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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(12): 128101, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016741

RESUMO

The efficiency of a virus to establish its infection in host cells varies broadly among viruses. It remains unclear if there is a key step in this process that controls viral infectivity. To address this question, we use single-particle tracking and Brownian dynamics simulation to examine human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in cell culture. We find that the frequency of viral-cell encounters is consistent with diffusion-limited interactions. However, even under the most favorable conditions, only 1% of the viruses can become immobilized on cell surface and subsequently enter the cell. This is a result of weak interaction between viral surface gp120 and CD4 receptor, which is insufficient to form a stable complex the majority of the time. We provide the first direct quantitation for efficiencies of these events relevant to measured HIV-1 infectivity and demonstrate that immobilization on host cell surface post-virion-diffusion is the key step in viral infection. Variation of its probability controls the efficiency of a virus to infect its host cells. These results explain the low infectivity of cell-free HIV-1 in vitro and offer a potential rationale for the pervasive high efficiency of cell-to-cell transmission of animal viruses.


Assuntos
HIV-1/patogenicidade , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Imagem Óptica , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo , Vírion/metabolismo , Vírion/patogenicidade
2.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899484

RESUMO

Hybrid nanoparticles from lipidic and polymeric components were assembled to serve as vehicles for the transfection of messenger RNA (mRNA) using different portions of the cationic lipid DOTAP (1,2-Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) and the cationic biopolymer protamine as model systems. Two different sequential assembly approaches in comparison with a direct single-step protocol were applied, and molecular organization in correlation with biological activity of the resulting nanoparticle systems was investigated. Differences in the structure of the nanoparticles were revealed by thorough physicochemical characterization including small angle neutron scattering (SANS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). All hybrid systems, combining lipid and polymer, displayed significantly increased transfection in comparison to lipid/mRNA and polymer/mRNA particles alone. For the hybrid nanoparticles, characteristic differences regarding the internal organization, release characteristics, and activity were determined depending on the assembly route. The systems with the highest transfection efficacy were characterized by a heterogenous internal organization, accompanied by facilitated release. Such a system could be best obtained by the single step protocol, starting with a lipid and polymer mixture for nanoparticle formation.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/química , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transfecção/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/química , Feminino , Heparina/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Imagem Óptica , Tamanho da Partícula , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , RNA Mensageiro/química
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5823-5828, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988911

RESUMO

AIM: Our aim was to confirm the utility of Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging for intraoperative detection of adrenal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. CASE REPORT: An 83-year-old man with a right adrenal HCC metastasis was admitted after complete remission of primary HCC and a metachronous left adrenal metastasis. He was treated with ICG fluorescence-guided limited resection to preserve adrenal function. ICG was administered intravenously at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, 6 days before the operation. After removal of the entire suspicious metastatic HCC, ICG fluorescence imaging clearly demonstrated two illuminated lesions. The lesions were separately resected using an energy device. Finally, there were no ICG fluorescent lesions which meant residual tumor. Histopathological examination confirmed adrenal metastasis of moderately differentiated HCC in the initial specimen and the additional resected specimens. Three months after the operation, adrenal function was well preserved without recurrence of HCC. CONCLUSION: ICG fluorescence imaging is essential for complete resection of adrenal HCC metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/cirurgia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Imagem Óptica , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/secundário , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia
4.
Sci Adv ; 6(36)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917603

RESUMO

Mandates for mask use in public during the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, worsened by global shortage of commercial supplies, have led to widespread use of homemade masks and mask alternatives. It is assumed that wearing such masks reduces the likelihood for an infected person to spread the disease, but many of these mask designs have not been tested in practice. We have demonstrated a simple optical measurement method to evaluate the efficacy of masks to reduce the transmission of respiratory droplets during regular speech. In proof-of-principle studies, we compared a variety of commonly available mask types and observed that some mask types approach the performance of standard surgical masks, while some mask alternatives, such as neck gaiters or bandanas, offer very little protection. Our measurement setup is inexpensive and can be built and operated by nonexperts, allowing for rapid evaluation of mask performance during speech, sneezing, or coughing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Filtração/estatística & dados numéricos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Imagem Óptica , Respiração , Fala
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4854, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978383

