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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 100: 193-202, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279032

RESUMO

Nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) can produce hydroxyl radicals under illumination, which promotes the oxidative degradation of organic pollutants. In this paper, NCM was used to oxidize bisphenol A (BPA) under simulated sunlight. The effects of pH, temperature, light intensity, anion and cation on the degradation of BPA were analyzed. The photodegradation process of BPA was discussed. The optimal photolysis rate was 0.031 min-1 when the temperature was 30°C, the light intensity was 2.67 × 104 Lux, and the pH value was 9.0. The alkaline environment, temperature and light intensity can promote the photodegradation of BPA. Except for nitrate ions, anions and cations can inhibit the photodegradation of BPA. Compared with cations, anions have a greater inhibitory effect on BPA degradation. The degradation products of BPA by NCM were analyzed by gas chromatographic/mass. This study may provide useful information for the BPA degradation by NCM in complex water samples.


Assuntos
Iluminação , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Colódio , Membranas/química , Fenóis , Fotólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1828-1831, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018355

RESUMO

We propose a new framework for super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM) based on compressed sensing (CS). Our framework addresses several key problems in SIM, including long readout time and photobleaching. CS has the potential to eliminate these problems because it allows the reduction of the number of measurements, can record an image faster, and excites fluorochromes with less excitation light. Key contribution of our proposed method is that sampling and down-modulation of an object scene are simultaneously performed. The impact of our contribution is demonstrated by simulation-based experiments involving computer-generated super-resolution microscopy images, considering reductions in both data quality and quantity.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Iluminação , Corantes Fluorescentes , Microscopia de Fluorescência
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1899-1902, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018372

RESUMO

The in-vivo optical imaging of the cortical surface provides the ability to record different types of biophysiological signals, e.g., structural information, intrinsic signals, like blood oxygenation coupled reflection changes as well as extrinsic properties of voltage sensitive probes, like fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyes. The recorded data sets have very high temporal and spatial resolutions on a meso- to macroscopic scale, which surpass conventional multi-electrode recordings. Both, intrinsic and functional data sets, each provide unique information about temporal and spatial dynamics of cortical functioning, yet have individual drawbacks. To optimize the informational value it would thus be opportune to combine different types of optical imaging in a near simultaneous recording.Due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of voltage-sensitive dyes it is necessary to reduce stray light pollution below the level of the camera's dark noise. It is thus impossible to record full-spectrum optical data sets. We address this problem by a time-multiplexed illumination, bespoke to the utilized voltage sensitive dye, to record an alternating series of intrinsic and extrinsic frames by a high-frequency CMOS sensor. These near simultaneous data series can be used to compare the mutual influence of intrinsic and extrinsic dynamics (with regards to extracorporeal functional imaging) as well as for motion compensation and thus for minimizing frame averaging, which in turn results in increased spatial precision of functional data and in a reduction of necessary experimental data sets (3R principle).


Assuntos
Iluminação , Imagem Óptica , Corantes Fluorescentes , Estimulação Luminosa , Razão Sinal-Ruído
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1962-1965, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018387

RESUMO

Subretinal stimulators help restoring vision to blind people, suffering from degenerative eye diseases. This work aims to reduce patient's efforts to continuously tune his device, by implementing a physiological ambient illumination adaptation system. The parameters of the adaptation to changing illumination conditions are highly customizable, to best fit individual patients requirements.


Assuntos
Iluminação , Próteses Visuais , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Humanos , Visão Ocular
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027252

