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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(19): 198104, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469536

RESUMO

The localization of point sources in optical microscopy enables nm-precision imaging of single-molecules and biological dynamics. We report a new method of localization microscopy using twin Airy beams that yields precise 3D localization with the key advantages of extended depth range, higher optical throughput, and potential for imaging higher emitter densities than are possible using other techniques. A precision of better than 30 nm was achieved over a depth range in excess of 7 µm using a 60×, 1.4 NA objective. An illustrative application to extended-depth-range blood-flow imaging in a live zebrafish is also demonstrated.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Animais , Cloaca/irrigação sanguínea , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Microscopia/instrumentação , Imagem Molecular/instrumentação , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Peixe-Zebra
2.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(4): 302-310, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging have enabled demonstration of endolymphatic hydrops, and the clinical application of these imaging studies in Ménière's disease is being explored. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our centre's experience to date of hydrops magnetic resonance imaging in patients with episodic vertigo. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a high-resolution three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence on a 3 Tesla scanner at 4 hours following double-dose gadolinium administration. RESULTS: The study included 31 patients, 28 of whom had a clinical diagnosis of Ménière's disease. In unilateral Ménière's disease, magnetic resonance imaging was able to lateralise endolymphatic hydrops to the clinically symptomatic ear in all cases. Mild hydrops was often seen in clinically asymptomatic ears. CONCLUSION: There is a good correlation between the clinical symptoms and lateralisation of hydropic changes on magnetic resonance imaging. Further refinements of imaging techniques and grading system will likely improve the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utilisation of hydrops magnetic resonance imaging.


Assuntos
Hidropisia Endolinfática/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Doença de Meniere/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Gadolínio/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Doença de Meniere/classificação , Doença de Meniere/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Vertigem/diagnóstico , Vertigem/epidemiologia
3.
Anesth Analg ; 130(5): 1244-1254, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular waveforms contain information for clinical diagnosis. By learning and organizing the subtle change of waveform morphology from large amounts of raw waveform data, unsupervised manifold learning helps delineate a high-dimensional structure and display it as a novel 3-dimensional (3D) image. We hypothesize that the shape of this structure conveys clinically relevant inner dynamics information. METHODS: To validate this hypothesis, we investigate the electrocardiography (ECG) waveform for ischemic heart disease and arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform in dynamic vasoactive episodes. We model each beat or pulse to be a point lying on a manifold-like a surface-and use the diffusion map (DMap) to establish the relationship among those pulses. The output of the DMap is converted to a 3D image for visualization. For ECG datasets, first we analyzed the non-ST-elevation ECG waveform distribution from unstable angina to healthy control in the 3D image, and we investigated intraoperative ST-elevation ECG waveforms to show the dynamic ECG waveform changes. For ABP datasets, we analyzed waveforms collected under endotracheal intubation and administration of vasodilator. To quantify the dynamic separation, we applied the support vector machine (SVM) analysis and reported the total accuracy and macro-F1 score. We further performed the trajectory analysis and derived the moving direction of successive beats (or pulses) as vectors in the high-dimensional space. RESULTS: For the non-ST-elevation ECG, a hierarchical tree structure comprising consecutive ECG waveforms spanning from unstable angina to healthy control is presented in the 3D image (accuracy = 97.6%, macro-F1 = 96.1%). The DMap helps quantify and visualize the evolving direction of intraoperative ST-elevation myocardial episode in a 1-hour period (accuracy = 97.58%, macro-F1 = 96.06%). The ABP waveform analysis of Nicardipine administration shows interindividual difference (accuracy = 95.01%, macro-F1 = 96.9%) and their common directions from intraindividual moving trajectories. The dynamic change of the ABP waveform during endotracheal intubation shows a loop-like trajectory structure, which can be further divided using the manifold learning knowledge obtained from Nicardipine. CONCLUSIONS: The DMap and the generated 3D image of ECG or ABP waveforms provides clinically relevant inner dynamics information. It provides clues of acute coronary syndrome diagnosis, shows clinical course in myocardial ischemic episode, and reveals underneath physiological mechanism under stress or vasodilators.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado , Análise de Ondaletas , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230754, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302315