RESUMO

Chronic imaging of neuronal networks in vitro has provided fundamental insights into mechanisms underlying neuronal function. Current labeling and optical imaging methods, however, cannot be used for continuous and long-term recordings of the dynamics and evolution of neuronal networks, as fluorescent indicators can cause phototoxicity. Here, we introduce a versatile platform for label-free, comprehensive and detailed electrophysiological live-cell imaging of various neurogenic cells and tissues over extended time scales. We report on a dual-mode high-density microelectrode array, which can simultaneously record in (i) full-frame mode with 19,584 recording sites and (ii) high-signal-to-noise mode with 246 channels. We set out to demonstrate the capabilities of this platform with recordings from primary and iPSC-derived neuronal cultures and tissue preparations over several weeks, providing detailed morpho-electrical phenotypic parameters at subcellular, cellular and network level. Moreover, we develop reliable analysis tools, which drastically increase the throughput to infer axonal morphology and conduction speed.


Assuntos
Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Animais , Axônios , Encéfalo , Células Cultivadas , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Camundongos , Microeletrodos , Modelos Animais , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Gravação em Vídeo
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008198, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931495

RESUMO

Calcium imaging with fluorescent protein sensors is widely used to record activity in neuronal populations. The transform between neural activity and calcium-related fluorescence involves nonlinearities and low-pass filtering, but the effects of the transformation on analyses of neural populations are not well understood. We compared neuronal spikes and fluorescence in matched neural populations in behaving mice. We report multiple discrepancies between analyses performed on the two types of data, including changes in single-neuron selectivity and population decoding. These were only partially resolved by spike inference algorithms applied to fluorescence. To model the relation between spiking and fluorescence we simultaneously recorded spikes and fluorescence from individual neurons. Using these recordings we developed a model transforming spike trains to synthetic-imaging data. The model recapitulated the differences in analyses. Our analysis highlights challenges in relating electrophysiology and imaging data, and suggests forward modeling as an effective way to understand differences between these data.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Neurônios , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Lobo Frontal/citologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Imagem Óptica
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236283, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764794

RESUMO

Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in which local inflammation and hyperactivity of the complement pathway have been implicated in its pathophysiology. This study explores whether any surrogate biomarkers are specifically associated with GA. Plasma from subjects with GA, intermediate dry AMD and non-AMD control were evaluated in 2 cohorts. Cohort 1 was assayed in a 320-analyte Luminex library. Statistical analysis was performed using non-parametric and parametric methods (Kruskal-Wallis, principal component analysis, partial least squares and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and univariate ANCOVAs). Bioinformatic analysis was conducted and identified connections to the amyloid pathway. Statistically significant biomarkers identified in Cohort 1 were then re-evaluated in Cohort 2 using individual ELISA and multiplexing. Of 320 analytes in Cohort 1, 273 were rendered measurable, of which 56 were identified as changing. Among these markers, 40 were identified in univariate ANCOVAs. Serum amyloid precursor protein (sAPP) was analyzed by a separate ELISA and included in further analyses. The 40 biomarkers, sAPP and amyloid-ß (Aß) (1-42) (included for comparison) were evaluated in Cohort 2. This resulted in 11 statistically significant biomarkers, including sAPP and Aß(1-40), but not Aß(1-42). Other biomarkers identified included serum proteases- tissue plasminogen activator, tumor-associated trypsinogen inhibitor, matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 9, and non-proteases- insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6, AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, omentin, pentraxin-3 and osteopontin. Findings suggest that there is a preferential processing of APP to Aß(1-40) over Aß(1-42), and a potential role for the carboxylase activity of the γ-secretase protein, which preferentially splices sAPPß to Aß(1-40). Other markers are associated with the breakdown and remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and loss of homeostasis, possibly within the photoreceptor-retinal pigment epithelium-choriocapillaris complex. These data suggest novel disease pathways associated with GA pathogenesis and could provide potential novel targets for treatment of GA.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Atrofia Geográfica/sangue , Degeneração Macular/complicações , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Atrofia Geográfica/diagnóstico , Atrofia Geográfica/etiologia , Atrofia Geográfica/patologia , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/sangue , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Óptica , Transdução de Sinais , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4052, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792510

