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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(1): 259-267, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827184

RESUMO

Studies to assess wildlife health commonly evaluate clinical pathology changes, immune responses, pathogen presence, and contaminant exposure, but novel modalities are needed to characterize the unique physiologic responses of reptiles. Lactate is an indicator of hypoperfusion and/or anaerobic respiration and can be quickly and easily measured using a point-of-care analyzer. This study evaluated baseline blood lactate concentrations in free-living eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina, n = 116) using a point of care analyzer and then determined the effect of handling time, physical examination (PE) abnormalities, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction pathogen detection (Terrapene herpesvirus 1, Mycoplasma sp., Terrapene adenovirus) on lactate concentrations. Blood lactate concentrations were higher in turtles with Terrapene herpesvirus 1 (n = 11), quiet mentation, and increased packed cell volume (P < 0.05). Lactate concentrations increased between initial capture and PE, with peak values reaching 129 min after capture. Lactate at PE was positively associated with baseline lactate concentrations. Turtles with Terrapene herpesvirus 1 may have alterations in blood flow, oxygen delivery, or activity patterns, driving increases in baseline lactate. Increased handling time likely leads to more escape behaviors and/or breath holding, causing turtles to undergo anaerobic metabolism and raising lactate concentrations. Overall, lactate measured by a point of care analyzer shows variability caused by capture and health factors in eastern box turtles and may be a useful adjunctive diagnostic test in this species after full methodologic validation.


Assuntos
Ácido Láctico/sangue , Tartarugas/sangue , Animais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Cães , Feminino , Manobra Psicológica , Illinois , Masculino , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Estresse Fisiológico
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(14): 528-532, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830981

RESUMO

During February 2021, an opening event was held indoors at a rural Illinois bar that accommodates approximately 100 persons. The Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) and local health department staff members investigated a COVID-19 outbreak associated with this opening event. Overall, 46 COVID-19 cases were linked to the event, including cases in 26 patrons and three staff members who attended the opening event and 17 secondary cases. Four persons with cases had COVID-19-like symptoms on the same day they attended the event. Secondary cases included 12 cases in eight households with children, two on a school sports team, and three in a long-term care facility (LTCF). Transmission associated with the opening event resulted in one school closure affecting 650 children (9,100 lost person-days of school) and hospitalization of one LTCF resident with COVID-19. These findings demonstrate that opening up settings such as bars, where mask wearing and physical distancing are challenging, can increase the risk for community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. As community businesses begin to reopen, a multicomponent approach should be emphasized in settings such as bars to prevent transmission* (1). This includes enforcing consistent and correct mask use, maintaining ≥6 ft of physical distance between persons, reducing indoor bar occupancy, prioritizing outdoor seating, improving building ventilation, and promoting behaviors such as staying at home when ill, as well as implementing contact tracing in combination with isolation and quarantine when COVID-19 cases are diagnosed.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Restaurantes/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 5180-5188, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724824

RESUMO

Incentivizing bioenergy crop production in locations with marginal soils, where low-input perennial crops can provide net carbon sequestration and economic benefits, will be crucial to building a successful bioeconomy. We developed an integrated assessment framework to compare switchgrass cultivation with corn-soybean rotations on the basis of production costs, revenues, and soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration at a 100 m spatial resolution. We calculated profits (or losses) when marginal lands are converted from a corn-soy rotation to switchgrass across a range of farm gate biomass prices and payments for SOC sequestration in the State of Illinois, United States. The annual net SOC sequestration and switchgrass yields are estimated to range from 0.1 to 0.4 Mg ha-1 and 7.3 to 15.5 Mg dry matter ha-1, respectively, across the state. Without payments for SOC sequestration, only a small fraction of marginal corn-soybean land would achieve a 20% profit margin if converted to switchgrass, but $40-80 Mg-1 CO2e compensation could increase the economically viable area by 140-414%. With the compensation, switchgrass cultivation for 10 years on 1.6 million ha of marginal land in Illinois will produce biomass worth $1.6-2.9 billion (0.95-1.8 million Mg dry biomass) and mitigate 5-22 million Mg CO2e.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono/análise , Illinois
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652565

