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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17287, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574848

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that mental health is associated with multiple factors such as physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical function in older adults. The present study used latent profile analysis to identify classes of older adults based on their health profile among a representative sample of Korean older adults with hypertension. Differences in mental health between these classes were also examined.Seven hundred and sixty seven participants (mean age = 70.23, SD = 6.08; men 45.6%) were included in the analysis.There were 3 latent classes (class 1: a physically inactive lifestyle with low physical function and body perception; class 2: a physically moderate lifestyle with moderate physical function and low body perception; class 3: a physically active lifestyle with high physical function and body perception). According to class comparisons, older adults in class 3 had significantly lower anxiety/depression levels than classes 1 and 2. Older adults in class 3 had significantly lower stress levels than class 1.It is possible that among older adults, having a positive attitude of one's body shape may also be important for improving anxiety/depression along with having a physically active lifestyle and maintaining physical function.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Força da Mão , Hipertensão/psicologia , Postura Sentada , Caminhada , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Percepção , República da Coreia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
2.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 66(5): 20-25, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549377

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a basic self-disturbance that in its early stages causes the sufferer discomfort toward feelings of self. Therefore, fragility or abnormality with regard to sense of self was a core observation of early schizophrenia theory. Rather than body-image-related depression or anorexia, disturbed body experience is the main factor affecting body image in patients with schizophrenia. This is a concept that has been discussed in the literature in recent years. This article will introduce the body self model, discuss the schizophrenic symptoms that influence experienced body disturbances and reduce body self-functions, and explore the relationship between body identity and body image. In order to improve the body image of patients with schizophrenia, it is necessary to conduct assessments and interventions that enhance the sense of body identity.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/enfermagem , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Humanos
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 406-410, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery or reconstructive body contouring surgery performed after weight loss, has the potential to have a major impact one's body image, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and mental wellbeing. Many researches show interest in measuring this impact using generic instruments that unfortunately are not specifically oriented toward bariatric or surgery patients. The BODY-Q is a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument designed to measure patient perceptions of weight loss and/or body contouring. In this article, we describe the methods used to translate and culturally adapt the French version of the BODY-Q. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We followed the recommendation for translation process established by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcome Research (ISPOR) and the World Health Organisation (WHO). This process included two forward translations, one backward translation, a review by a panel of expert and cognitive debriefing interviews with patient. Our aim was to ensure a conceptual and culturally valid translation. RESULTS: This translation process led to a conceptually and culturally equivalent French version of the Body-Q. Backward translation comparison to the English original version led to the identification of 16 differences necessitating re-translation. The expert panel offered support to identify inadequate expressions and proposed changes to the translations. The cognitive debriefing interviews with 15 patients contributed to minor changes in the translation. CONCLUSIONS: This thorough method of translation and cultural adaptation allowed us to develop a conceptually and culturally valid French translation of the BODY-Q.


Assuntos
Contorno Corporal/psicologia , Linguística , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Traduções , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Competência Cultural , França , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Perda de Peso
4.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(3): 344-348, jul.-sep. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047150

RESUMO

Introdução: A maior exposição nas mídias sociais gerou uma maior autoavaliação e a consequente busca pela aparência ideal. Dessa forma, a motivação de utilizar métodos cirúrgicos para melhora da aparência física cresce exponencialmente. Métodos: Foram distribuídos 3 questionários para 64 alunos: "Body Shape Questionnaire" (BSQ), "Escala de Investimento Corporal" (EIC) e "Questionário de interesse em cirurgias plásticas futuras" (QICPF). A partir da tabulação dos dados, foi realizada a análise estatística quantitativa por meio do teste qui-quadrado e risco relativo, para estudo objetivo e cruzado dos questionários. Resultados: O BSQ médio foi de 98,04, a relação de maior pontuação nesse questionário com QIRCP apresentou Risco Relativo (RR=2,41 e p=0,002). A média do EIC foi de 91 e, quando relacionado com QIRCP, não se apresentou estatisticamente relevante (RR=0,94 e p=0,83). Quanto à pergunta objetiva de satisfação corporal e o QIRCP, nota-se que a maior insatisfação corporal é fator de risco para querer realizar mais cirurgias plásticas (RR=1,94 e p=0,003) e as mulheres apresentam-se como o gênero de maior interesse (RR=3,01 e p=0,01). Conclusões: A análise estatística para a população estudada sugere que BSQ elevado, insatisfação corporal e mulheres apresentam maior interesse em realizar cirurgia plástica.