RESUMO

Normal brain segmentation is available via FreeSurfer, Vbm, and Ibaspm software. However, these software packages cannot perform segmentation of the brain for patients with brain tumors. As we know, damage from extracerebral tumors to the brain occurs mainly by way of pushing and compressing while leaving the structure of the brain intact. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging, augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR) technology have begun to be applied in clinical practice. The free medical open-source software 3D Slicer allows us to perform 3D simulations on a computer and requires little user interaction. Moreover, 3D Slicer can integrate with the third-party software mentioned above. The relationship between the tumor and surrounding brain tissue can be judged, but accurate brain segmentation cannot be performed using 3D Slicer. In this study, we combine 3D Slicer and FreeSurfer to provide a novel brain segmentation method for extracerebral tumors. This method can help surgeons identify the "real" relationship between the lesion and adjacent brain tissue before surgery and improve preoperative planning.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Computadores , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador , Realidade Virtual , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(3): e1007747, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231351

RESUMO

Protein structure determines biological function. Accurately conceptualizing 3D protein/ligand structures is thus vital to scientific research and education. Virtual reality (VR) enables protein visualization in stereoscopic 3D, but many VR molecular-visualization programs are expensive and challenging to use; work only on specific VR headsets; rely on complicated model-preparation software; and/or require the user to install separate programs or plugins. Here we introduce ProteinVR, a web-based application that works on various VR setups and operating systems. ProteinVR displays molecular structures within 3D environments that give useful biological context and allow users to situate themselves in 3D space. Our web-based implementation is ideal for hypothesis generation and education in research and large-classroom settings. We release ProteinVR under the open-source BSD-3-Clause license. A copy of the program is available free of charge from http://durrantlab.com/protein-vr/, and a working version can be accessed at http://durrantlab.com/pvr/.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Internet , Proteínas , Realidade Virtual , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/ultraestrutura
6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229441, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214326

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this paper we compared two different 3D ultrasound (US) modes (3D free-hand mode and 3D wobbler mode) to see which is more suitable to perform the 3D-US/3D-US registration for clinical guidance applications. The typical errors with respect to their impact on the final localization error were evaluated step by step. METHODS: Multi-point target and Hand-eye calibration methods were used for 3D US calibration together with a newly designed multi-cone phantom. Pointer based and image based methods were used for 2D US calibration. The calibration target error was computed by using a different multi-cone phantom. An egg-shaped phantom was used as ground truth to compare distortions for both 3D modes along with the measurements of the volume. Finally, we compared 3D ultrasound images acquired by 3D wobbler mode and 3D free-hand mode with respect to their 3D-US/3D-US registration accuracy using both, phantom and patient data. A theoretical step by step error analysis was performed and compared to empirical data. RESULTS: Target registration errors based on the calibration with the 3D Multi-point and 2D pointer/image method have been found to be comparable (∼1mm). They both outperformed the 3D Hand-eye method (error >2mm). Volume measurements with the 3D free-hand mode were closest to the ground truth (around 6% error compared to 9% with the 3D wobbler mode). Additional scans on phantoms showed a 3D-US/3D-US registration error below 1 mm for both, the 3D free-hand mode and the 3D wobbler mode, respectively. Results with patient data showed greater error with the 3D free-hand mode (6.50mm - 13.37mm) than with the 3D wobbler mode (2.99 ± 1.54 mm). All the measured errors were found to be in accordance to their theoretical upper bounds. CONCLUSION: While both 3D volume methods showed comparable results with respect to 3D-US/3D-US registration for phantom images, for patient data registrations the 3D wobbler mode is superior to the 3D free-hand mode. The effect of all error sources could be estimated by theoretical derivations.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Calibragem , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos
7.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1110): 20190039, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip dysplasia are the most common causes of groin pain originating from the hip joint. To date, there is controversy over cut-off values for the evaluation of abnormal femoral head-neck anatomy with significant overlap between the normal and abnormal hips. Our aim was to perform three-dimensional CT analysis of femoral head and bump anatomy to quantify common hip pathologies (FAI and hip dysplasia) vs controls. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent three-dimensional CT imaging for hip dysplasia or CAM type FAI were compared to asymptomatic controls. α angles on radial CT and 3D volumetric femoral head and bump segmentations were performed by two readers. Inter- and intrapatient comparisons were performed including interreader and receiver operating characteristic analyses. RESULTS: 25 FAI patients, 16 hip dysplasia patients and 38 controls were included. FAI and dysplasia patients exhibited higher α angles and higher bump-head volume ratios than the controls (p < 0.05). Larger bump volumes were found among FAI than dysplasia patients and contralateral hips of FAI patients were also different than the controls. α angle at 2 o'clock and bump to head ratio showed the highest area under the curve for patients vs controls. The interreader reliability was better for volumetric segmentation (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.35-0.84) as compared to the α angles (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.11-0.44). CONCLUSION: Patients with FAI and dysplasia exhibit different femoral head anatomy than asymptomatic controls. Volumetric segmentation of femoral head and bump is more reliable and better demonstrates the bilateral femoral head anatomy differences in hip patients vs controls. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Utilizing information from 3D volumetric bump assessment in patients with FAI and dysplasia, the physicians may be able to more objectively and reliably evaluate the altered anatomy for better pre-surgical evaluation.