RESUMO

This study analyzed the correlation between elementary school students' body composition, physical activity, physical fitness, movement ability, and academic achievement. Movements ranged from simple actions to complex movements requiring executive functioning. In total, 110 fourth graders (60 boys, 50 girls) participated in this experiment. Body composition (BMI, % of body fat), physical activity (pedometer), physical fitness (muscular strength, endurance, power, flexibility, and VO2max), and complex movement abilities (Illinois Agility test, soda pop hand test, and soda pop foot test) were measured. Regression modeling of body composition and fitness/activity variables was able to account for 30.5% of the variation of total academic scores in females, but only 4.3% in males. No individual tests were reliably correlated with multiple academic outcomes in males. However, hand and foot soda pop times, as well as Illinois Agility scores, were repeatedly correlated with academic outcomes in females, each correlating with 4 of the 6 academic scores. Body composition and physical activity level did not correlate with academic achievement, and simple physical fitness showed a low correlation with academic achievement in both boys and girls. On the other hand, complex, cognitively demanding movements such as the Illinois Agility, soda pop hand, and soda pop foot tests had consistent correlations with academic achievement in girls, but not in boys.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Illinois , Masculino , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras , Aptidão Física
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e211283, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688967

RESUMO

Importance: Risks for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among health care personnel (HCP) are unclear. Objective: To evaluate the risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCP with the a priori hypothesis that community exposure but not health care exposure was associated with seropositivity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted among volunteer HCP at 4 large health care systems in 3 US states. Sites shared deidentified data sets, including previously collected serology results, questionnaire results on community and workplace exposures at the time of serology, and 3-digit residential zip code prefix of HCP. Site-specific responses were mapped to a common metadata set. Residential weekly coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cumulative incidence was calculated from state-based COVID-19 case and census data. Exposures: Model variables included demographic (age, race, sex, ethnicity), community (known COVID-19 contact, COVID-19 cumulative incidence by 3-digit zip code prefix), and health care (workplace, job role, COVID-19 patient contact) factors. Main Outcome and Measures: The main outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Risk factors for seropositivity were estimated using a mixed-effects logistic regression model with a random intercept to account for clustering by site. Results: Among 24 749 HCP, most were younger than 50 years (17 233 [69.6%]), were women (19 361 [78.2%]), were White individuals (15 157 [61.2%]), and reported workplace contact with patients with COVID-19 (12 413 [50.2%]). Many HCP worked in the inpatient setting (8893 [35.9%]) and were nurses (7830 [31.6%]). Cumulative incidence of COVID-19 per 10 000 in the community up to 1 week prior to serology testing ranged from 8.2 to 275.6; 20 072 HCP (81.1%) reported no COVID-19 contact in the community. Seropositivity was 4.4% (95% CI, 4.1%-4.6%; 1080 HCP) overall. In multivariable analysis, community COVID-19 contact and community COVID-19 cumulative incidence were associated with seropositivity (community contact: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.5; 95% CI, 2.9-4.1; community cumulative incidence: aOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.6). No assessed workplace factors were associated with seropositivity, including nurse job role (aOR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9-1.3), working in the emergency department (aOR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.3), or workplace contact with patients with COVID-19 (aOR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9-1.3). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of US HCP in 3 states, community exposures were associated with seropositivity to SARS-CoV-2, but workplace factors, including workplace role, environment, or contact with patients with known COVID-19, were not. These findings provide reassurance that current infection prevention practices in diverse health care settings are effective in preventing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patients to HCP.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145674, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663956

RESUMO

Soil serves many important ecological functions and is an integral part of our existence as a society. However, concerns for soil health are growing globally, in part due to the negative impacts of agricultural management on soil resources. The production of perennial bioenergy crops on marginal land in row-crop production systems is one solution that could improve land-use efficiency and address the sustainability of cropland management. Because the relationship between crop management and the environment is complex, more research is needed to evaluate the potential benefits perennial bioenergy crop production has on soil health, as well as other ecosystem services. In this study, shrub willow buffers were strategically integrated into a corn-soybean cropping system with the main objective of reducing nitrate-N leaching from grain crop production while producing biomass for bioenergy. Two buffer systems (defined by landscape positions) were included for comparison, one on marginal land with exposure to nitrate-N leaching from upslope grain (southern plots) and one on fertile soils with less nitrate-N leaching potential (northern plots). Evaluation of soil (chemistry, bulk density, microbial community) and shrub willow vegetation properties (fine roots, leaf litter decomposition, and nutrient uptake dynamics), showed that landscape position plays an important role in (1) the dynamics of soil chemical properties, (2) shrub willow's influence and productivity, and (3) the provision of additional ecosystem services such as reductions in nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate-N leaching. In addition, the combination of crop type and landscape position (N-grain, N-willow, S-grain, and S-willow) influenced the species composition of the soil microbial community, resulting in unique and identifiable communities. These results highlight the potential application of shrub willow buffers for ecosystem service provision and support of ecosystem processes; however, understanding the relationship between the microbial community, crop type, and landscape is important for understanding the sustainability of the design.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Salix , Illinois , Solo , Soja , Zea mays
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562438

