the last was found parasitizing Schizophrys aspera (Majidae). Scyracepon now includes 11 species, all but one known from single collections, infesting 12 host species in 9 brachyuran families. The discovery of three new species, each rare, suggests that crab parasites are undersampled, and further suggests that the low relative diversity of bopyrids known from brachyurans may partly reflect this undersampling. Keys to all species of Scyracepon and to all 31 genera of Keponinae are provided.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Isópodes , Parasitos , Animais , Ilhas do Pacífico
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111573, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916440

RESUMO

Seagrasses provide a wide range of services including food provision, water purification and coastal protection. Pacific small island developing states (PSIDS) have limited natural resources, challenging economies and a need for marine science research. Seagrasses occur in eleven PSIDS and nations are likely to benefit in different ways depending on habitat health, habitat cover and location, and species presence. Globally seagrass habitats are declining as a result of anthropogenic impacts including climate change and in PSIDS pressure on already stressed coastal ecosystems, will likely threaten seagrass survival particularly close to expanding urban settlements. Improved coastal and urban planning at local, national and regional scales is needed to reduce human impacts on vulnerable coastal areas. Research is required to generate knowledge-based solutions to support effective coastal management and protection of the existing seagrass habitats, including strenghened documentation the socio-economic and environmental services they provide. For PSIDS, protection of seagrass service benefits requires six priority actions: seagrass habitat mapping, regulation of coastal and upstream development, identification of specific threats at vulnerable locations, a critique of cost-effective restoration options, research devoted to seagrass studies and more explicit policy development.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Humanos , Ilhas , Ilhas do Pacífico
14.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 11(1): 41-46, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963890

RESUMO

Problem: Emerging bacterial antimicrobial (antibiotic) resistance (AMR) is a global threat to human health. However, most lower income countries do not have microbiological diagnostic testing for prompt, reliable confirmation of bloodstream infection and identification of AMR. Context: Clinicians in Pacific island nations are increasingly challenged by patients who have infection due to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Treatment of infection remains empirical because of a lack of diagnostic testing capacity and may follow guidelines that were formulated without reference to local measures of AMR prevalence. There is limited understanding among clinicians of microbiology testing and test interpretation. Action: Examine the lessons learnt from pilot laboratory development programmes in two Pacific island nations that focused on establishing standard procedures for micrological diagnostics and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and on improving the training of clinicians to increase their use of laboratory services. Outcome: The pilot programmes addressed a range of logistical difficulties and evaluated two blood culture systems. They also examined and improved internal QC implementation and evaluated the prevalence of AMR. Discussion: Continued development of microbiological diagnostic capability in the Pacific region is paramount. Pacific Island nations need to develop the capability of at least one central laboratory to culture AMR pathogens and subject them to quality-controlled AST or arrange for suitable referral to a nearby country. Discussion: This study demonstrated a persistently high prevalence of three major bacterial STIs across four countries in WHO's Western Pacific Region during nearly two decades. Further strengthening of strategies to control and prevent STIs is warranted.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/normas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/normas , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Humanos , Ilhas do Pacífico , Projetos Piloto , Controle de Qualidade
15.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 102, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multi-country studies examining trends in sedentary behaviors among adolescents have mainly focused on high-income or Western countries, and almost no data exists for the rest of the world. Thus, this study aims to examine temporal trends in adolescents' leisure time sedentary behavior (LTSB) employing nationally representative datasets from 26 countries from five WHO-defined geographical regions. METHODS: Data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey 2003-2017 were analyzed in 17,734 adolescents [mean (SD) age: 13.7 (1.0) years; 49.0% boys]. LTSB was self-reported and included all types of sedentary behaviors, excluding time spent at school or doing homework. The prevalence and 95%CI of high LTSB (i.e., ≥3 h/day) was calculated for the overall sample and by sex for each survey. Crude linear trends in high LTSB were assessed by linear regression models. Interaction analyses were conducted to examine differing trends among boys and girls. RESULTS: Temporal variations in LTSB substantially diverged across countries, with results showing increasing (6/26 countries), decreasing (4/26) and stable trends. The sharpest increases in LTSB occurred in United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and Thailand. Some countries did not show an increase in LTSB prevalence over time but had very high levels of LTSB (i.e., > 40%) across multiple years. Most countries showed no differences in LTSB trends between boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: Data from our study may serve as an important platform for policymakers, as well as local and national stakeholders, to establish country-specific and tailored strategies for reducing LTSB.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Atividades de Lazer , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , África/epidemiologia , América/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Saúde Global , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Ilhas do Pacífico/epidemiologia , Saúde da População , Prevalência
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pacific Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have health care systems with a limited capacity to deal with pandemics, making them especially vulnerable to the economic and social impacts of the coronavirus (COVID-19). This paper examines the introduction, transmission, and incidence of COVID-19 into Pacific SIDS. METHODS: Calculate the rate of transmission (the average number of new cases per day between the first recorded case and the most recent day) and connectivity (daily direct flights to the leading airport in each selected island group) using flight history and COVID-19 transmission data. RESULTS: Correlational analyses show that connectivity is positively related with (a) first-case dates and (b) spread rate in Pacific SIDS. CONCLUSION: Connectivity plays a central role in the spread of COVID-19 in Pacific SIDS. The continued entry of people was a significant factor for spread within countries. Efforts to prevent transmission by closing borders reduced transmission but also created significant economic hardship because many Pacific SIDS rely heavily on tourism and international exchange. The findings highlight the importance of exploring the possibility that the COVID-19 spread rate may be higher than official figures indicate, and present pathways to mitigate socio-economic impacts. The practical implications of the findings reveal the vulnerability of Pacific SIDS to pandemics and the key role of connectivity in the spread of COVID-19 in the Pacific region.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Incidência , Ilhas do Pacífico/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
17.
Science ; 369(6507): 1046-1049, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855321
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111451, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692671