Assuntos
Impacto Femoroacetabular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabeça do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 214(6): 1229-1238, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purposes of this study were to assess the performance of a 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) for automatic segmentation of prostates on MR images and to compare the volume estimates from the 3D CNN with those of the ellipsoid formula. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The study included 330 MR image sets that were divided into 260 training sets and 70 test sets for automated segmentation of the entire prostate. Among these, 162 training sets and 50 test sets were used for transition zone segmentation. Assisted by manual segmentation by two radiologists, the following values were obtained: estimates of ground-truth volume (VGT), software-derived volume (VSW), mean of VGT and VSW (VAV), and automatically generated volume from the 3D CNN (VNET). These values were compared with the volume calculated with the ellipsoid formula (VEL). RESULTS. The Dice similarity coefficient for the entire prostate was 87.12% and for the transition zone was 76.48%. There was no significant difference between VNET and VAV (p = 0.689) in the test sets of the entire prostate, whereas a significant difference was found between VEL and VAV (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found among the volume estimates in the test sets of the transition zone. Overall intraclass correlation coefficients between the volume estimates were excellent (0.887-0.995). In the test sets of entire prostate, the mean error between VGT and VNET (2.5) was smaller than that between VGT and VEL (3.3). CONCLUSION. The fully automated network studied provides reliable volume estimates of the entire prostate compared with those obtained with the ellipsoid formula. Fast and accurate volume measurement by use of the 3D CNN may help clinicians evaluate prostate disease.


Assuntos
Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 162(6): 922-925, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180502

RESUMO

Mastery of lateral skull base (LSB) surgery requires thorough knowledge of complex, 3-dimensional (3D) microanatomy and techniques. While supervised operation under binocular microscopy remains the training gold standard, concerns over operative time and patient safety often limit novice surgeons' stereoscopic exposure. Furthermore, most alternative educational resources cannot meet this need. Here we present proof of concept for a tool that combines 3D-operative video with an interactive, stereotactic teaching environment. Stereoscopic video was recorded with a microscope during translabyrinthine approaches for vestibular schwannoma. Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) temporal bone computed tomography images were segmented using 3D-Slicer. Files were rendered using a game engine software built for desktop virtual reality. The resulting simulation was an interactive immersion combining a 3D operative perspective from the lead surgeon's chair with virtual reality temporal bone models capable of hands-on manipulation, label toggling, and transparency modification. This novel tool may alter LSB training paradigms.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/educação , Otolaringologia/educação , Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Base do Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230217, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160259

RESUMO

Multifocal microscopy (MFM) offers high-speed three-dimensional imaging through the simultaneous image capture from multiple focal planes. Conventional MFM systems use a fabricated grating in the emission path for a single emission wavelength band and one set of focal plane separations. While a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) can add more flexibility as a replacement to the fabricated grating, the relatively small number of pixels in the SLM chip, cross-talk between the pixels, and aberrations in the imaging system can produce non-uniform intensity in the different axially separated image planes. We present an in situ iterative SLM calibration algorithm that overcomes these optical- and hardware-related limitations to deliver near-uniform intensity across all focal planes. Using immobilized gold nanoparticles under darkfield illumination, we demonstrate superior intensity evenness compared to current methods. We also demonstrate applicability across emission wavelengths, axial plane separations, imaging modalities, SLM settings, and different SLM manufacturers. Therefore, our microscope design and algorithms provide an alternative to the use of fabricated gratings in MFM, as they are relatively simple and could find broad applications in the wider research community.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Algoritmos , Calibragem , Ouro/química , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Luz , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
11.
Radiol Med ; 125(7): 618-624, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166722