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare measures of anthropometry characteristics and physical fitness performance between rugby union players (17.9 ± 0.5 years old) recruited (n = 39) and non-recruited (n = 145) to the Portuguese under-19 (U19) national team, controlling for their playing position (forwards or backs). Standardized anthropometric, physical, and performance assessment tests included players' body mass and height, push up and pull-up test, squat test, sit-and-reach test, 20 m shuttle run test, flexed arm hang test, Sargent test, handgrip strength test, Illinois agility test, and 20-m and 50-m sprint test. Results showed that recruited forwards players had better agility scores (p = 0.02, ES = -0.55) than the non-recruited forwards, whereas recruited backs players had higher right (p < 0.01, ES = 0.84) and left (p = 0.01, ES = 0.74) handgrip strength scores than their counterparts. Logistic regression showed that better agility (for the forwards) and right handgrip strength scores (for the backs) were the only variables significantly associated with an increased likelihood of being recruited to the national team. In sum, these findings suggest that certain well-developed physical qualities, namely, agility for the forwards players and upper-body strength for the back players, partially explain the selection of U19 rugby players to their national team.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Antropometria , Força da Mão , Illinois , Força Muscular , Aptidão Física
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(4): 2684-2694, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533256

RESUMO

In this work, nonrobust (average yield) and robust (varying yield) optimization techniques were applied to find the minimum radius required from the center of Chicago, Illinois, United States (U.S.) and land area by type to meet the population's nutritional needs given yield data for conventional and urban agricultural products. Twenty-eight nutrients were considered, and land type availability was defined using satellite data. No mix of food items were able to satisfy the vitamin D, vitamin B12, and calcium needs within a radius up to 650 km. With vitamin D fortification, radii between 175 and 185 km (nonrobust) and 205 and 220 km (robust) were found across scenarios. The inclusion of urban agriculture reduced the radius by 10-15 km and increased the diversity of foods in the solution. When vitamin B12 was supplemented, the radii could be reduced to 105-120 km (nonrobust) and 115-130 km (robust). This work demonstrates the need to include a full list of nutrients when evaluating the feasibility of localizing food systems. Key nutrient fortification or supplementation may significantly reduce the land area required to meet the nutritional needs of a population.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Chicago , Illinois , Estados Unidos
10.
Med Ref Serv Q ; 40(1): 35-47, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625328

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent Stay At Home order, the Southern Illinois University Medical Library utilized new technologies and implemented new virtual service models in order to improve internal communication, and to continue providing services and resources to patrons remotely. The changes happened quickly, and the librarians faced several challenges during this time, but things went smoothly overall and there were some considerable silver linings. Several of the newly adopted technologies, service models, and virtual resource offerings proved to be extremely effective and their use will continue beyond the duration of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Bibliotecas Digitais/organização & administração , Bibliotecas Digitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Bibliotecas Médicas/organização & administração , Bibliotecas Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Illinois
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 765: 144295, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412379

