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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3148, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035309

RESUMO

Structured Illumination Microscopy enables live imaging with sub-diffraction resolution. Unfortunately, optical aberrations can lead to loss of resolution and artifacts in Structured Illumination Microscopy rendering the technique unusable in samples thicker than a single cell. Here we report on the combination of Adaptive Optics and Structured Illumination Microscopy enabling imaging with 150 nm lateral and 570 nm axial resolution at a depth of 80 µm through Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate that Adaptive Optics improves the three-dimensional resolution, especially along the axial direction, and reduces artifacts, successfully realizing 3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy in a variety of biological samples.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Microscopia Intravital/métodos , Iluminação/instrumentação , Animais , Artefatos , Ascomicetos , Caenorhabditis elegans , Linhagem Celular , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Microscopia Intravital/instrumentação , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal/instrumentação , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Oryza/microbiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(17): 174301, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988414

RESUMO

Echo location is a broad approach to imaging and sensing that includes both manmade RADAR, LIDAR, SONAR, and also animal navigation. However, full 3D information based on echo location requires some form of scanning of the scene in order to provide the spatial location of the echo origin-points. Without this spatial information, imaging objects in three-dimensional (3D) is a very challenging task as the inverse retrieval problem is strongly ill-posed. Here, we show that the temporal information encoded in the return echoes that are reflected multiple times within a scene is sufficient to faithfully render an image in 3D. Numerical modeling and an information theoretic perspective prove the concept and provide insight into the role of the multipath information. We experimentally demonstrate the concept by using both radio frequency and acoustic waves for imaging individuals moving in a closed environment.


Assuntos
Ecolocação , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3067, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031389

RESUMO

Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) are used to shape the wavefront of incident light. This can be used to generate practically any pattern of interest, albeit with varying efficiency. A fundamental challenge associated with DOEs comes from the nanoscale-precision requirements for their fabrication. Here we demonstrate a method to controllably scale up the relevant feature dimensions of a device from tens-of-nanometers to tens-of-microns by immersing the DOEs in a near-index-matched solution. This makes it possible to utilize modern 3D-printing technologies for fabrication, thereby significantly simplifying the production of DOEs and decreasing costs by orders of magnitude, without hindering performance. We demonstrate the tunability of our design for varying experimental conditions, and the suitability of this approach to ultrasensitive applications by localizing the 3D positions of single molecules in cells using our microscale fabricated optical element to modify the point-spread-function (PSF) of a microscope.


Assuntos
Imersão , Dispositivos Ópticos , Impressão Tridimensional , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Nanotecnologia , Impressão Tridimensional/instrumentação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2921, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012021

RESUMO

Spatial light modulators have become an essential tool for advanced microscopy, enabling breakthroughs in 3D, phase, and super-resolution imaging. However, continuous spatial-light modulation that is capable of capturing sub-millisecond microscopic motion without diffraction artifacts and polarization dependence is challenging. Here we present a photothermal spatial light modulator (PT-SLM) enabling fast phase imaging for nanoscopic 3D reconstruction. The PT-SLM can generate a step-like wavefront change, free of diffraction artifacts, with a high transmittance and a modulation efficiency independent of light polarization. We achieve a phase-shift > π and a response time as short as 70 µs with a theoretical limit in the sub microsecond range. We used the PT-SLM to perform quantitative phase imaging of sub-diffractional species to decipher the 3D nanoscopic displacement of microtubules and study the trajectory of a diffusive microtubule-associated protein, providing insights into the mechanism of protein navigation through a complex microtubule network.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Contraste de Fase/métodos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Ouro , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/estatística & dados numéricos , Luz , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia de Interferência/métodos , Microscopia de Interferência/estatística & dados numéricos , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/ultraestrutura , Nanotecnologia , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Fenômenos Ópticos , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
5.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930435, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The anatomy of the coracoid process and coracoclavicular (CC) ligament have been described and the correlation between them has been assessed based on 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provide a guide for coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data were collected from 300 patients who underwent both CT and MRI of the shoulder joint from January 2017 to January 2019 at the Jiang'an Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The coracoid process was observed and classified and parameters of the CC ligament were measured according to different corneal types. All of the statistics were collected and classified by 2 radiologists, and average values were determined.Measurements of segments were taken as follows: ab - In the coronal plane, the length of the CC ligament from the central point of the CC ligament at the clavicular attachment to the CC ligament at the center of the CC attachment); ac - The distance from the center point of the CC ligament at the supraclavicular attachment to the acromioclavicular joint; de - In the sagittal plane, the length of the CC ligament from the center of the clavicular attachment to the coracoid attachment point; fg - The maximum diameter of the CC ligament at the anterior and posterior margins of the clavicle attachment; hi - The largest diameter of the CC ligament at the anterior and posterior edge of the coracoid process attachment; dj - The distance of the coracoclavicular ligament from the center point of the coracoid process attachment to the coracoid process tip; kl - The distance in the supraclavicular plane from the coracoclavicular ligament to the subcoracoid process. RESULTS The analysis showed that there are 5 types of coracoid process: gourd (31%), short rod (20%), long rod (22.3%), wedge (10.3%), and water drop (6.3%). There were statistically significant differences between the lengths of the ac and hi segments in the among the wedge and gourd-type and the short rod and water drop-type coracoid processes. There were statistically significant differences between the lengths of the ab, de, and fg segments in the short rod, gourd, and long rod-type coracoid processes. There were statistically significant differences between the lengths of the ac, fg, hi, dj, and kl segments in the water drop, gourd, and long rod-type coracoid processes. CONCLUSIONS The present study indicated that measurement of the CC ligament and the different shapes of the coracoid process provide an anatomical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of shoulder diseases and the data can be used to improve the safety of CC ligament reconstruction.