RESUMO

Melanopic stimuli trigger diverse non-image-forming effects. However, evidence of a melanopic contribution to acute effects on alertness and performance is inconclusive, especially under common lighting situations. Effects on cognitive performance are likely mediated by effort-related physiological changes. We assessed the acute effects of lighting in three scenarios, at two times of day, on effort-related changes to cardiac contraction as indexed by the cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP). In a within-subject design, twenty-seven participants performed a cognitive task thrice during a morning and a late-afternoon session. We set the lighting at 500 lux in all three lighting scenarios, measured horizontally at the desk level, but with 54 lux, 128 lux, or 241 lux melanopic equivalent daylight illuminance at the eye level. Impedance cardiography and electrocardiography measurements were used to calculate PEP, for the baseline and task period. A shorter PEP during the task represents a sympathetic heart activation and therefore increased effort. Data were analysed with linear mixed-effect models. PEP changes depended on both the light scene and time of day (p = 0.01 and p = 0.002, respectively). The highest change (sympathetic activation) occurred for the medium one of the three stimuli (128 lux) during the late-afternoon session. However, effect sizes for the singular effects were small, and only for the combined effect of light and time of day middle-sized. Performance scores or self-reported scores on alertness and task demand did not change with the light scene. In conclusion, participants reached the same performance most efficiently at both the highest and lowest melanopic setting, and during the morning session. The resulting U-shaped relation between melanopic stimulus intensity and PEP is likely not dependent solely on intrinsic ipRGC stimuli, and might be moderated by extrinsic cone input. Since lighting situations were modelled according to current integrative lighting strategies and real-life indoor light intensities, the result has implications for artificial lighting in a work environment.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/fisiologia , Iluminação , Função Ventricular/fisiologia , Adulto , Cardiografia de Impedância , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Miocárdica , Sonolência , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Temperatura , Adulto Jovem
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2642-2645, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018549

RESUMO

Video-based photoplethysmography (vPPG) enables remote and contactless detection of the peripheral pulse of blood flow. This provides a potential mean to extract heart rate (HR) and pulse transit time (PTT) for the purpose of remote health monitoring. The accuracy of average HR and PTT extracted from a two-minute vPPG recording has been investigated at six different lighting conditions among participants with a range of Fitzpatrick skin scores. 12 healthy volunteers (6 females, 27 ± 6 years) were recruited. The video, electrocardiogram and finger PPG were acquired from immobile resting subjects. The vPPG signals from red, green and blue channels, and a combination of those were investigated. The vPPG signals were extracted from two regions of interest (ROIs): one on the forehead and one on the palm of the left hand. The estimated HR error (HR-error) was significantly lower for vPPG from green channels in both ROIs (ROI1 [p<0.001], ROI2 [p<0.05]). The signal from ROI1 demonstrated lower HR-error than ROI2 (p<0.001). HR-error from the darkest lighting conditions (Lumen 1 and 2) were significantly higher than the others (p<0.05). Furthermore, HR-error showed a positive correlation with skin tone scores in every lighting condition. However, at brighter lighting intensity, HR-error was independent of the skin tone score. PTT calculated from vPPG (vPTT) were compared between the 6 levels of lightings and the result was significantly different (p<0.05). In darker lighting conditions, the vPTT increased. Pulse arrival time measured from PPG (PAT-PPG) was calculated, and a positive correlation was found between the ratio of vPTT/PAT-PPG and skin tone score at six different lightings. However, this dependency decreases in brighter lighting intensity. These results suggest that HR-error and the ratio of vPTT/PAT increase with darker skins and at darker backgrounds. However, at brighter lighting conditions, the skin tone score is not a confounder of vPPG accuracy.


Assuntos
Iluminação , Pigmentação da Pele , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Pletismografia , Análise de Onda de Pulso
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3403-3406, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018734

RESUMO

Optical recording of genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) allows neuroscientists to study the activity of genetically labeled neuron populations, but our current tools lack the resolution, stability and are often too invasive. Here we present the design concepts, prototypes, and preliminary measurement results of a super-miniaturized wireless image sensor built using a 32nm Silicon-on-Insulator process. SOI process is optimal for wireless applications, and we can further thin the substrate to reduce overall device thickness to ~25µm and operate the pixels using back-side illumination. The proposed device is 300µm × 300µm. Our prototype is built on a 3 × 3mm die.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Silício , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Iluminação , Neurônios
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4294-4297, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018945