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess whether fusion 3D-CTA images can be corrected using non-rigid registration (NRR) for gastroenterology imaging. METHODS: This study included 55 patients before gastroenterology surgery who underwent preoperative 3D-CTA prior to gastroenterological surgery. We recorded the coordinate of measurement points on the arterial vessels (X, Y, and Z) in each portal phase, original image of the arterial phase, and arterial phase with NRR. The distance of misregistration between the two points was calculated with the coordinate of the original image with NRR and that of the portal phase as true value. RESULTS: The distance of misregistration between the two points in the original arterial and portal phase images was significantly higher than that in the arterial phase image with NRR on all directions (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that NRR may correct misregistration on fusion 3D-CTA imaging. Hence, it can visualize correctly the anatomy of the vessel.


Assuntos
Abdome/irrigação sanguínea , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/cirurgia , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1110): 20200047, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of intra- and interfractional motion during breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by calculating dose distribution based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). METHODS: 20 patients diagnosed with left breast cancer were enrolled. Three-dimensional CT (3DCT) along with 10 phases of 4DCT were collected for each patient, with target volumes independently delineated on both 3DCT and all phases of 4DCT. IMRT plans were generated based on 3DCT (43.2 Gy in 16 fractions). The plan parameters for each segment were split into phases based on time duration estimates for each respiratory phase, with phase-specific dose distributions calculated and summated (4D-calculated dose). The procedure is repeated for 16 fractionations by randomly allocating starting phase using random-number generation to simulate interfractional discrepancy caused by different starting phase. Comparisons of plan quality between the original and 4D-calculated doses were analyzed. RESULTS: There was a significant distortion in 4D-calculated dose induced by respiratory motion in terms of conformity and homogeneity index compared to those of the original 3D plan. Mean doses of the heart and the ipsilateral lung were significantly higher in the 4D-calculated doses compared to those of the original 3D plan (0.34 Gy, p = 0.010 and 0.59 Gy, p < 0.001), respectively). The mean internal mammary lymph node (IMN) dose was significantly greater in the 4D-calculated plan, compared to the original 3D plan (1.42 Gy, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: IMN doses should be optimized during the dose-calculation for the free-breathing left breast IMRT. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The interplay effect between respiratory motion and multileaf collimator modulation caused discrepancies in dose distribution, particularly in IMN.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada Quadridimensional , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/radioterapia , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Coração , Humanos , Pulmão , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Movimentos dos Órgãos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Respiração , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/cirurgia
13.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1110): 20190675, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality in virtual monochromatic imaging (VMI) at 40 kilo-electron volts (keV) with three-dimensional iterative image reconstruction (3D-IIR). METHODS: A phantom study and clinical study (31 patients) were performed with dual-energy CT (DECT). VMI at 40 keV was obtained and the images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR), and 3D-IIR. We conducted subjective and objective evaluations of the image quality with each reconstruction technique. RESULTS: The image contrast-to-noise ratio and image noise in both the clinical and phantom studies were significantly better with 3D-IIR than with 50% ASiR, and with 50% ASiR than with FBP (all, p < 0.05). The standard deviation and noise power spectra of the reconstructed images decreased in the order of 3D-IIR to 50% ASiR to FBP, while the modulation transfer function was maintained across the three reconstruction techniques. In most subjective evaluations in the clinical study, the image quality was significantly better with 3D-IIR than with 50% ASiR, and with 50% ASiR than with FBP (all, p < 0.001). Regarding the diagnostic acceptability, all images using 3D-IIR were evaluated as being fully or probably acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of VMI at 40 keV is improved by 3D-IIR, which allows the image noise to be reduced and structural details to be maintained. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The improvement of the image quality of VMI at 40 keV by 3D-IIR may increase the subjective acceptance in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/instrumentação , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/instrumentação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
14.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eMD5223, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049130