Assuntos
Processo Coracoide/anatomia & histologia , Processo Coracoide/cirurgia , Ligamentos Articulares/anatomia & histologia , Ligamentos Articulares/cirurgia , Articulação Acromioclavicular/anatomia & histologia , Articulação Acromioclavicular/cirurgia , Adulto , Clavícula/anatomia & histologia , Clavícula/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Articulação do Ombro/anatomia & histologia , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2583, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972516

RESUMO

Quantitative micromechanical characterization of single cells and multicellular tissues or organisms is of fundamental importance to the study of cellular growth, morphogenesis, and cell-cell interactions. However, due to limited manipulation capabilities at the microscale, systems used for mechanical characterizations struggle to provide complete three-dimensional coverage of individual specimens. Here, we combine an acoustically driven manipulation device with a micro-force sensor to freely rotate biological samples and quantify mechanical properties at multiple regions of interest within a specimen. The versatility of this tool is demonstrated through the analysis of single Lilium longiflorum pollen grains, in combination with numerical simulations, and individual Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. It reveals local variations in apparent stiffness for single specimens, providing previously inaccessible information and datasets on mechanical properties that serve as the basis for biophysical modelling and allow deeper insights into the biomechanics of these living systems.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Micromanipulação/instrumentação , Micromanipulação/métodos , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/instrumentação , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Acústica , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Caenorhabditis elegans/anatomia & histologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/citologia , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Lilium/citologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Morfogênese , Células Vegetais , Pólen/citologia , Pólen/ultraestrutura
7.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e931055, 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is useful for patients for whom colonoscopy may be difficult to perform and is widely employed to examine the vasculature prior to colorectal cancer surgery. Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was shown to be beneficial intraoperatively to manipulate blood vessels and prevent vascular injury. Three-dimensional (3D)-CTA combined with CTC (3D-CTA with CTC) is useful for preoperative evaluations of the anatomy of mesenteric vessels, colon, and lymph nodes. We observed that when the intestine was dilated with carbon dioxide (CO2), the arteriovenous delineation was often more pronounced than without CO2. To clarify the effects of gas injection with and without CO2 on hemodynamics and vascular passage, we compared the effect of contrast for blood vessels. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty patients with resectable colorectal cancer who underwent a preoperative CT examination at our institution from January to October 2019 were study participants. Of these, 15 underwent 3D-CTA and 15 had 3D-CTA with CTC. Three board-certified radiologists independently and blindly evaluated 18 blood vessels. CT values for each blood vessel were measured on each image. RESULTS CT values for 3D-CTA with CTC were significantly higher with CO2 than without CO2. The quality of 3D-CTA with CTC images for visualization of blood vessels was also significantly greater than that of 3D-CTA, especially those of arterial and intramesenteric venous systems. CONCLUSIONS Based on the higher image quality and CT values obtained by 3D-CTA with CTC for vessels, compared with by 3D-CTA imaging, 3D-CTA with CTC imaging might be useful in evaluating colorectal cancers.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Colonografia Tomográfica Computadorizada/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(20): e25997, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011093