RESUMO

Sleep disturbance and deprivation are major factors in delayed recovery, which can affect both the physical and emotional well-being of patients. Patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) are especially vulnerable to sleep deprivation due to light-induced disturbances. A desirable lighting intervention in the ICU would minimize light-induced disturbances while simultaneously providing feedback for the staff on when to perform patient care activities that require high intensity lighting. To this end, we performed a first phase testing for a biometrics-integrated lighting system that serves a dual function of sleep initiation and maintenance to improve the patient's quality of sleep. Preliminary findings are presented as a case study to assess the feasibility of scaling up the experimental model. While findings point to additional testing being necessary to determine whether the lighting system will be effective, the experiment detailed in this report establishes a starting paradigm upon which to base further investigation.Clinical Relevance- A biometrics-integrated lighting system that can improve sleep quality of the patient will not only reduce cost of care for the patients, but also increase the level of satisfaction for both patients and the hospital staff.


Assuntos
Iluminação , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Sono
9.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4310-4313, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018949

RESUMO

A subretinal stimulator chip has been designed and tested, which combines high pixel number with highest simulation voltages, lowest power consumption, spatial peaking and illumination adaptation. A supporting ASIC completes the implantable device electronics. Blind mouse retina has successfully been stimulated in vitro.


Assuntos
Iluminação , Próteses e Implantes , Animais , Eletrodos , Camundongos , Estimulação Luminosa
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013700

RESUMO

The origin of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is zoonotic. The circadian day-night is the rhythmic clue to organisms for their synchronized body functions. The "development for mankind" escalated the use of artificial light at night (ALAN). In this article, we tried to focus on the possible influence of this anthropogenic factor in human coronavirus (HCoV) outbreak. The relationship between the occurrences of coronavirus and the ascending curve of the night-light has also been delivered. The ALAN influences the physiology and behavior of bat, a known nocturnal natural reservoir of many Coronaviridae. The "threatened" and "endangered" status of the majority of bat species is mainly because of the destruction of their proper habit and habitat predominantly through artificial illumination. The stress exerted by ALAN leads to the impaired body functions, especially endocrine, immune, genomic integration, and overall rhythm features of different physiological variables and behaviors in nocturnal animals. Night-light disturbs "virus-host" synchronization and may lead to mutation in the genomic part of the virus and excessive virus shedding. We also proposed some future strategies to mitigate the repercussions of ALAN and for the protection of the living system in the earth as well.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Iluminação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Luz , Melatonina/fisiologia , Pandemias
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(1): 97-106, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910795

RESUMO

Domestic wastewater containing a high proportion of organic matter and nutrients is a serious pollution problem in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a novel attached-growth high rate algal pond (AG-HRAP) employing attached-growth media and artificial light sources for treating domestic wastewater and enhancing nutrient recovery. Light intensities in the range of 40-180 µmol/m2/s were used in the AG-HRAPs. The experimental results showed that the highest chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies of 88, 62 and 69%, respectively, were found at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and the average light intensity of 180 µmol/m2/s. Moreover, the effluent COD concentrations could meet Thailand's national discharge standard. The highest biomass and protein productivities of 54 ± 4 and 37 ± 8 g/m2/d, respectively, were found in the AG-HRAPs, which were higher than in previous studies of HRAPs. The Stover-Kincannon kinetic values for COD, TN and TP removals of the AG-HRAPs (R2 = 0.9) were higher than those of the conventional systems. Additionally, the novel AG-HRAP system could provide a highly cost-effective operation when compared to other microalgal systems.


Assuntos
Tanques , Águas Residuárias , Iluminação , Nutrientes , Tailândia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235522, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946481

RESUMO

Light conditions in retail stores may contribute to potato greening. In this study, we aimed to develop a potato tuber greening risk rating model for retail stores based on light quality and intensity parameters. This was achieved by firstly exposing three potato varieties (Nicola, Maranca and Kennebec) to seven specific light wavelengths (370, 420, 450, 530, 630, 660 and 735 nm) to determine the tuber greening propensity. Detailed light quality and intensity measurements from 25 retail stores were then combined with the greening propensity data to develop a tuber greening risk rating model. Our study showed that maximum greening occurred under blue light (450 nm), while 53%, 65% and 75% less occurred under green (530 nm), red (660 nm) and orange (630 nm) light, respectively. Greening risk, which varied between stores, was found to be related to light intensity level, and partially explained potato stock loss in stores. Our results from this study suggested that other in-store management practices, including lighting duration, average potato turnover, and light protection during non-retail periods, likely influence tuber greening risk.