RESUMO

Computed tomography with multiple detectors and the advancement of processors improved rendered images and three-dimensional reconstructions in clinical practice. Traditional axial slices form non-intuitive images because they are seen in only one plane. The three-dimensional reconstructions can show structures details and diseases with complex anatomy in different perspectives. Cinematic rendering is a newly three-dimensional reconstruction technique, already approved for clinical use, which can produce realistic images from traditional computed tomography data. The algorithm used is based on light trajectory methods and the global lighting model, which simulate thousands of images from all possible directions. Thus, the technique shapes the physical propagation of light and generates a realistic three-dimensional image with depth, shadows and more anatomic details. It is a multidimensional rendering acquired through complex lighting effects. The aim of this article was to show the advance of three-dimensional technology with the cinematic rendering in images exams of the thoracic wall.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Sarcoma Sinovial/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Parede Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Algoritmos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sarcoma Sinovial/secundário , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
15.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(3): 272-274, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implantation of bone-anchored hearing devices is performed to improve hearing in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media who cannot wear a conventional hearing aid. The surgical procedure can be safely performed in children aged over five years. CASE REPORT: A 15-year-old patient with bilateral chronic suppurative otitis media and conductive hearing loss underwent the procedure to implant a bone-anchored hearing device but was found to have skull thickness of less than 2.5 mm and the procedure was abandoned. A computed tomography scan of the skull was undertaken and a three-dimensional template was reconstructed to identify appropriate thickness of the skull to implant the abutment during a second procedure. CONCLUSION: Bone-anchored hearing devices can be implanted by prior imaging and using a template to identify the area of appropriate skull thickness to implant the abutment safely.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva Condutiva/cirurgia , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Otite Média Supurativa/cirurgia , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Adolescente , Condução Óssea , Perda Auditiva Condutiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda Auditiva Condutiva/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Otite Média Supurativa/complicações , Otite Média Supurativa/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 58(2): 305-327, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044009

RESUMO

Reporting MR imaging of pelvic floor dysfunction can be made easy if radiologists understand the aim of each MR sequence and what to report in each set of MR images. For an MR imaging report that is critical in decision making for patient management, it is of paramount importance to the radiologist to know what to look for and where to look for it. This article presents a new term, integrated MR analytical approach. A reporting template is included in which all MR findings are presented in a schematic form that can be easily interpreted by clinicians from different subspecialties.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/tendências , Diafragma da Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Diafragma da Pelve/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/fisiopatologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229656, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106234

RESUMO

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Although muscle mass strongly influences performance, there is currently no effective means to measure the 3-dimensional muscle mass of horses. We evaluated a 3-dimensional (3D) scanning methodology for its ability to quantify torso and hindquarter volumes as a proxy for regional muscle mass in horses. OBJECTIVES: Determine the repeatability of 3D scanning volume (V) measurements and their correlation to body weight, estimated body volume and muscle/fat ultrasound (US) depth. METHODS: Handheld 3D photonic scans were performed on 16 Quarter Horses of known body weight 56 days apart (n = 32 scans) with each scan performed in duplicate (n = 32 replicates). Tail head fat, gluteal and longissimus dorsi muscle depths were measured using US. Processed scans were cropped to isolate hindquarter (above hock, caudal to tuber coxae) and torso (hindquarter plus dorsal thoracolumbar region) segments and algorithms used to calculate V. Torso and hindquarter volume were correlated with body weight and US using Pearson's correlation and with estimated torso volume (50% body weight / body density) with Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS: Scans took 2 min with < 3.5% error for duplicate scans. Torso volume (R = 0.90, P< 0.001) and hindquarter volume (R = 0.82, P< 0.001) strongly correlated with body weight and estimated BV (R = 0.91) with low bias. Torso volume moderately correlated to mean muscle US depth (R = 0.4, P< 0.05) and tail head fat (R = 0.42, P< 0.01). Mean muscle US depth moderately correlated to body weight (R = 0.50, P< 0.01). MAIN LIMITATIONS: 3D Scans determine body volume not muscle volume. CONCLUSIONS: The hand-held 3D scan provided a rapid repeatable assessment of torso and hindquarter volume strongly correlated to body weight and estimated volume. Superimposition of regional scans and volume measures could provide a practical means to follow muscle development when tail head fat depth remain constant.