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Levator ani defect (LAD) closely correlates with pelvic organ prolapse. This study aimed to compare the LAD grading between 3-dimensional ultrasonography (3D-US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and investigate the reasons for the difference using 3-dimensional pelvic models.Seventy-two Chinese women who were to undergo repair surgery were assessed by the prolapse staging, 3D-US and MRI. LAD was graded according to the grading systems described with regard to 3D-US (Dietz et al.) and MRI (Delancey et al.) The puborectalis attachment width and the puborectalis thickness were measured on the reconstructed pelvic models offline within the software. The results were analyzed using the weighted kappa and the ANOVA test.The grading systems used for 3D-US and MRI showed the good agreement (κ = 0.75), whereas the consensus of the extent (ie, partial or complete) of tears showed the moderate agreement (κ = 0.56). Additionally, iliococcygeus tears detected by MRI (n = 3) accompanied with complete puborectalis tears on the same side. The averaged width of intact puborectalis attachment was 13.75 ±â€Š3.43 mm. The width of intact puborectalis attachment was remarkably higher than that of the injured attachment (P = .005). The averaged puborectalis thickness was 9.85 ±â€Š2.13 mm.Comparison of 3D-US and MRI showed the good agreement on LAD grading. The moderate agreement in assessing partial or complete tears resulted from the grading criteria of 3D-US. The morphological characteristics of puborectalis assisted in identifying complete tears.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Diafragma da Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diafragma da Pelve/lesões , Diafragma da Pelve/cirurgia , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/etiologia , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/cirurgia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ultrassonografia/métodos
9.
J Vis Exp ; (170)2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938881

RESUMO

Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry is a technique used to generate three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from a sequence of two-dimensional (2D) images. SfM methods are becoming increasingly popular as a noninvasive way to monitor many systems, including anthropogenic and natural landscapes, geologic structures, and both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Here, a detailed protocol is provided for collecting SfM imagery to generate 3D models of benthic habitats. Additionally, the cost, time efficiency, and output quality of employing a Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) camera versus a less expensive action camera have been compared. A tradeoff between computational time and resolution was observed, with the DSLR camera producing models with more than twice the resolution, but taking approximately 1.4-times longer to produce than the action camera. This primer aims to provide a thorough description of the steps necessary to collect SfM data in benthic habitats for those who are unfamiliar with the technique as well as for those already using similar methods.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Fotogrametria
10.
J Vis Exp ; (170)2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938887

RESUMO

Orthodontic tooth movement is a complex biological process of altered soft and hard tissue remodeling as a result of external forces. In order to understand these complex remodeling processes, it is critical to study the tooth and periodontal tissues within their 3D context and therefore minimize any sectioning and tissue artefacts. Mouse models are often utilized in developmental and structural biology, as well as in biomechanics due to their small size, high metabolic rate, genetics and ease of handling. In principle this also makes them excellent models for dental related studies. However, a major impediment is their small tooth size, the molars in particular. This paper is aimed at providing a step by step protocol for generating orthodontic tooth movement and two methods for 3D imaging of the periodontal ligament fibrous component of a mouse mandibular molar. The first method presented is based on a micro-CT setup enabling phase enhancement imaging of fresh collagen tissues. The second method is a bone clearing method using ethyl cinnamate that enables imaging through the bone without sectioning and preserves endogenous fluorescence. Combining this clearing method with reporter mice like Flk1-Cre;TdTomato provided a first of its kind opportunity to image the 3D vasculature in the PDL and alveolar bone.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamento Periodontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cinamatos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
11.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918371

RESUMO

The visualization of cellular ultrastructure over a wide range of volumes is becoming possible by increasingly powerful techniques grouped under the rubric "volume electron microscopy" or volume EM (vEM). Focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) occupies a "Goldilocks zone" in vEM: iterative and automated cycles of milling and imaging allow the interrogation of microns-thick specimens in 3-D at resolutions of tens of nanometers or less. This bestows on FIB-SEM the unique ability to aid the accurate and precise study of architectures of virus-cell interactions. Here we give the virologist or cell biologist a primer on FIB-SEM imaging in the context of vEM and discuss practical aspects of a room temperature FIB-SEM experiment. In an in vitro study of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we show that accurate quantitation of viral densities and surface curvatures enabled by FIB-SEM imaging reveals SARS-CoV-2 viruses preferentially located at areas of plasma membrane that have positive mean curvatures.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Membrana Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Humanos , Pulmão , Células Vero
12.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(9): 579-587, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821816

