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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 361-367, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893432

RESUMO

Hyperspectral imaging is a promising clinical imaging modality with multiple applications in wound care, dermatology, and ophthalmology. However, with current technologies, hyperspectral imagers are relatively large and expensive devices, mainly affordable only by hospitals. Multispectral imaging can be a cost-effective alternative for hyperspectral imaging and is capable of bringing diagnostics to primary health care. Multispectral imaging uses known features of tissue chromophores to simplify imaging device design. However, to maintain design simple and cost-effective the number of illumination bands should be minimal. Thus, proper band selection is very important. The goal of the current study is to develop an analytical model for the optimization of band selection for multispectral and narrow-band imaging techniques (e.g., narrow-band microscopy). METHODS: The contrast ratio has been proposed for quantification of image quality of subsurface inhomogeneities in the skin. Based on the two-flux Kubelka-Munk model, we developed an analytical approach which links the contrast ratio with optical tissue parameters. RESULTS: We obtained an explicit analytical solution for the dependence of maximal contrast ratio on optical tissue parameters. Then, we linked the minimally observable contrast ratio (cmin) with the bit depth of the camera, d: cmin = 1/(2d-1). Based on this analysis we were able to derive an explicit expression, which links camera properties with the minimally detectable changes in optical tissue parameters (both scattering and absorption). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed analytical model can be used for rapid assessment and optimization of multispectral and narrow band imaging techniques and for estimation of the accuracy of imaging techniques. The developed model confirms the utility of the contrast ratio for tissue imaging.


Assuntos
Imagem de Banda Estreita , Pele , Humanos , Iluminação , Modelos Estatísticos , Imagem de Banda Estreita/métodos , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122409, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740246

RESUMO

In this study, the growth and lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus sp. using different nanoparticles and light sources were investigated. Xenon lamp can produce a broad illumination spectrum, and exhibited better performance than light-emitting diode. SiC and g-C3N4 nanoparticles improved the biomass and lipid accumulation, whereas TiO2 and TiC nanoparticles had inhibitory influence on microalgae. Lipid production can be improved by oxidative stress produced by combination of nanoparticles and xenon lamp irradiation. At the optimal SiC nanoparticles concentration of 150 mg L-1 and photoperiod of 6:18 h, the maximum biomass concentration and total lipid content reached 3.18 g L-1 and 40.26%, respectively. The addition of SiC nanoparticles could promote the substrate utilization rate and induce stress condition, thereby enhancing the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and lipid biosynthesis. This research shows that SiC nanoparticles addition combined with xenon lamp illumination is a promising strategy to promote microalgal growth and lipid accumulation.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Nanopartículas , Scenedesmus , Biomassa , Iluminação , Lipídeos , Xenônio
3.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105346, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710957

RESUMO

Pedestrian distraction is a growing road safety concern worldwide. While there are currently no studies linking distraction and pedestrian crash risk, distraction has been shown to increase risky behaviours in pedestrians, for example, through reducing visual scanning before traversing an intersection. Illuminated in-ground Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) embedded into pathways are an emerging solution to address the growing distraction problem associated with mobile use while walking. The current study sought to determine if such an intervention was effective in attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians. We conducted a controlled laboratory study (N = 24) to evaluate whether pedestrians detected the activation of flashing LEDs when distracted by a smartphone more accurately and efficiently when the lights were located on the floor compared to a control position on the wall. Eye gaze movements via an eye tracker and behavioural responses via response times assessed the detection of these flashing LEDs. Distracted participants were able to detect the activation of the floor and wall-mounted LEDs with accuracies above 90%. The visual and auditory distraction tasks increased reaction times by 143 and 124 ms, respectively. Even when distracted, performance improved with floor LEDs close to participants, with reaction time improvements by 43 and 159 ms for the LEDs 2 and 1 ms away from the participant respectively. The addition of floor LED lights resulted in a performance similar to the one observed for wall-mounted LEDs in the non-distracted condition. Moreover, participants did not necessarily need to fixate on the LEDs to detect their activation, thus were likely to have detected them using their peripheral vision. The findings suggest that LEDs embedded in pathways are likely to be effective at attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians. Further research needs to be conducted in the field to confirm these findings, and to evaluate the actual effects on behaviour under real-world conditions.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Ambiente Construído , Pedestres/psicologia , Smartphone , Adulto , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Iluminação , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Segurança , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
4.
Waste Manag ; 101: 188-199, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622864