Assuntos
Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/veterinária , Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Músculos/anatomia & histologia , Dispositivos Ópticos/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 887, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060305

RESUMO

The molecular organization of receptors in the plasma membrane of cells is paramount for their functionality. We combined lattice light-sheet (LLS) microscopy with three-dimensional (3D) single-molecule localization microscopy (dSTORM) and single-particle tracking to quantify the expression and distribution, and mobility of CD56 receptors on whole fixed and living cells, finding that CD56 accumulated at cell-cell interfaces. For comparison, we investigated two other receptors, CD2 and CD45, which showed different expression levels and distributions in the plasma membrane. Overall, 3D-LLS-dSTORM enabled imaging and single-particle tracking of plasma membrane receptors with single-molecule sensitivity unperturbed by surface effects. Our results demonstrate that receptor distribution and mobility are largely unaffected by contact to the coverslip but the measured localization densities are in general lower at the basal plasma membrane due to partial limited accessibility for antibodies.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD2/metabolismo , Antígeno CD56/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Antígenos CD2/química , Antígeno CD56/química , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/química , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/química
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(9): 4781-4791, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071242

RESUMO

Numerous hypotheses invoke tissue stiffness as a key parameter that regulates morphogenesis and disease progression. However, current methods are insufficient to test hypotheses that concern physical properties deep in living tissues. Here we introduce, validate, and apply a magnetic device that generates a uniform magnetic field gradient within a space that is sufficient to accommodate an organ-stage mouse embryo under live conditions. The method allows rapid, nontoxic measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of viscoelastic properties within mesenchyme and epithelia. Using the device, we identify an anteriorly biased mesodermal stiffness gradient along which cells move to shape the early limb bud. The stiffness gradient corresponds to a Wnt5a-dependent domain of fibronectin expression, raising the possibility that durotaxis underlies cell movements. Three-dimensional stiffness mapping enables the generation of hypotheses and potentially the rigorous testing of mechanisms of development and disease.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Botões de Extremidades/diagnóstico por imagem , Botões de Extremidades/fisiologia , Mesoderma/fisiologia , Camundongos/embriologia , Animais , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Epitélio , Fibronectinas , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Morfogênese , Proteína Wnt-5a
20.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(3): 514e-523e, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The three-dimensional surface imaging system is becoming more common in plastic surgeries. However, few studies have assessed three-dimensional periocular structures and surgical outcomes. This study aimed to propose a standardized three-dimensional anthropometric protocol for the periocular region, investigate its precision and accuracy, and determine the three-dimensional periocular anthropometric norms for young Caucasians. METHODS: Thirty-nine healthy young Caucasians (78 eyes) were enrolled. Three-dimensional facial images were obtained with a VECTRA M3 stereophotogrammetry device. Thirty-eight measurements in periocular regions were obtained from these images. Every subject underwent facial surface capture twice to evaluate its precision. A paper ruler was applied to assess its accuracy. RESULTS: Sixty-three percent of measurements in linear distances, curvatures, angles, and indices were found to reach a statistically significant difference between sexes (p ≤ 0.05, respectively). Across all measurements, the average mean absolute difference was 0.29 mm in linear dimensions, 0.56 mm in curvatures, 1.67 degrees in angles, and 0.02 in indices. In relative error of magnitude, 18 percent of the measurements were determined excellent, 51 percent very good, 31 percent good, and none moderate. The mean value of the paper-ruler scale was 10.01 ± 0.05 mm, the mean absolute difference value 0.02 mm, and the relative error of magnitude 0.17 percent. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to propose a detailed and standardized three-dimensional anthropometric protocol for the periocular region and confirm its high precision and accuracy. The results provided novel metric data concerning young Caucasian periocular anthropometry and determined the variability between sexes.


Assuntos
Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Antropometria/métodos , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Fotogrametria/métodos , Adulto , Antropometria/instrumentação , Estética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/normas , Masculino , Fotogrametria/instrumentação , Fotogrametria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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