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive, multicenter study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to predict the three-dimensional (3D) radiographic outcomes of the spinal surgery in a cohort of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) as a function preoperative spinal parameters and surgeon modifiable factors. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Current guidelines for posterior spinal fusion surgery (PSF) in AIS patients are based on two-dimensional classification of the spinal curves. Despite the high success rate, the prediction of the 3D spinal alignment at the follow-ups remains inconclusive. A data-driven surgical decision-making method that determines the combination of the surgical procedures and preoperative patient specific parameters that leads to a specific 3D global spinal alignment outcomes at the follow-ups can lessen the burden of surgical planning and improve patient satisfaction by setting expectations prior to surgery. METHODS: A dataset of 371 AIS patients who underwent a PSF with two-year follow-up were included. Demographics, 2D radiographic spinal and pelvic measurements, clinical measurements of the trunk shape, and the surgical procedures were collected prospectively. A previously developed classification of the preoperative global 3D spinal alignment was used as an additional predictor. The 3D spinal alignment (vertebral positions and rotations) at two-year follow-up was used as the predicted outcome. An ensemble learner was used to predict the 3D spinal alignment at two-year follow-up as a function of the preoperative parameters with and without considering the surgeon modifiable factors. RESULTS: The preoperative and surgical factors predicted three clusters of 3D surgical outcomes with an accuracy of 75%. The prediction accuracy decreased to 64% when only preoperative factors, without the surgical factors, were used in the model. Predictor importance analysis determined that preoperative distal junctional kyphosis, pelvic sagittal parameters, end-instrumented vertebra (EIV) angulation and translation, and the preoperative 3D clusters are the most important patient-specific predictors of the outcomes. Three surgical factors, upper and lower instrumented vertebrae, and the operating surgeon, were important surgical predictors. The role of surgeon in achieving a certain outcome clusters for specific ranges of preoperative T10-L2 kyphosis, EIV angulation and translation, thoracic and lumbar flexibilities, and patient's height was significant. CONCLUSION: Both preoperative patient-specific and surgeon modifiable parameters predicted the 3D global spinal alignment at two-year post PSF. Surgeon was determined as a predictor of the outcomes despite including 20 factors in the analysis that described the surgical moves. Methods to quantify the differences between the implemented surgeon modifiable factors are essential to improve outcome prediction in AIS spinal surgery.Level of Evidence: 3.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/tendências , Aprendizado de Máquina/tendências , Satisfação do Paciente , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/cirurgia , Cirurgiões/tendências , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Fusão Vertebral/tendências , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806852