RESUMO

Cover cropping is beneficial for reducing soil erosion and nutrient losses, but there are conflicting reports on how cover cropping affects emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, we measured N2O fluxes over a full year in Illinois corn plots with and without rye cover crop. We compared these year-round measurements to N2O emissions predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 equation and the Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC) model. In addition, we measured potential denitrification and N2O production rates. The field measurements showed typical N2O peaks shortly after fertilizer application, as well as a significant late-winter peak. Cover cropping significantly reduced all peak N2O fluxes, with decreases ranging from 39 to 95%. Neither model was able to accurately predict annual N2O fluxes or the decrease in N2O emissions from cover-cropped fields. In contrast to field measurements, lab assays found that cover cropping significantly increased potential denitrification by 90-127% and potential N2O production by 54-106%. The rye cover-cropped plots had lower soil nitrate and higher soil carbon. When limiting nitrate and excess carbon were provided in lab assays, the proportion of N2O resulting from denitrification decreased. These results suggest that the discrepancy between the observed decrease in field N2O emissions and the increase in denitrification potential may be due to the difference in available nutrients between the field and laboratory measurements. Overall, these results suggest the importance of late-winter peaks in N2O emissions and the potential of rye cover cropping to reduce N2O emissions from agricultural fields.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Secale , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Illinois , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants whose mothers experience greater psychosocial stress and environmental chemical exposures during pregnancy may face greater rates of preterm birth, lower birth weight, and impaired neurodevelopment. METHODS: ECHO.CA.IL is composed of two cohorts, Chemicals in Our Bodies (CIOB; n = 822 pregnant women and n = 286 infants) and Illinois Kids Development Study (IKIDS; n = 565 mother-infant pairs), which recruit pregnant women from San Francisco, CA and Urbana-Champaign, IL, respectively. We examined associations between demographic characteristics and gestational age, birth weight z-scores, and cognition at 7.5 months across these two cohorts using linear models. We also examined differences in biomarkers of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), measured in second-trimester serum, and psychosocial stressors by cohort and participant demographics. RESULTS: To date, these cohorts have recruited over 1300 pregnant women combined. IKIDS has mothers who are majority white (80%), whereas CIOB mothers are racially and ethnically diverse (38% white, 34% Hispanic, 17% Asian/Pacific Islander). Compared to CIOB, median levels of PFOS, a specific PFAS congener, are higher in IKIDS (2.45 ng/mL versus 1.94 ng/mL), while psychosocial stressors are higher among CIOB. Across both cohorts, women who were non-white and single had lower birth weight z-scores relative to white women and married women, respectively. Demographic characteristics are not associated with cognitive outcomes at 7.5 months. CONCLUSIONS: This profile of the ECHO.CA.IL cohort found that mothers and their infants who vary in terms of socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and geographic location are similar in many of our measures of exposures and cognitive outcomes. Similar to past work, we found that non-white and single women had lower birth weight infants than white and married women. We also found differences in levels of PFOS and psychosocial stressors based on geographic location.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Poluentes Ambientais/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Illinois , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , São Francisco
13.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0240202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S., African-American or Hispanic communities were disproportionately impacted. To better understand the epidemiology and relative effects of COVID-19 among hospitalized Hispanic patients, we compared individual and census-tract level characteristics of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 to those diagnosed with influenza, another viral infection with respiratory transmission. We evaluated temporal changes in epidemiology related to a shelter-in-place mandate. METHODS: We evaluated patients hospitalized at Cook County Health, the safety-net health system for the Chicago metropolitan area. Among self-identified hospitalized Hispanic patients, we compared those with influenza (2019-2020 season) to COVID-19 infection during March 16, 2020-May 11, 2020. We used multivariable analysis to identify differences in individual and census-tract level characteristics between the two groups. RESULTS: Relative to non-Hispanic blacks and whites, COVID-19 rapidly increased among Hispanics during promotion of social-distancing policies. Whereas non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to be hospitalized for influenza, Hispanic patients predominated among COVID-19 infections (40% relative increase compared to influenza). In the comparative analysis of influenza and COVID-19, Hispanic patients with COVID-19 were more likely to reside in census tracts with higher proportions of residents with the following characteristics: Hispanic; no high school diploma; non-US citizen; limited English speaking ability; employed in manufacturing or construction; and overcrowding. By multivariable analysis, Hispanic patients hospitalized with COVID-19 compared to those with influenza were more likely to be male (adjusted OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.9), obese (aOR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.5 to 4.2), or reside in a census tract with ≥40% of residents without a high-school diploma (aOR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 4.8). CONCLUSIONS: The rapid and disproportionate increase in COVID-19 hospitalizations among Hispanics after the shelter-in-place mandate indicates that public health strategies were inadequate in protecting this population-in particular, for those residing in neighborhoods with lower levels of educational attainment.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Chicago/epidemiologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , /isolamento & purificação
14.
15.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(S1): S1-S7, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470892