Introduction: Social media has generated an increase in selfevaluation and the search for the ideal appearance. Thus, the motivation to use surgical methods to improve physical appearance has grown exponentially. Methods: The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Body Investment Scale (BIS), and Questionnaire of Interest in Future Plastic Surgeries (QIFPS) were administered to 64 students. Once the data were collected, a quantitative statistical analysis using the chi-square test and relative risk (RR) was conducted. Results: The BSQ mean was 98.04, the relation of greater punctuation in this questionnaire with QIFPS presented an RR of 2.41; (p = 0.002). The mean BIS score was 91; compared to the QIFPS, it was not statistically relevant (RR = 0.94; p = 0.83). Regarding the objective question of body satisfaction and QIFPS, highest body dissatisfaction was a risk factor for desiring more plastic surgeries (RR = 1.94; p = 0.003), as was female sex (RR = 3.01; p = 0.01). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a high BSQ score, high body dissatisfaction, and female sex are risk factors for a desire to undergo plastic surgery.


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XXI , Satisfação Pessoal , Cirurgia Plástica , Imagem Corporal , Análise Estatística , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estética , Aparência Física , Cirurgia Plástica/psicologia , Cirurgia Plástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Plástica/ética , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Estética/psicologia
5.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Over the past decade, overweight and childhood obesity has increased markedly, and children are therefore dissatisfied with their body image due to the beauty canons established in today's society. The purpose of this paper was to examine the level of obesity and body satisfaction based on sociodemographic and contextual variables of the educational center as well as the relationship they have with the physical self-concept on a sample of primary school and compulsory secondary school students city of Badajoz. METHODS: The instruments used in the study were the questionnaire of Physical Self-concept (CAF) and questionnaire of Bodily Silhouettes. RESULTS: The study involved 1,093 schoolchildren aged between 11 and 14 years old (M = 11.6) from 19 educational centers. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high percentage of overweight students (20%) and a high percentage of satisfied students with their body image (79%). Regarding the relationship between the level of obesity and body satisfaction with sociodemographic and contextual variables we can see how obesity presents significant differences depending on the nature of the center and the educational offer. On the other hand, the correlation analyzes carried out reveal significant differences between the level of obesity and body dissatisfaction with some scales of physical self-concept. You can also observe significant differences between the level of obesity of the school with body dissatisfaction (more cases than expected of students satisfied with their body image with normal weight and fewer cases than expected of students satisfied with their body image with overweight and obesity).


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Peso Corporal , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Body Image ; 30: 170-211, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394462

RESUMO

This systematic review synthesizes and critically appraises measurement properties of influential body image measures. Eight measures that met the definition of an assessment of body image (i.e., an individual's cognitive or affective evaluation of their body or appearance with a positive or negative valence), and scored high on systematic expert priority ranking, were included. These measures were: the Body Appreciation Scale (original BAS and BAS-2), the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults, the Body Shape Questionnaire, the Centre for Appearance Research Valence Scale, the Drive for Muscularity Scale, two subscales of the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire, one subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory 3, and two subscales of the Multidimensional Body Relations Questionnaire. Articles assessing these scales' psychometric properties (N = 136) were evaluated for their methodological quality using the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist, and a best evidence synthesis was performed. The results supported the majority of measures in terms of reliability and validity; however, suitability varied across populations, and some measurement properties were insufficiently evaluated. The measures are discussed in detail, including recommendations for their future use in research and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394769