RESUMO

Cardiovascular malformations and diseases are common but complex and often not yet fully understood. To better understand the effects of structural and microstructural changes of the heart and the vasculature on their proper functioning, a detailed characterization of the microstructure is crucial. In vivo imaging approaches are noninvasive and allow visualizing the heart and the vasculature in 3D. However, their spatial image resolution is often too limited for microstructural analyses, and hence, ex vivo imaging is preferred for this purpose. Ex vivo X-ray microfocus computed tomography (microCT) is a rapidly emerging high-resolution 3D structural imaging technique often used for the assessment of calcified tissues. Contrast-enhanced microCT (CE-CT) or phase-contrast microCT (PC-CT) improve this technique by additionally allowing the distinction of different low X-ray-absorbing soft tissues. In this review, we present the strengths of ex vivo microCT, CE-CT and PC-CT for quantitative 3D imaging of the structure and/or microstructure of the heart, the vasculature and their substructures in healthy and diseased state. We also discuss their current limitations, mainly with regard to the contrasting methods and the tissue preparation.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Vasos Sanguíneos/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Anormalidades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Cardiovascular/patologia , Meios de Contraste , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Miocárdio/metabolismo
15.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1121): 20200685, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine if T1 relaxation time of the pancreas can detect parenchymal changes in early chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 42 patients grouped as no CP (Cambridge 0; n = 21), equivocal (Cambridge 1; n = 12) or mild CP (Cambridge 2; n = 9) based on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography findings using the Cambridge classification as the reference standard. Unenhanced T1 maps were acquired using a three-dimensional dual flip-angle gradient-echo technique on the same 1.5 T scanner with the same imaging parameters. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the T1 relaxation times of Cambridge 0 and 1 group (p = 0.58). There was a significant difference (p = 0.0003) in the mean T1 relaxation times of the pancreas between the combined Cambridge 0 and 1 (mean = 639 msec, 95% CI: 617, 660) and Cambridge 2 groups (mean = 726 msec, 95% CI: 692, 759). There was significant difference (p = 0.0009) in the mean T1 relaxation times of the pancreas between the Cambridge 0 (mean = 636 msec, 95% CI: 606, 666) and Cambridge 2 groups (mean = 726 msec, 95% CI: 692,759) as well as between Cambridge 1 (mean = 643 msec, 95% CI: 608, 679) and Cambridge 2 groups (mean = 726 msec, 95% CI: 692,759) (p = 0.0017). Bland-Altman analysis showed measurements of one reader to be marginally higher than the other by 15.7 msec (2.4%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: T1 mapping is a practical method capable of quantitatively reflecting morphologic changes even in the early stages of chronic pancreatitis, and demonstrates promise for future implementation in routine clinical imaging protocols. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: T1 mapping can distinguish subtle parenchymal changes seen in early stage CP, and demonstrates promise for implementation in routine imaging protocols for the diagnosis of CP.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ductos Pancreáticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Pancreatite Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/patologia , Ductos Pancreáticos/patologia , Pancreatite Crônica/classificação , Pancreatite Crônica/patologia , Padrões de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809237

RESUMO

Recent developments in tissue clearing methods have significantly advanced the three-dimensional analysis of biological structures in whole, intact tissue, providing a greater understanding of spatial relationships and biological circuits. Nonetheless, studies have reported issues with maintaining structural integrity and preventing tissue disintegration, limiting the wide application of these techniques to fragile tissues such as developing embryos. Here, we present an optimized passive tissue clearing technique (PACT)-based embryo clearing method, initial embedding PACT (IMPACT)-Basic, that improves tissue rigidity without compromising optical transparency. We also present IMPACT-Advance, which is specifically optimized for thin slices of mouse embryos past E13.5. We demonstrate proof-of-concept by investigating the expression of two relatively understudied PR domain (PRDM) proteins, PRDM10 and PRDM13, in intact cleared mouse embryos at various stages of development. We observed strong PRDM10 and PRDM13 expression in the developing nervous system and skeletal cartilage, suggesting a functional role for these proteins in these tissues throughout embryogenesis.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Embrião de Mamíferos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Camundongos
17.
J Vis Exp ; (169)2021 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843937