RESUMO

Establishing nutrient thresholds to protect coral reefs is difficult because water quality is dynamic and shifts with many environmental factors. We examined the contribution of natural and human factors in predicting water quality at the base of 34 streams on a high tropical Pacific island. Mixed regression models revealed that rainfall, sea-surface temperature, and windspeed were fixed factors predicting dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations at the base of all watersheds. In contrast, human influences were captured as random components of variation associated with site-based differences. The novel modeling approach using temporal and spatial data provided daily-loading simulations that were used to evaluate exceedance criteria, defined as the percent of time each watershed exceeded a suite of DIN thresholds. Exceedance criteria were considered alongside biological data to recommend a 0.1 to 0.15 mg l-1 benchmark to protect coastal water quality and coral reefs surrounding Tutuila, American Samoa.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Samoa Americana , Humanos , Nutrientes , Ilhas do Pacífico , Qualidade da Água
20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 166: 108278, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592842

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic, the highest risk level in the infectious disease alert phase, on 11 March 2020. In the Western Pacific Region (WPR), 192,016 confirmed cases with 7125 deaths had been reported as of 8 June 2020. In people with diabetes COVID-19 can be more difficult to treat due to the wide fluctuations in blood glucose levels or presence of comorbidities such as diabetes complications, including cardiovascular disease and renal damage, which are recognized risks for adverse outcomes. National diabetes associations and governments have established guidelines for subjects with diabetes in relation to COVID-19, and are trying to supply emergency and their regularly required medical products for them. The WPR is so large and composed of such diverse countries and COVID-19 situations, no one conclusion or program applies. Instead we could see a diverse COVID-19 pandemic profile in the WPR, and several creative diagnostic and therapeutic measures undertaken. This includes drive-through screening facilities, high-speed RT-PCR technologies, convalescent patients' plasma therapy, which potentially had some positive contributions in combatting COVID-19 in the WPR as well as globally. Although the numbers of confirmed cases are currently decreasing in the region, the COVID-19 pandemic is not over, and many experts are recommending to prepare measures for potential second or third waves of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Humanos , Ilhas do Pacífico/epidemiologia , Oceano Pacífico/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico
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