RESUMO

Turn-on fluorescence imaging is routinely studied; however, turn-on chemiluminescence has been rarely explored for in vivo imaging. Herein, we report the design and validation of chemiluminescence probe ADLumin-1 as a turn-on probe for amyloid beta (Aß) species. Two-photon imaging indicates that ADLumin-1 can efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier and provides excellent contrast for Aß plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In vivo brain imaging shows that the chemiluminescence signal of ADLumin-1 from 5-month-old transgenic 5xFAD mice is 1.80-fold higher than that from the age-matched wild-type mice. Moreover, we demonstrate that it is feasible to further dually-amplify signal via chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (DAS-CRET) using two non-conjugated smart probes (ADLumin-1 and CRANAD-3) in solutions, brain homogenates, and in vivo whole brain imaging. Our results show that DAS-CRET can provide a 2.25-fold margin between 5-month-old 5xFAD mice and wild type mice. We believe that our strategy could be extended to other aggregating-prone proteins.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Luminescência , Animais , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Camundongos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Agregados Proteicos
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3881, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753572

RESUMO

Cells typically respond to chemical or physical perturbations via complex signaling cascades which can simultaneously affect multiple physiological parameters, such as membrane voltage, calcium, pH, and redox potential. Protein-based fluorescent sensors can report many of these parameters, but spectral overlap prevents more than ~4 modalities from being recorded in parallel. Here we introduce the technique, MOSAIC, Multiplexed Optical Sensors in Arrayed Islands of Cells, where patterning of fluorescent sensor-encoding lentiviral vectors with a microarray printer enables parallel recording of multiple modalities. We demonstrate simultaneous recordings from 20 sensors in parallel in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), and we describe responses to metabolic and pharmacological perturbations. Together, these results show that MOSAIC can provide rich multi-modal data on complex physiological responses in multiple cell types.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Cálcio/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Propanolaminas/farmacologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236397, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756566

RESUMO

Self-contained imaging systems are versatile instruments that are becoming a staple in cell culture laboratories. Many of these machines possess motorized stages and on-stage incubators that permit programmable imaging of live cells that make them a sensible tool for high-throughput applications. The EVOS imaging system is such a device and is capable of scanning multi-well dishes and stitching together multiple adjacent fields to produce coherent individual images of each well. Automated batch analysis and quantification of these tiled images does however require off-loading files to other software platforms. Our initial attempts to quantify tiled images captured on an EVOS device was plagued by some expected-and other unforeseeable-issues that arose at nearly every stage of analysis. These included: high background, illumination and stitching artifacts, low contrast, noise, focus inconsistencies, and image distortion-all of which negatively impacted processing efficiency. We have since overcome these obstacles and have created a rigorous cell counting pipeline for analyzing images captured by the EVOS scan function. We present development and optimization of this automated pipeline and submit it as an effective and facile tool for accurately counting cells from tiled images.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Rastreamento de Células/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Software , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Imagem Óptica/métodos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834009