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to examine cross-cultural differences in body stigmatization between the individualistic Christian culture of guilt (Poland) and the collectivistic Buddhist/Confucian culture of honor and shame (Vietnam). The study included 1290 university students from Poland (n = 586) and Vietnam (n = 704). Subjects filled in the body esteem scale and the perceived stigmatization questionnaire, and body measurements were collected to calculate anthropometric indices. Participants from Vietnam were less satisfied with their appearance than their Polish peers. Men in both countries assessed themselves more favorably. No anthropometric index predicted body esteem in Vietnamese women, while only indices related to fat levels were predictors in Polish women. Men with a V-shaped body assessed themselves as stronger and as having a better physical condition. A possible explanation of the observed cross-cultural differences is that interdependent self-construal makes young adults in collectivistic societies more susceptible to criticism, and the Confucian values of modesty and shame lead to them not perceiving their bodies as sexual objects. The Christian sense of guilt does not influence the perception of sexuality. Absence of friendly behavior mediated the relation between anthropometric indices and body esteem in both cultures.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Culpa , Estereotipagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Vergonha , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370175

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyse body image concerns and symptoms of eating disorders in elite Icelandic athletes according to their sex, and sport practiced. The participants were 755 athletes (24.8 ± 3.5 years in age) who compete at the highest possible level in Iceland. Representing 20 different sports, they were divided into five sports groups. Three questionnaires were used: the Body Shape Questionnaire to assess body image concerns; the Bulimia Test-Revised to assess the main symptoms of bulimia; and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire to identify disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. A chi-squared test was used to analyse differences in prevalence of body image concern and eating disorders, a t-test for the differences between men and women, and a one-way ANOVA to compare the different sports. The main findings were that 17.9% of the athletes presented severe or moderate body image dissatisfaction, and 18.2% (25.3% of the women) were above the clinical cutoff for body image concern. Women's scores were higher than men's (whole sample and ball games) in all variables except restraint. These results seem to point to the existence of a real problem that athlete, coaches, doctors, and institutions need to take into account.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 143, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420041

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Because the currently available questionnaires to evaluate sexual changes on breast cancer women only address the sexual sphere with a few questions our purpose was to develop a questionnaire that assesses changes in sexual dysfunction and satisfaction in women treated for breast cancer. METHODS: A sample was selected of women aged between 18 and 65 who had had surgery for breast cancer, completed neoadjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy treatment and could be receiving adjuvant hormonal treatment, with an active sex life at least 3 months before starting treatment. Metastatic disease was excluded. A questionnaire structured in 4 dimensions was developed. The MOS SF-12 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires were also provided. The following metric properties were evaluated: item analysis; internal consistency; temporal stability; construct validity; concurrent, convergent and divergent validity; and feasibility. RESULTS: Three samples were recruited: a pilot sample of 20; a reduction sample of 152; and a validation sample of 148. The presence of 6 dimensions was confirmed: 1) Loss of sex drive; 2) worsening of body image; 3) psychological coping; 4) discomfort during intercourse; 5) satisfaction with sexual relations; and 6) satisfaction with breast reconstruction. Good goodness-of-fit statistics were obtained (χ2/df = 1.5, GFI = 0.9, AGFI = 0.84, CFI = 0.959, RMSEA = 0.062). Reliability was good (α = 0.855), as was test-retest stability (r = 0.838). The correlation with the convergent questionnaires proved to be higher than that obtained with generic measurements. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to develop a short questionnaire (17 items) capable of measuring sexual satisfaction in women with breast cancer with good metric properties.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Orgasmo , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Lupus ; 28(9): 1148-1153, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with treatment manifestations that can cause changes in appearance, including skin rashes, alopecia, vitiligo, and scars. SLE has been shown to adversely impact body image outcomes, and previous research has identified that greater disease activity is associated with worse body image outcomes which, in turn, are associated with greater depressive symptoms. For patients with SLE who also experience significant pain, poor body image outcomes may further compromise wellbeing and lead to greater depressive symptoms. The role of pain in body image has not been explored in SLE. Thus, the present study examined whether body image (specifically, body image-related quality of life) serves as a mediator of the relationship between pain and depressive symptoms among patients with SLE. METHODS: Multiple mediation analysis was used to examine the hypothesis that body image-related quality of life mediates the relationship between pain and depressive symptoms in a sample of patients with SLE (N = 135) from an urban region in Los Angeles, California. RESULTS: The sample was predominately female (92.6%) with a mean disease duration of approximately 17 years. Approximately one-quarter of the sample had elevated depressive symptoms. Body image-related quality of life was a significant mediator in the relationship between pain and depressive symptoms. The model accounted for 51% of the total variance in depressive symptoms (R2 = 0.51). CONCLUSION: This cross-sectional study suggested that body image-related quality of life may mediate the effects of pain on depressive symptoms among patients with SLE.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/psicologia , Dor/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
11.
Eat Behav ; 35: 101319, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446165