RESUMO

The scope of this paper is to identify the benefits of lamp recycling from the domestic sector. Data related to the recycled lamps was obtained from two recycling companies and were compared to those related to the waste lamps from the domestic sector. This was achieved by a new methodology which uses two alternative approaches. The first one is dependent on previous research data in relation to the number of active lamps while the second one elaborates on electricity consumption and sales data, in order to define the corresponding number of active lamps., The wasted amount of glass, metal and plastic is calculated along with the energy savings, the annual emissions of CO2-eq, the economic benefit from their sale and the potential reduction of hazardous waste, such as mercury to solid waste landfills under various scenarios. The amount of recovered materials collected by the Hellenic recycling companies contributes to a reduction of CO2-eq by 1298 tonnes, which falls significantly short of the CO2-eq that could have been saved 3108-5463tonnes if all the lamps were recycled. Furthermore, the recycling companies have an annual economic benefit of €32,251 which could be increased by €122,725 if all lamps were recycled together with the proper recycling of 3.4 kg of mercury, which was disposed in the environment. Finally, a future scenario was examined, in which all lamps in the domestic sector were assumed to be LEDs, an issue that can affect the viability of the recycling factories and it was proved that these might be affected.


Assuntos
Utensílios Domésticos , Mercúrio , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Resíduos Perigosos , Iluminação , Reciclagem
5.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(9): 1065-1073, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693466

RESUMO

Changes in the light energy distribution between the photosystems 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2, respectively) due to the reversible migration of a part of the light-harvesting complex (LHC2) between the photosystems (state transitions, ST) have been studied in leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Arabidopsis thaliana plants upon short-term illumination with light of various intensity that excited predominantly PS2. Changes in the ratio of fluorescence maxima at 745 and 685 nm in the low-temperature (77 K) fluorescence spectrum of chlorophyll a (Chl a) characterizing energy absorption by the PS1 and PS2, respectively, were insufficient for revealing the differences in the STs in barley and Arabidopsis plants at various light intensities, because they were not associated with STs at high-intensity illumination. Light-induced accumulation of the LHC2 phosphorylated proteins Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 involved in the relocation of a part of the LHC2 from PS2 to PS1 in the leaves of both plants decreased with the increase in the light intensity and was more pronounced in barley than in Arabidopsis at the same light intensity. Relaxation of the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of Chl a fluorescence after illumination corresponding to the return of the part of LHC2 from PS1 to PS2 was observed in barley leaves in a wider range of increasing light intensities than in Arabidopsis leaves. The differences in the accumulation of phosphorylated Lhcb1 and Lhcb2, as well as in the parameters of NPQ relaxation after illumination, revealed that STs in barley leaves could occur not only at low-but also at high-intensity light, when it is absent in Arabidopsis leaves.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Hordeum/efeitos da radiação , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Iluminação , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transferência de Energia/efeitos da radiação , Hordeum/metabolismo , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(20): 11792-11800, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576741

RESUMO

Application of chlorine bleach solution (major component sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl) in indoor environments leads to the emission of gaseous hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and chlorine (Cl2), both of which are strong oxidants. In contrast to the outdoor atmosphere, where mixing ratios of HOCl and Cl2 tend to be low (10s-100s of ppt), indoor HOCl and Cl2 can reach high levels during cleaning activities (100s of ppb or higher). HOCl and Cl2 may react with unsaturated organic compounds on indoor surfaces and in indoor air. In this study, we studied the reaction of limonene, one of the most common indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) arising from use of cleaning products, fragrance, and air fresheners, with HOCl and Cl2 in an environmental chamber. A dark reaction was observed between limonene and HOCl/Cl2 leading to gas-phase reaction products that were investigated using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). With subsequent exposure to indoor fluorescent lights or diffuse sunlight through a nearby window, a substantial mass loading of secondary particles were formed with an averaged mass yield of 40% relative to the amount of limonene consumed. Aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements indicate a large contribution of particulate chlorine species. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of filter-collected particles indicates the formation of high molecular weight products. This is the first study of the oxidation of limonene with HOCl and Cl2, and it illustrates the potential for particle formation to occur with indoor lighting during the use of common cleaning products.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Ozônio , Ácido Hipocloroso , Iluminação , Terpenos
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4315, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541134