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential insights into the pathogenesis of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) using multimodal diagnostic imaging and laboratory evaluation in long-term follow-up. A retrospective, single-center case series was conducted on seven consecutive patients (14 eyes) who were given a diagnosis of APMPPE from March 1, 2011, through June 30, 2019 with at least three months of follow-up. Clinical characteristics (age, symptoms, visual acuity [VA]), laboratory testing including coxsackievirus titers, and multimodal imaging from fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICG) were analyzed for each patient. The initial median VA was 20/71 and final median VA was 20/22. Coxsackievirus B (CVB) titers were elevated (≥ 1:80) in six of seven patients, with a four-fold increase in convalescent titers seen in two patients suggestive of recent infection. All patients were treated with oral corticosteroids, and five patients underwent corticosteroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy. Initially, multifocal deep choroidal lesions were observed in the posterior pole corresponding to patches of hypocyanescence on ICG. Overlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) disease was observed on FAF, although this finding was not universally observed, suggesting that RPE disease may occur as a sequelae to unchecked choroidal inflammation. SD-OCT architectural changes confirmed outer retina and ellipsoid zone disruption. FA of active lesions showed early hypofluorescence and late hyperfluorescence with surrounding leakage while inactive disease showed areas of staining. Long-term follow-up of multimodal diagnostic imaging in APMPPE revealed that choroidal inflammation likely precedes RPE change and photoreceptor damage. Elevation of coxsackievirus titers with seroconversion may be associated with an infectious trigger in concert with immune-mediated disease in this posterior uveitis syndrome.


Assuntos
Enterovirus/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Coroidite Multifocal/diagnóstico por imagem , Coroidite Multifocal/virologia , Imagem Multimodal , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Retinianas/virologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Óptica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237878, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833966

RESUMO

Land subsidence monitoring provides information required when developing land use plans and allows for proactive management of subsidence issues. However, it has been challenging to accurately detect land subsidence areas, especially those under waterbodies. This study evaluated the applicability of integrated use of the optical Landsat-8 OLI and microwave Sentinel-1A TOPSAR imagery to delineate subsidence areas and quantify subsidence rates in a typical coal mining area of North China Plain. An Enhanced Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (E-MNDWI) was combined with Short BAseline Subset-Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SBAS-InSAR) image to monitor underwater and dry ground subsidence. The results demonstrated that the method could delineate underwater and dry ground subsidence and quantify its rates accurately. The proposed method estimated subsidence area corresponded to 34.8% (16.7 km2) of the study area. The size of underwater subsidence areas was substantial and accounted for 43.7% of the subsidence areas. Seasonal underwater subsidence areas were generally distributed in the vicinity of perennial ones. Dry ground subsidence covered 9.4 km2 of the study area and generally occurred in urban and rural residential areas with the maximum subsidence of up to 80.1 mm/year. This study demonstrates the efficiency and capacity of integrating optical and microwave images to monitor the subsidence progresses, which thus can help develop effective rehabilitation policy and strategy to mitigate the impacts of land subsidence.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea , China , Geografia , Micro-Ondas , Imagem Óptica , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Imagens de Satélites
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4192, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826886

RESUMO

Bioluminescence imaging has been widely used in life sciences and biomedical applications. However, conventional bioluminescence imaging usually operates in the visible region, which hampers the high-performance in vivo optical imaging due to the strong tissue absorption and scattering. To address this challenge, here we present bioluminescence probes (BPs) with emission in the second near infrared (NIR-II) region at 1029 nm by employing bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and two-step fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) with a specially designed cyanine dye FD-1029. The biocompatible NIR-II-BPs are successfully applied to vessels and lymphatics imaging in mice, which gives ~5 times higher signal-to-noise ratios and ~1.5 times higher spatial resolution than those obtained by NIR-II fluorescence imaging and conventional bioluminescence imaging. Their capability of multiplexed imaging is also well displayed. Taking advantage of the ATP-responding character, the NIR-II-BPs are able to recognize tumor metastasis with a high tumor-to-normal tissue ratio at 83.4.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Metástase Neoplásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes/instrumentação , Camundongos , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4289-4309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606678