RESUMO

Weight status misperception is related to disordered eating outcomes, but little research has explored the differential impacts of misperception directionality, nor factors that explain these relationships. Self-Discrepancy Theory applied to body image gives a framework to how weight status over-perception may prompt a drive for thinness, which in turn may be important in the development of disordered eating cognitions and behaviors. AIMS: To that end, the current study tested whether drive for thinness may account for the association between direction of weight status misperception and disordered eating behaviors. METHODS: Young adults (N = 522) completed measures identifying weight status perception (accurate, under-, and over-perception), drive for thinness, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (appearance satisfaction, restrained, uncontrolled, and emotional eating). Indirect effect models with drive for thinness entered as the intervening variable were estimated for each outcome. RESULTS: Drive for thinness accounted for the associations between weight status misperception and all outcomes. In general, compared to either accurate or under-perception, over-perception of weight status was associated with more disordered eating attitudes and behaviors via higher drive for thinness. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with Self-Discrepancy Theory, drive for thinness emerged as a possible mechanism of the association between weight status misperception and disordered eating outcomes. Findings suggest potential utility in targeting drive for thinness, as opposed to accuracy of weight status perception, for prevention of disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, including those that may contribute to weight gain.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Magreza/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Adulto Jovem
12.
Body Image ; 30: 165-169, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374390

RESUMO

Latino sexual minority men (SMM) have elevated anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) misuse in comparison to their heterosexual and non-Latino peers. Within a gender role framework, desire to present as masculine through heightened muscularity may be related to increased AAS misuse. To assess the association between AAS misuse and a culturally-distinct masculinity, this study examined the relationship of two aspects of machismo, traditional machismo and caballerismo, with AAS misuse in the past month. Participants were 141 young adult Latino SMM recruited from the San Diego area. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire online in English or Spanish, which included measures of machismo and AAS misuse. Out of 141 participants, 27 reported AAS misuse (19.1%). Traditional machismo was positively associated with AAS misuse and caballerismo was negatively associated with AAS misuse. Traditional machismo, which emphasizes dominance, may be positively associated with AAS misuse due to its facilitation of muscle development, which could enable physical intimidation; greater musculature may also counteract assumptions about femininity and sexual orientation. Caballerismo may be negatively associated with AAS by providing a flexible masculinity model that emphasizes social cohesion over dominance. Future AAS misuse interventions could include values-based work and cognitive restructuring of masculinity schemas.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Masculinidade , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Congêneres da Testosterona , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Body Image ; 30: 212-220, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377478

RESUMO

The present study evaluated whether individuals with varying levels of trait body image flexibility differ in the severity, variability, and correlates of state body dissatisfaction experienced in their daily lives. One hundred and forty-seven women completed a baseline measure of trait body image flexibility, followed by a 7-day ecological momentary assessment phase in which participants self-reported state body dissatisfaction, disordered eating behavior, drive for thinness, and appearance comparisons at 10 semi-random intervals daily. Higher trait body image flexibility predicted lower average scores, less frequent reporting of high state body dissatisfaction, and less variability in their state body dissatisfaction ratings. Individuals with higher trait body image flexibility were also less likely to engage in a range of behaviors and cognitions previously shown to produce body dissatisfaction, including upward appearance comparisons, drive for thinness, binge eating, and dieting. However, few of these state-based relationships involving body dissatisfaction and these related behaviors and cognitions were moderated by trait body image flexibility. Overall, this pattern of findings suggests that body image flexible individuals may have less negative body image because they are less inclined to engage in behaviors and cognitions in their daily lives that encourage negative body image.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Personalidade , Magreza/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
14.
Body Image ; 30: 221-227, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382105