RESUMO

Super-resolved structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM) is among the fastest fluorescence microscopy techniques capable of surpassing the optical diffraction limit. Current custom-build instruments are able to deliver two-fold resolution enhancement with high acquisition speed. SR-SIM is usually a two-step process, with raw-data acquisition and subsequent, time-consuming post-processing for image reconstruction. In contrast, wide-field and (multi-spot) confocal techniques produce high-resolution images instantly. Such immediacy is also possible with SR-SIM, by tight integration of a video-rate capable SIM with fast reconstruction software. Here we present instant SR-SIM by VIGOR (Video-rate Immediate GPU-accelerated Open-Source Reconstruction). We demonstrate multi-color SR-SIM at video frame-rates, with less than 250 ms delay between measurement and reconstructed image display. This is achieved by modifying and extending high-speed SR-SIM image acquisition with a new, GPU-enhanced, network-enabled image-reconstruction software. We demonstrate high-speed surveying of biological samples in multiple colors and live imaging of moving mitochondria as an example of intracellular dynamics.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Microscopia de Vídeo/métodos , Biofísica , Cor , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Lasers , Iluminação , Mitocôndrias , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Software
8.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(4-5): 487-498, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560104

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The transcriptional profile of roots is highly affected by shoot illumination. Transcriptogram analysis allows the identification of cellular processes that are not detected by DESeq. Light is a key environmental factor regulating plant growth and development. Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown under light display a photomorphogenic development pattern, showing short hypocotyl and long roots. On the other hand, when grown in darkness, they display skotomorphogenic development, with long hypocotyls and short roots. Although many signals from shoots might be important for triggering root growth, the early transcriptional responses that stimulate primary root elongation are still unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate which genes are involved in the early photomorphogenic root development of dark grown roots. We found that 1616 genes 4 days after germination (days-old), and 3920 genes 7 days-old were differently expressed in roots when the shoot was exposed to light. Of these genes, 979 were up regulated in 4 days and 2784 at 7 days-old. We compared the functional categorization of differentially regulated processes by two methods: GO term enrichment and transcriptogram analysis. Expression analysis of nine selected candidate genes in roots confirmed the data observed in the RNA-seq analysis. Loss-of-function mutants of these selected differentially expressed genes suggest the involvement of these genes in root development in response to shoot illumination. Our findings are consistent with the observation that dark grown roots respond to the shoot-perceived aboveground light environment.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Escuridão , Iluminação , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos da radiação
9.
Chemosphere ; 235: 935-944, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561311

RESUMO

Methylene blue dye is among the toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic pollutants. Hence, its treatment via photocatalytic degradation is an important remediation method for the sake of a healthy environment. Herein, the V2O5-CeO2 nanocomposite catalysts were synthesized via a simple precipitation-thermal decomposition approach and used for the photodegradation of methylene blue in the presence of H2O2 as an effective electron scavenger under visible light illumination. The nanocomposite catalysts were systematically characterized to investigate the effects of V2O5 with the aids of X-ray, morphology, light absorption, catalytic activity, and charge transfer properties of the nanocomposite catalysts. The VC-2 nanocomposite prepared with NH4VO3:CeO2 molar ratios at 0.15:1 was found to be the best efficient catalyst where ≥98% of methylene blue was degraded within 25 min irradiation time. From the kinetics analysis, its rate constant was found to be higher than those of the pure V2O5 and CeO2 catalysts by a factor of 12.0 and 13.5, respectively. The plausibly mechanistic elucidation of charge transfer and utilization of reactive species are conspicuous allegations of the combined effects of the nanocomposite catalyst, H2O2 sacrificial agent, and visible light for the photodegradation of the dye.


Assuntos
Cério/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Luz , Iluminação/instrumentação , Azul de Metileno/metabolismo , Nanocompostos/química , Compostos de Vanádio/química , Catálise , Azul de Metileno/efeitos da radiação , Fotólise
10.
J Spec Oper Med ; 19(3): 22-23, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539429

RESUMO

Helicopter air ambulance services (HAA) increasingly operate during darkness, and the cockpit crew prefers a dimmed light to be used in the cabin. Our HAA team is currently researching the use of dimmed red light. We encountered a downside to the use of red light-some texts and symbols became virtually invisible.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Iluminação , Humanos
11.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(7-8): 264-272, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517459