RESUMO

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted the lives of people with diabetes. Use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM) helped manage diabetes effectively. Some of these disruptions may be reflected in population-scale changes to metrics of glycemic control, such as time-in-range (TIR). Methods: We examined data from 65,067 U.S.-based users of the G6 rtCGM System (Dexcom, Inc., San Diego, CA) who had uploaded data before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Users associated with three counties that included the cities of Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York or with five regions designated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were compared. Public data were used to associate regions with prepandemic and intrapandemic glycemic parameters, COVID-19 mortality, and median household income. Results: Compared with an 8-week prepandemic interval before stay-at-home orders (January 6, 2020, to March 1, 2020), overall mean (standard deviation) TIR improved from 59.0 (20.1)% to 61.0 (20.4)% during the early pandemic period (April 20, 2020 to June 14, 2020, P < 0.001). TIR improvements were noted in all three counties and in all five CDC-designated regions. Higher COVID-19 mortality was associated with higher proportions of individuals experiencing TIR improvements of ≥5 percentage points. Users in economically wealthier zip codes had higher pre- and intrapandemic TIR values and greater relative improvements in TIR. TIR and pandemic-related improvements in TIR varied across CDC-designated regions. Conclusions: Population-level rtCGM data may be used to monitor changes in glycemic control with temporal and geographic specificity. The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with improvements in TIR, which were not evenly distributed across the United States.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , /estatística & dados numéricos , /mortalidade , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Renda , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Isolamento de Pacientes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 27 Suppl 1, COVID-19 and Public Health: Looking Back, Moving Forward: S43-S56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To overcome the absence of national, state, and local public health data on the unequal economic and social burden of COVID-19 in the United States. DESIGN: We analyze US county COVID-19 deaths and confirmed COVID-19 cases and positive COVID-19 tests in Illinois and New York City zip codes by area percent poverty, percent crowding, percent population of color, and the Index of Concentration at the Extremes. SETTING: US counties and zip codes in Illinois and New York City, as of May 5, 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates, rate differences, and rate ratios of COVID-19 mortality, confirmed cases, and positive tests by category of county and zip code-level area-based socioeconomic measures. RESULTS: As of May 5, 2020, the COVID-19 death rate per 100 000 person-years equaled the following: 143.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 140.9, 145.5) vs 83.3 (95% CI: 78.3, 88.4) in high versus low poverty counties (≥20% vs <5% of persons below poverty); 124.4 (95% CI: 122.7, 126.0) versus 48.2 (95% CI: 47.2, 49.2) in counties in the top versus bottom quintile for household crowding; and 127.7 (95% CI: 126.0, 129.4) versus 25.9 (95% CI: 25.1, 26.6) for counties in the top versus bottom quintile for the percentage of persons who are people of color. Socioeconomic gradients in Illinois confirmed cases and New York City positive tests by zip code-level area-based socioeconomic measures were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: Stark social inequities exist in the United States for COVID-19 outcomes. We recommend that public health departments use these straightforward cost-effective methods to report on social inequities in COVID-19 outcomes to provide an evidence base for policy and resource allocation.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Governo Local , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Fatores Raciais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 758: 144151, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316596