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate whether the provision of prior information about digital alteration would enhance the effectiveness of disclaimer labels attached to fashion images in protecting against body dissatisfaction. Participants were 363 female undergraduate students who viewed fashion magazine advertisements with either no label or a digital alteration disclaimer label. Prior to viewing the advertisements, participants read one of three news stories containing digital alteration information that focused on either the unrealistic nature of the images or on social comparison, or a control news story (on magazine circulation figures). Irrespective of the preceding information, disclaimer labels offered no benefit for body satisfaction. However, reading the news articles containing information about digital alteration led to higher levels of body dissatisfaction than reading the control article. It was concluded that information in the form of news stories or disclaimer labels cannot be assumed to be useful or to offer positive benefit. Accordingly, more extensive and thorough evaluation is required and policy makers might better direct their attention to other forms of cost-effective universal intervention.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Emoções , Satisfação Pessoal , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Rotulagem de Produtos , Estudantes , Magreza/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eat Behav ; 34: 101312, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351360

RESUMO

The study used self-regulation theory to elucidate the relationships between the desirability of the thin-ideal goal, dispositional worry, body checking and weight-loss dieting (WLD) in college women. We hypothesized that body checking would mediate the relationship between the desirability of the thin-ideal goal and WLD: the desire to be thin would be associated with more WLD through more frequent body checking. We also hypothesized that dispositional worry would moderate this mediation pathway, such that the mediation pathway would be stronger for those higher in worry. Finally, all effects were expected to occur when controlling for self-reported body size. A paper and pencil survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 237 college women who completed measures of: thin-ideal desirability, dispositional worry, body checking, WLD, as well as providing height and weight. A bootstrap analysis using PROCESS (Hayes, 2013) supported the hypothesized moderated mediation model. Findings add to current knowledge by elucidating the nature and function of body checking, and by so doing may provide insight into the prevention and treatment of disordered eating.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Dieta Redutora/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Metas , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 48, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alopecia Areata (AA) is an autoimmune condition that is characterised by non-scarring hair loss. Its aesthetic repercussions can lead to profound changes in psychological well-being. Although physical activity (PA) has been associated with better mental health outcomes in diverse populations, the association in individuals with AA has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between PA and mental health outcomes in individuals with AA to inform intervention strategies for this specific population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among individuals who were diagnosed with AA. A total of 83 respondents aged (40.95 ± 13.24 years) completed a self-report questionnaire consisting of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) and the Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Three-way contingency Chi-square analyses were used to determine the associations between PA, mental health outcomes and participants with hair loss of more than 50% on the scalp. RESULTS: 81.9% of the participants did not meet PA guidelines. Participants with hair loss of more than 50% on the scalp, and who did not meet PA guidelines, were significantly more likely to experience symptoms of severe depression (p = .003), moderate anxiety (p = .04) and mild stress (p = .003) than those who met guidelines CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that increased PA participation in AA individuals with severe hair loss is associated with improved mental health status. Intervention efforts for this specific population should consider barriers and enablers to PA participation as they face challenges that differ from the general population.