RESUMO

Objective: To construct prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting, indocyanine green (ICG)-loaded nanobubbles (NBs) for multimodal (ultrasound, photoacoustic and fluorescence) imaging of prostate cancer. Methods: The mechanical oscillation method was used to prepare ICG-loaded photoacoustic NBs (ICG NBs). Then, PSMA-binding peptides were connected to the surface of ICG NBs using the biotin-avidin method to make targeted photoacoustic NBs, namely, PSMAP/ICG NBs. Their particle sizes, zeta potentials, and in vitro ultrasound, photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging were examined. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry were used to detect the binding ability of the PSMAP/ICG NBs to PSMA-positive LNCaP cells, C4-2 cells, and PSMA-negative PC-3 cells. The multimodal imaging effects of PSMAP/ICG NBs and ICG NBs were compared in nude mouse tumor xenografts. Results: The particle size of the PSMAP/ICG NBs was approximately 457.7 nm, and the zeta potential was approximately -23.5 mV. Both confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed that the PSMAP/ICG NBs could specifically bind to both LNCaP and C4-2 cells, but they rarely bound to PC-3 cells. The ultrasound, photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging intensities of the PSMAP/ICG NBs in vitro positively correlated with their concentrations. The ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging effects of the PSMAP/ICG NBs in LNCaP and C4-2 tumor xenografts were significantly enhanced compared with those in PC-3 tumor xenografts, which were characterized by a significantly increased duration of ultrasound enhancement and heightened photoacoustic signal intensity (P < 0.05). Fluorescence imaging showed that PSMAP/ICG NBs could accumulate in LNCaP and C4-2 tumor xenografts for a relatively long period. Conclusion: The targeted photoacoustic nanobubbles prepared in this study can specifically bind to PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells and have the ability to enhance ultrasound, photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging of PSMA-positive tumor xenografts. Photoacoustic imaging could visually display the intensity of the red photoacoustic signal in the tumor region, providing a more intuitive imaging modality for targeted molecular imaging. This study presents a potential multimodal contrast agent for the accurate diagnosis and assessment of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Verde de Indocianina/química , Nanopartículas/química , Imagem Óptica , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meios de Contraste/química , Fluorescência , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Ligação Proteica
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3418, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647286

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of antiviral drug-resistant viruses have been a worldwide challenge and a great concern for patient care. We report A4 antibody specifically recognizing and binding to the mutant I223R/H275Y neuraminidase and prove the applicability of A4 antibody for direct detection of antiviral multidrug-resistant viruses in various sensing platforms, including naked-eye detection, surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based immunoassay, and lateral flow system. The development of the A4 antibody enables fast, simple, and reliable point-of-care assays of antiviral multidrug-resistant influenza viruses. In addition to current influenza virus infection testing methods that do not provide information on the antiviral drug-resistance of the virus, diagnostic tests for antiviral multidrug-resistant viruses will improve clinical judgment in the treatment of influenza virus infections, avoid the unnecessary prescription of ineffective drugs, and improve current therapies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/imunologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Mutação/genética , Neuraminidase/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Afinidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Cães , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/enzimologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/enzimologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Imagem Óptica , Ligação Proteica , Análise Espectral Raman
17.
World Neurosurg ; 139: 775-788, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689698

RESUMO

Technical limitations and clinical challenges have historically limited the diagnostic tools and treatment methods available for surgical approaches to the management of epilepsy. By contrast, recent technological innovations in several areas hold significant promise in improving outcomes and decreasing morbidity. We review innovations in the neurosurgical management of epilepsy in several areas, including wireless recording and stimulation systems (particularly responsive neurostimulation [NeuroPace]), conformal electrodes for high-resolution electrocorticography, robot-assisted stereotactic surgery, optogenetics and optical imaging methods, novel positron emission tomography ligands, and new applications of focused ultrasonography. Investigation into genetic causes of and susceptibilities to epilepsy has introduced a new era of precision medicine, enabling the understanding of cell signaling mechanisms underlying epileptic activity as well as patient-specific molecularly targeted treatment options. We discuss the emerging path to individualized treatment plans, predicted outcomes, and improved selection of effective interventions, on the basis of these developments.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Invenções , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/terapia , Eletrocorticografia , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Neuroestimuladores Implantáveis , Imagem Óptica , Optogenética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Medicina de Precisão , Implantação de Prótese , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Tecnologia sem Fio
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17260-17268, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632007