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic had expanded to the US since early 2020 and has caused nationwide economic loss and public health crisis. Until now, although the US has the most confirmed cases in the world and are still experiencing an increasing pandemic, several states insisted to re-open business activities and colleges while announced strict control measures. To provide a quantitative reference for official strategies, predicting the near future trend based on finer spatial resolution data and presumed scenarios are urgently needed. In this study, the first attempted COVID-19 case predicting model based on county-level demographic, environmental, and mobility data was constructed with multiple machine learning techniques and a hybrid framework. Different scenarios were also applied to selected metropolitan counties including New York City, Cook County in Illinois, Los Angeles County in California, and Miami-Dade County in Florida to assess the impact from lockdown, Phase I, and Phase III re-opening. Our results showed that, for selected counties, the mobility decreased substantially after the lockdown but kept increasing with an apparent weekly pattern, and the weekly pattern of mobility and infections implied high infections during the weekend. Meanwhile, our model was successfully built up, and the scenario assessment results indicated that, compared with Phase I re-opening, a 1-week and a 2-week lockdown could reduce 4%-29% and 15%-55% infections, respectively, in the future week, while 2-week Phase III re-opening could increase 16%-80% infections. We concluded that the mandatory orders in metropolitan counties such lockdown should last longer than one week, the effect could be observed. The impact of lockdown or re-opening was also county-dependent and varied with the local pandemic. In future works, we expect to involve a longer period of data, consider more county-dependent factors, and employ more sophisticated techniques to decrease the modeling uncertainty and apply it to counties nationally and other countries.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Illinois , Aprendizado de Máquina , Cidade de Nova Iorque
18.
Public Health Rep ; 136(1): 88-96, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Widespread global transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), continues. Many questions remain about asymptomatic or atypical infections and transmission dynamics. We used comprehensive contact tracing of the first 2 confirmed patients in Illinois with COVID-19 and serologic SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing to determine whether contacts had evidence of undetected COVID-19. METHODS: Contacts were eligible for serologic follow-up if previously tested for COVID-19 during an initial investigation or had greater-risk exposures. Contacts completed a standardized questionnaire during the initial investigation. We classified exposure risk as high, medium, or low based on interactions with 2 index patients and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Serologic testing used a SARS-CoV-2 spike enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on serum specimens collected from participants approximately 6 weeks after initial exposure to either index patient. The 2 index patients provided serum specimens throughout their illness. We collected data on demographic, exposure, and epidemiologic characteristics. RESULTS: Of 347 contacts, 110 were eligible for serologic follow-up; 59 (17% of all contacts) enrolled. Of these, 53 (90%) were health care personnel and 6 (10%) were community contacts. Seventeen (29%) reported high-risk exposures, 15 (25%) medium-risk, and 27 (46%) low-risk. No participant had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The 2 index patients had antibodies detected at dilutions >1:6400 within 4 weeks after symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: In serologic follow-up of the first 2 known patients in Illinois with COVID-19, we found no secondary transmission among tested contacts. Lack of seroconversion among these contacts adds to our understanding of conditions (ie, use of PPE) under which SARS-CoV-2 infections might not result in transmission and demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing is a useful tool to verify epidemiologic findings.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , /imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Medição de Risco
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2031083, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369659

RESUMO

Importance: Health taxes are policy tools used to reduce harmful consumption of products and raise tax revenue, and they may also be associated with signaling (ie, informational and educational) factors that enhance their impact. Objectives: To examine changes in prices and volume sold of sweetened beverages following the implementation and repeal of the Cook County, Illinois, Sweetened Beverage Tax (SBT) compared with the comparison site of St Louis County and city, Missouri, which did not impose a tax. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used interrupted time series analyses to assess changes in price and volume sold of taxed (based on beverage type and sweetener status) and untaxed beverages in Cook County compared with St Louis following the implementation of the SBT on August 2, 2017, and its repeal effective December 1, 2017. Statistical analysis was performed from January to June 2020. Exposures: Implementation and repeal of the Cook County SBT. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in taxed and untaxed beverage prices and volume sold. Nielsen food store scanner data were obtained for weekly volume and dollar amount sold of nonalcoholic beverage universal product codes (UPCs) for each site in supermarkets and mass merchandise, grocery, drug, convenience, and dollar stores. Results: The analytic samples included 16 510 UPCs for volume and 2141 UPCs (balanced sample) for prices for 122 pretax weeks, 16 tax weeks, and 35 postrepeal weeks. Compared with St Louis, posttax implementation in Cook County resulted in a level increase in taxed beverage prices of 1.13 cents per fluid ounce (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.25 cents per fluid ounce), representing a slight overshifting, followed by a posttax repeal level decrease of -1.19 cents per fluid ounce (95% CI, -1.33 to -1.04 cents per fluid ounce), with no resulting change pretax to posttax repeal. Volume sold of taxed beverages in Cook County compared with St Louis exhibited a posttax implementation level decrease of 25.7% (ß = -0.297; 95% CI, -0.415 to -0.179) and a posttax repeal level increase of 30.5% (ß = 0.266, 95% CI, 0.124 to 0.408), with no net change in volume sold from pretax to 8 months after repeal. Conclusions and Relevance: This study using interrupted time series analysis found no net change in volume sold of taxed beverages following the implementation and repeal of the Cook County SBT, suggesting the tax had no signaling association. Repeals of such taxes may fully reverse their associations with reduced demand and harms associated with sweetened beverage intake.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Impostos/economia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Illinois , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida
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