Assuntos
Alopecia em Áreas/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Body Image ; 30: 145-149, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323438

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study explored similarities and differences between heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women in levels of, and relationships between, the following constructs using a Tripartite Influence Model framework: family, peer, and media appearance pressures, thin- and muscular-ideal internalization, and eating disorder (ED) pathology. Self-identified heterosexual (n = 1,528), bisexual (n = 89), and lesbian (n = 278) undergraduate women completed the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 and the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Sexual orientation differences in appearance pressures, appearance-ideal internalization, and ED pathology were examined via analysis of variance tests. Relationships between these variables were examined with multi-group path analyses, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and body mass index. Compared with lesbian women, heterosexual and bisexual women reported higher levels of peer appearance pressures. Paths from peer appearance pressures and thin-ideal internalization to shape/weight overvaluation and body dissatisfaction were strongest for bisexual women. Overall, results indicate notable similarities between heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian women. However, preliminary evidence for potential differences highlights the importance of examining variation in ED risk between sexual minority subgroups.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(8): 2217-2222, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343602

RESUMO

Gibson, C, Hindle, C, McLay-Cooke, R, Slater, J, Brown, R, Smith, B, Baker, D, Healey, P, and Black, K. Body image among elite rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 33(8): 2217-2222, 2019-There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders (EDs) and body image of elite male athletes. However, research studies suggest that there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing EDs. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of EDs, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their preseason training period. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the preseason among elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A "body image score" was calculated from questionnaire subscales including "drive for thinness," "bulimia," and "body dissatisfaction," with total scores above 20 indicative of poor body image. Body image scores varied from 8 to 39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviors were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n = 4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n = 1/26), and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n = 20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (p = 0.034). At the start of the preseason training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviors is of concern, and needs to be minimized due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required to reduce disordered eating patterns.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Futebol Americano/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
19.
Body Image ; 30: 150-158, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336262

RESUMO

Cognitive and behavioural models of body dysmorphic disorder posit that selective self-focused attention via mirror gazing plays a key role in the aetiology and maintenance of the disorder. However, there is little empirical support for these theoretical claims. This study aimed to induce self-focused attention via mirror gazing to examine the proposed theoretical effects on body image, distress, body-focused shame, and self-esteem. Fifty-one non-clinical participants (78.43% female) were randomly allocated to one of the two conditions: low self-focused attention (i.e., looking into a mirror placed 100 cm/ 39 in away) vs. high self-focused attention (i.e., focusing on a disliked part in a mirror placed 10 cm/ 4 in away). Following 5 min of mirror gazing, the high self-focused attention condition experienced decreased satisfaction with appearance, perceived attractiveness, and self-esteem, and increased distress about appearance, distress about disliked parts, urges to change appearance, and body-focused shame. Approaching the mirror from a distance appeared to have no effect. Findings are consistent with theories suggesting that self-focused attention and mirror behaviours might contribute to the development of body dysmorphic disorder and maintain its psychological effects.


Assuntos
Atenção , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Vergonha , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Body Image ; 30: 135-144, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299608

RESUMO

We used experience sampling to examine thinspiration and fitspiration in the everyday lives of women and men. Undergraduates (N = 108, 21% men) completed a 1-week smartphone-facilitated experience sampling protocol containing self-report measures of thinspiration and fitspiration exposure, body satisfaction, and affective functioning. Multi-level, gender-adjusted models examined the unique and interactive associations of exposure to thinspiration and fitspiration. Women reported a weekly average of 8.4 thinspiration exposures and 9.5 fitspiration exposures, while men reported 2.3 and 4.9 exposures, respectively. The median self-reported duration of each exposure was 2-3 min, with no difference in exposure duration between thinspiration and fitspiration. Unique thinspiration exposure was associated with lower body satisfaction, lower positive affect, and higher negative affect (Cohen's ds = |0.07-0.09|, small). Unique fitspiration exposure was associated with lower body satisfaction and positive affect (ds = |0.03-0.04|, small), but not negative affect. The pattern of associations for interactive exposure (i.e., exposure to both thinspiration and fitspiration) was near-identical to the pattern for unique thinspiration exposure (ds = |0.06-0.08|). We conclude that women and men exposed to thinspiration and fitspiration in their everyday lives may subsequently experience lower body satisfaction and poorer affective functioning.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Motivação , Satisfação Pessoal , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Magreza/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Autorrelato , Smartphone , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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