RESUMO

Understanding how a network of interconnected neurons receives, stores, and processes information in the human brain is one of the outstanding scientific challenges of our time. The ability to reliably detect neuroelectric activities is essential to addressing this challenge. Optical recording using voltage-sensitive fluorescent probes has provided unprecedented flexibility for choosing regions of interest in recording neuronal activities. However, when recording at a high frame rate such as 500 to 1,000 Hz, fluorescence-based voltage sensors often suffer from photobleaching and phototoxicity, which limit the recording duration. Here, we report an approach called electrochromic optical recording (ECORE) that achieves label-free optical recording of spontaneous neuroelectrical activities. ECORE utilizes the electrochromism of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) thin films, whose optical absorption can be modulated by an applied voltage. Being based on optical reflection instead of fluorescence, ECORE offers the flexibility of an optical probe without suffering from photobleaching or phototoxicity. Using ECORE, we optically recorded spontaneous action potentials in cardiomyocytes, cultured hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion neurons, and brain slices. With minimal perturbation to cells, ECORE allows long-term optical recording over multiple days.


Assuntos
Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Poliestirenos , Tiofenos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Corantes Fluorescentes , Gânglios Espinais/citologia , Gânglios Espinais/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem Óptica , Óptica e Fotônica/métodos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236245, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706818

RESUMO

We have previously demonstrated that endothelial targeting of gold nanoparticles followed by external beam irradiation can cause specific tumor vascular disruption in mouse models of cancer. The induced vascular damage may lead to changes in tumor physiology, including tumor hypoxia, thereby compromising future therapeutic interventions. In this study, we investigate the dynamic changes in tumor hypoxia mediated by targeted gold nanoparticles and clinical radiation therapy (RT). By using noninvasive whole-body fluorescence imaging, tumor hypoxia was measured at baseline, on day 2 and day 13, post-tumor vascular disruption. A 2.5-fold increase (P<0.05) in tumor hypoxia was measured two days after combined therapy, resolving by day 13. In addition, the combination of vascular-targeted gold nanoparticles and radiation therapy resulted in a significant (P<0.05) suppression of tumor growth. This is the first study to demonstrate the tumor hypoxic physiological response and recovery after delivery of vascular-targeted gold nanoparticles followed by clinical radiation therapy in a human non-small cell lung cancer athymic Foxn1nu mouse model.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia Tumoral , Células A549 , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/irrigação sanguínea , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Hipóxia Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Tumoral/efeitos da radiação , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Science ; 368(6496): 1265-1269, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527834

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas systems provide versatile tools for programmable genome editing. Here, we developed a caged RNA strategy that allows Cas9 to bind DNA but not cleave until light-induced activation. This approach, referred to as very fast CRISPR (vfCRISPR), creates double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the submicrometer and second scales. Synchronized cleavage improved kinetic analysis of DNA repair, revealing that cells respond to Cas9-induced DSBs within minutes and can retain MRE11 after DNA ligation. Phosphorylation of H2AX after DNA damage propagated more than 100 kilobases per minute, reaching up to 30 megabases. Using single-cell fluorescence imaging, we characterized multiple cycles of 53BP1 repair foci formation and dissolution, with the first cycle taking longer than subsequent cycles and its duration modulated by inhibition of repair. Imaging-guided subcellular Cas9 activation further facilitated genomic manipulation with single-allele resolution. vfCRISPR enables DNA-repair studies at high resolution in space, time, and genomic coordinates.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Clivagem do DNA/efeitos da radiação , Reparo do DNA/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Células HEK293 , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Luz , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11/genética , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Fosforilação
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