RESUMO

In vitro three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models, such as organoids and spheroids, are valuable tools for many applications including development and disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine. To fully exploit these models, it is crucial to study them at cellular and subcellular levels. However, characterizing such in vitro 3D cell culture models can be technically challenging and requires specific expertise to perform effective analyses. Here, this paper provides detailed, robust, and complementary protocols to perform staining and subcellular resolution imaging of fixed in vitro 3D cell culture models ranging from 100 µm to several millimeters. These protocols are applicable to a wide variety of organoids and spheroids that differ in their cell-of-origin, morphology, and culture conditions. From 3D structure harvesting to image analysis, these protocols can be completed within 4-5 days. Briefly, 3D structures are collected, fixed, and can then be processed either through paraffin-embedding and histological/immunohistochemical staining, or directly immunolabeled and prepared for optical clearing and 3D reconstruction (200 µm depth) by confocal microscopy.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Organoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Humanos
18.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 160, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The initial CT blend sign is an imaging marker that has been used to predict haematoma expansion and poor outcomes in patients with small-volume intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). However, the association of the blend sign with the outcomes of patients undergoing surgery remains unclear. The present study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the influence of the initial CT blend sign on short-term outcomes in patients with hypertensive ICH after stereotactic minimally invasive surgery (sMIS). METHODS: We enrolled 242 patients with spontaneous ICH. The patients were assigned to the blend sign group (91 patients) or non-blend sign (control) group (151 patients) based on the initial CT features. The NIHSS, GCS and mRS were used to assess the effects of sMIS. The rates of severe pulmonary infection and cardiac complications were also compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in the NIHSS and GCS scores were not observed between the blend sign group and the control group. No significant differences in the proportion of patients with good outcomes during the follow-up period were observed between the two groups. A higher rate of re-haemorrhage was noted in the blend sign group. Significant differences in the rates of severe pulmonary infection and cardiac complications were not observed between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The initial CT blend sign is not associated with poor outcomes in patients with hypertensive ICH after sMIS. ICH patients with the CT blend sign should undergo sMIS if they are suitable candidates for surgery.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Cerebral/cirurgia , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Idoso , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Feminino , Hematoma/etiologia , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1122): 20201311, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the visualization of incidentally imaged normal pituitary gland on three-dimensional (3D) pseudo continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) perfusion imaging of the brain. METHODS: Ninety-three patients with a normal pituitary gland who underwent 3D PCASL for suspected brain diseases were retrospectively included. Visualization of the pituitary gland on PCASL cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps was assessed independently by two observers using a three-point grading system: Grade 1, pituitary CBF ≤ CBF of the cerebral white matter (WM); Grade 2, CBF of WM < pituitary CBF ≤ CBF of the cortical gray matter (GM); and Grade 3, CBF of GM < pituitary CBF. The interobserver agreement of visual grading was determined using weighted κ statistic. The associations of visual grades with age, sex, and pituitary volume were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Pituitary glands were divided equally into three groups (small, medium, and large) according to their volume for categorization. RESULTS: The interobserver agreement for visual rating was excellent (weighted κ = 0.823). Of the 93 cases, Grades 1, 2, and 3 included 17 (18.3%), 41 (44.1%), and 35 cases (37.6%), respectively. Medium and large pituitary volume were significantly associated with Grade 3 visualization (p = 0.0153, OR = 4.8323; 95% CI: 1.3525, 17.2649 and p = 0.0009; OR = 9.0299; 95% CI: 2.4663, 33.0614, respectively), whereas there was no significant association for age or sex. CONCLUSION: The normal pituitary gland is often visualized with higher CBF than cortical GM on 3D PCASL, especially in individuals with larger pituitary volume. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Appearance of the normal pituitary gland on 3D PCASL has been documented for the first time.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Criança , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Meglumina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organometálicos , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Marcadores de Spin
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(16): e25347, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879664

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gastric varices can be present in up to 20% of patients with portal hypertension. However, a varix of the left gastroepiploic vein (LGV) is extremely rare. Surgery is required if bleeding occurs; thus, precise diagnosis is crucial. We present a successful case of preoperative diagnosis intraabdominal varix of the LGV using three-dimensional-computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) followed by laparoscopic resection. This is the first report of a case with variant LGV. Our study demonstrates the efficacies of 3D-CTA and laparoscopic surgery for the diagnosis and safe resection of the intraabdominal varix, respectively. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 74-year-old woman was referred to our department with a tumor in the abdominal cavity. On physical examination, no lumps were palpable in the upper abdomen. DIAGNOSIS: The enhanced CT was revealed that the tumor was not enhanced in the early phase, but in the equilibrium phase. Moreover, 3D-CTA clearly revealed that the tumor was being supplied by the LGV. Thus, it was diagnosed as a variant of the LGV. INTERVENTIONS: Surgical resection was performed laparoscopically as per the guidance of preoperative 3D-CTA findings. During surgery, a dark tumor was found along the gastroepiploic vessels, supplied by the LGV. The tumor was resected safely based on the preoperative information. OUTCOMES: Histopathological examination of the tumor showed accumulation of various vessels, but no malignant cells. Therefore, we made a final diagnosis of the tumor as an LGV varix. For follow-up, an annual CT examination was performed and after 3 years postoperation, no recurrence was observed. CONCLUSIONS: In the present case, we have achieved a successful preoperative diagnosis using 3D-CTA, and resection was safely accomplished using laparoscopy guided by preoperative anatomical information. This is the first report of an LGV variant. Appropriate management is crucial because bleeding is a catastrophic event. Therefore, imaging procedures such as 3D-CTA for diagnosis, followed by safe resection by laparoscopic surgery, are effective tools for the treatment of epiploic vein varices.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/cirurgia , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Estômago/irrigação sanguínea , Idoso , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios
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