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Objective - Our aim is to evaluate sleep habits, sleep quality and influencing factors among preschool- and schoolchildren. Methods: Two questionnaires were recorded. Questionnaire 1 dealt with sleeping habits, breastfeeding and health behavior of preschool children and infant, and it contained the abbreviated version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Questionnaire 2 dealt with health behavior and the application of sleep hygiene rules, as well as it contained the Athens Insomnia Scale. Subjects - We assessed a total of 1063 questionnaires: 516 kindergarten children participated in our online survey across the country; 547 primary and secondary school students participated in the 2nd questionnaire survey in Szolnok. Results: Parents' observation shows that the average nighttime sleeping time of kindergarten children is 10 hours 20 minutes on weekdays and 10 hours 36 minutes on weekends. The most popular sleeping habits in kindergarten age: teal reading (65.1%) and co-sleeping (42.8%). Parents of infants used breastfeeding (50.4%) and rocking (43.2%) most frequently before sleep. Co-sleeping has a positive influence on the length of lactation. Among the preschool sleeping habits we have proved a number of positive effects of teal reading, while watching television have negative effects. The sleep quality of school-age children according to the Athens Insomnia Scale is 6.11 points (SD: 4.11), 19% of the children are insomniac. Their sleep time is 7 hours 31 minutes on weekdays and 9 hours 30 minutes on weekends. The usage of good health behavior and sleep hygiene rules positively influence sleep quality and sleep duration. Conclusion: With our results, we would like to draw the attention of children and parents to the importance of sleeping and using sleep hygiene rules.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Higiene do Sono , Sono/fisiologia , Televisão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Iluminação , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
13.
Science ; 365(6457): 962-963, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488667
14.
Med Arch ; 73(3): 169-172, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402801

RESUMO

Introduction: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the most serious health issue in the world and the main cause of death after the first year of birth. Environmental factors are among the most important and effective aspects of RTIs occurrences and their human consequences. Aim: This study aimed to identify the environmental factors associated with road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Ilam province. Methods: All crash data in Ilam province in 2012 were investigated. RTI's data was collected using COM 114 form which included some human, environmental and vehicle related factors. Through Chi-Square test and logistic regression model, the association between environmental factors and RTIs was examined. For all statistical analyses we used the package Stata 13.1. Results: A total of 2314 traffic accidents were investigated. The highest 1659 (72.3%) and lowest 19 (0.83%) frequency of RTAs occurred during day and sunrise respectively. The majority of RTAs took place in July and September. The maximum number of RTAs was when the day was clear (91.7%) 2103 and the minimum when it was cloudy (3.5%) 81. A significant relationship was found between fatal RTAs and factors such as; the sort of the road, the hindered visibility, the location of the accident, the accidents' place, the climate, and lighting of the day (P<0.05). The adjusted chance of traffic accidents causing death or injuries in main streets was 9.7 times more than in highways; in sidetracks it was 3.54 times more. And when it was cloudy, the chance was 2.60 times more than when was clear (P<0.05). Conclusion: Regarding the standards of road construction, development of the roads, and educating drivers how to adjust their driving behavior to the environment and road conditions could have a great role in decreasing RTAs causing death or injury.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Ambiente Construído , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Iluminação , Veículos Automotores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
15.
J Dent Hyg ; 93(4): 24-32, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409721

RESUMO

Purpose: Dental professionals are at elevated risks for the development of musculoskeletal disorders due to the occupational demands of static postures and precision movements required for instrumentation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the experiences and attitudes regarding the requirements of purchasing and utilizing magnification loupes and coaxial illumination for patient care among dental hygiene students with the state of Ohio.Methods: A cross-sectional, web-based, anonymous survey was sent via the dental hygiene program directors to dental hygiene students in the state of Ohio. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the dental hygiene students' experience with magnification loupes and coaxial illumination.Results: A total of 123 students (n=123) participated in the study representing a response rate of 36.2%. Most respondents used magnification loupes (89.4%, n=110) and coaxial illumination (84.5%, n=105) while delivering patient care. Respondents who were required to purchase magnification loupes were more likely to feel that dental hygiene students (X2(1)=37.735, p<.001) and dental hygiene faculty (X2(1)=38.256, p<.001) should be required to purchase magnification loupes. Respondents who were not required to purchase their magnification loupes felt that loupes increased the accuracy of assessments and procedures (U=1376.00, p<.01) and increased the efficiency of providing care (U=1327.00, p<.001). Students who were required to purchase coaxial illumination were more likely to feel that dental hygiene students (X2(1)=10.809, p<.001) and dental hygiene faculty (X2(1)=6.796, p<.01) should be required to purchase illumination.Conclusion: When considering student purchasing requirements for magnification loupes and coaxial illumination, the attitudes of dental hygiene students towards their utilization and benefits should be considered.