Assuntos
Luz/efeitos adversos , Iluminação/efeitos adversos , Tubérculos/efeitos da radiação , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos da radiação , Verduras/efeitos da radiação , Comércio , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Iluminação/instrumentação , Iluminação/métodos , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Solanum tuberosum/economia , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Verduras/economia , Verduras/metabolismo
13.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(8-9): 769-773, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821054

RESUMO

The retina is the neurosensitive layer of the eye. In this tissue, photoreceptors convert light into nerve signals to be relayed to the brain. Despite retinal specialization in the treatment of light, excessive exposure can cause retinal damage, called retinal phototoxicity. In recent years, lighting devices rich in wavelengths of high energy (blue light) appeared, raising new concerns about retinal protection against light damage. We focus here on light-induced ocular diseases and the possible influence on visual health of new lighting technologies.


Assuntos
Olho/efeitos da radiação , Iluminação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares/efeitos da radiação , Adaptação Ocular/fisiologia , Adaptação Ocular/efeitos da radiação , Olho/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Invenções , Luz/efeitos adversos , Iluminação/efeitos adversos , Iluminação/métodos , Iluminação/tendências
14.
Autophagy ; 16(10): 1918-1920, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772633

RESUMO

Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), as one of the main pathways of lysosomal catabolism, plays essential roles for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. To date, the absence of any identifiable LAMP2A - the necessary and limiting protein required for CMA - in non-tetrapod lineages, led to the paradigm that this cellular process was restricted to mammals and birds. The recent findings of Lescat et al., demonstrating the existence of a CMA activity in fish, now reshuffle the cards regarding how the entire evolution of CMA function should be considered and appreciated across metazoans. Hence, beyond challenging the current tetrapod-centered accepted view, the work of Lescat et al. tackles the possibility - or the compelling need - of using complementary and powerful genetic models, such as zebrafish or medaka, for studying this fundamental function from an evolutionary perspective.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Autofagia Mediada por Chaperonas , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Iluminação , Lisossomos , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236321, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776987

RESUMO

The widely known hue-heat effect, a multisensory phenomenon between vision and thermal sensing, is a hypothesis based on the idea that light and colors affect perceived temperature. However, the application of this effect has not been prevalent in our daily lives. To work towards developing more practical use of the hue-heat effect, we conducted a series of psychophysical experiments to investigate the relationship between perceived temperature and illumination in a well-controlled experimental environment. The results showed that illumination had three types of effects to change our sense of coolness/warmness: creating, eliminating, and exchanging effects. Furthermore, we confirmed the existence of two distinctive time courses for the three effects: creating effect started immediately, but the eliminating effect takes time. These findings provide us with a better understanding of the hue-heat effect and enable us to apply it in everyday life. Paired with the new technologies it can also help with energy conservation.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Iluminação , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Psicofísica , Adulto Jovem
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 144: 105662, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622156