Assuntos
Iluminação , Higiene Bucal , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Higienistas Dentários , Humanos , Ohio
16.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 387-396, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395321

RESUMO

Technology plays a vital role in herpetoculture because ectothermic animals rely on their environment to carry out basic physiologic functions. Controlling the environment appropriately ensures the health and welfare of captive reptiles and amphibians. This article summarizes some of the technological advances and products currently available, including lighting, climate control, and recordkeeping.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/fisiologia , Répteis/fisiologia , Medicina Veterinária/tendências , Animais , Umidade , Raios Infravermelhos , Luz , Iluminação , Registros/normas , Registros/veterinária , Mídias Sociais/normas , Mídias Sociais/tendências , Temperatura Ambiente , Raios Ultravioleta , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Qualidade da Água/normas
17.
Trials ; 20(1): 472, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of the need to stabilize sleep-wake cycles in individuals with major mental disorders. As such, clinicians and researchers advocate the use of interventions targeted at sleep and circadian dysrhythmias as an adjunct to the standard treatments offered for acute illness episodes of a broad range of diagnoses. To determine the trans-diagnostic generalizability of chronotherapy, we explore the benefits of admitting individuals with an acute illness episode to a psychiatric inpatient unit where changes in light exposure are integrated into the therapeutic environment. METHODS/DESIGN: A two-arm, pragmatic effectiveness, randomized controlled treatment trial, where individuals admitted for acute inpatient psychiatric care will be allocated to a ward with blue-depleted evening light or to a ward with the same layout and facilities but lacking the new lighting technology. The trial will test whether the experimental lighting conditions offer any additional benefits beyond those associated with usual treatment in an acute psychiatric inpatient unit. The main objectives are to examine any differences between groups in the mean duration of hospitalization in days. Additional analyses will compare group differences in symptoms, functioning, medication usage, and side effects and whether length of stay is associated with stability of sleep-wake cycles and circadian rhythms. Ancillary investigations should determine any benefits according to diagnostic subgroups and potential drawbacks such as any adverse effects on the well-being of professionals working across both wards. DISCUSSION: This unit offers a unique opportunity to explore how exposure to different lighting conditions may modify sleep-wake cycles and how any changes in sleep-wake cycle may impact on the clinical and functional outcomes of individuals experiencing an acute episode of a severe mental disorder that requires inpatient care. The findings could influence the future design of hospital units offering care to patients with mental or physical disorders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03788993 . Retrospectively registered on 28 December 2018.


Assuntos
Cronoterapia , Terapia pela Cor , Iluminação , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Quartos de Pacientes , Sono , Doença Aguda , Cronoterapia/efeitos adversos , Terapia pela Cor/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Noruega , Admissão do Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 67: 49-60, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431262

RESUMO

For forensic clinicians and pathologists, photography of bodily regions, injuries and skin lesions present a number of technical challenges including proper framing, avoidance of distortion, choice of background and inclusion of a properly orientated scale. Photography of internal organs at autopsy presents further difficulties with regard to correct exposure, light reflections and limited depth of field. Situations commonly arise in clinical forensic and autopsy practice which require photographic documentation but which may not warrant calling upon the clinical photographer or police Scenes of Crime Officer. This article provides a brief explanation of various technical considerations which will allow forensic practitioners and technicians to take their own high quality external and internal photographs. Technical aspects discussed include aperture, shutter speed, ISO, depth of field, camera shake, and use of flash, scales, focal planes and backgrounds. The possible pitfalls encountered in several common photographic situations are illustrated and discussed, together with suggested workarounds and camera settings. Whilst the photographic examples presented here mostly relate to autopsy practice, the general principles and technical discussion also apply to wider clinical forensic photography practice.


Assuntos
Fotografação/métodos , Autopsia , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Iluminação , Fotografação/instrumentação
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(17)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466378

RESUMO

Reliable vision in challenging illumination conditions is one of the crucial requirements of future autonomous automotive systems. In the last decade, thermal cameras have become more easily accessible to a larger number of researchers. This has resulted in numerous studies which confirmed the benefits of the thermal cameras in limited visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose a learning-based method for visible and thermal image fusion that focuses on generating fused images with high visual similarity to regular truecolor (red-green-blue or RGB) images, while introducing new informative details in pedestrian regions. The goal is to create natural, intuitive images that would be more informative than a regular RGB camera to a human driver in challenging visibility conditions. The main novelty of this paper is the idea to rely on two types of objective functions for optimization: a similarity metric between the RGB input and the fused output to achieve natural image appearance; and an auxiliary pedestrian detection error to help defining relevant features of the human appearance and blending them into the output. We train a convolutional neural network using image samples from variable conditions (day and night) so that the network learns the appearance of humans in the different modalities and creates more robust results applicable in realistic situations. Our experiments show that the visibility of pedestrians is noticeably improved especially in dark regions and at night. Compared to existing methods we can better learn context and define fusion rules that focus on the pedestrian appearance, while that is not guaranteed with methods that focus on low-level image quality metrics.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pedestres , Visão Ocular , Algoritmos , Humanos , Iluminação
20.
Neuron ; 103(4): 559-562, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437452
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