RESUMO

More than 1500 U.S. law enforcement personnel fatalities occurred from 2007 to 2016, with 39 % of these related to automobile crashes. This study looked at various types of lighting on police vehicles to determine if changes made to the visibility of a police vehicle can impact the surrounding traffic behavior and increase safety for both law enforcement and the general public. Unmarked and marked police vehicles were positioned behind a civilian vehicle on the shoulder of five different multi-lane highways in Virginia, simulating a routine traffic stop. The data collected indicated that more lighting and the use of red in a light bar impact traffic behavior in terms of merging and speed when passing a police vehicle. The benefits may be attributed to the symbolic influence of red as denoting a different type of emergency than a traffic stop in addition to red's chromatic contrast against the blue sky during the daytime.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Aplicação da Lei , Iluminação/métodos , Veículos Automotores/normas , Polícia , Cor , Desaceleração , Humanos , Virginia
18.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 74, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has suggested that artificial light at night (LAN) may disrupt circadian rhythms, sleep, and contribute to the development of obesity. However, almost all previous studies are cross-sectional, thus, there is a need for prospective investigations of the association between LAN and obesity risk. The goal of our current study was to examine the association between baseline LAN and the development of obesity over follow-up in a large cohort of American adults. METHODS: The study included a sample of 239,781 men and women (aged 50-71) from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study who were not obese at baseline (1995-1996). We used multiple logistic regression to examine whether LAN at baseline was associated with the odds of developing obesity at follow-up (2004-2006). Outdoor LAN exposure was estimated from satellite imagery and obesity was measured based on self-reported weight and height. RESULTS: We found that higher outdoor LAN at baseline was associated with higher odds of developing obesity over 10 years. Compared with the lowest quintile of LAN, the highest quintile was associated with 12% and 19% higher odds of developing obesity at follow-up in men (OR (95% CI) = 1.12 (1.00, 1.250)) and women (1.19 (1.04, 1.36)), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high LAN exposure could predict a higher risk of developing obesity in middle-to-older aged American adults.


Assuntos
Escuridão/efeitos adversos , Escolaridade , Iluminação , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sono , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Luz , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Pobreza , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235903, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697778

RESUMO

The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is the core economic area of the "Silk Road Economic Belt". The urbanization of this region plays a highly important role in economic and cultural communications between China, Central Asia and Europe. However, the influencing factors of urbanization in this region remain unclear. In this study, we presented a new modified thresholding method to extract the urban built-up areas from two nightlight remote sensing data sources, i.e., the DMSP/OLS and VIIRS/DNB nightlight imageries. Then, geographical detectors and hierarchical partitioning analysis were used to test the influences of anthropogenic and geographic environmental factors on urbanization. Our results showed that the relative error between the actual and the extracted urban built-up areas calculated using our method ranged from -0.30 to 0.27 in two biggest sample cities (Urumqi and Karamay) over the last 27 years. These errors were lower than those calculated by using the traditional method (-0.66 ≤ relative error ≤ -0.11). The expansion of urban built-up areas was greater in the northern regions than the southern regions of Xinjiang, as well as was greater in large cities than small and medium-sized cities. The influence of anthropogenic factors on urbanization has continually decreased over the past 27 years, while the influence of geographical environmental factors has increased. Among all influencing factors, fixed asset investment, topographic position index and per capita possession of water resources have the high contributions on urbanization, accounting for 18.75%, 15.62% and 14.18% of the variance of urbanization, respectively. Here, we provided a new method for studying urbanization by using remote sensing data. Our results are helpful for understand the driving factors of urbanization, and they provide guidance for the sustainable economic development of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Urbanização/história , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Estudos de Viabilidade , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Iluminação
20.
Urologe A ; 59(9): 1035-1043, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710195

RESUMO

The increasing networking of data systems in medicine is not only leading to modern interdisciplinarity in the sense of cooperation between different medical departments, but also poses new challenges regarding the building and room infrastructure. The surgical operating room of the future expands or augments its reality, away from the pure building characteristics, towards an intelligent and communicative space platform. The building infrastructure (operating theatre) serves as sensor and actuator. Thus, it is possible to inform about missing diagnostics as well as to register them directly in the contextualization of the planned surgical intervention or to integrate them into the processes. Integrated operating theatres represent a comprehensive computer platform based on a corresponding system architecture with software-based protocols. An underlying modular system consisting of various modules for image acquisition and analysis, interaction and visualization supports the integration and merging of heterogeneous data that are generated in a hospital operation. Integral building data (e.g., air conditioning, lighting control, device registration) are merged with patient-related data (age, type of illness, concomitant diseases, existing diagnostic CT and MRI images). New systems coming onto the market, as well as already existing systems will have to be measured by the extent to which they will be able to guarantee this integration of information-similar to the development from mobile phone to smartphone. Cost reduction should not be the only legitimizing argument for the market launch, but the vision of a new quality of surgical perception and action.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/tendências , Humanos , Iluminação , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Salas Cirúrgicas
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