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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e045962, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations between body mass index (BMI), weight concern, body size perception, dieting and mental distress in a population-based study of 7350 adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTINGS: Data from a Norwegian population-based cohort, The Young-HUNT3 (2006-2008) from the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 7350 adolescents (13-19 years) who had both self-reported questionnaire data and anthropometric measures. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds for mental distress given sex, BMI, weight concern, body size perception and dieting. Analyses were performed in binomial logistic regression models. RESULTS: Compared with being overweight/obese, having weight concern, irrespective of BMI, was associated with higher OR for mental distress (MD) among boys and girls. Body size overestimation was associated with an increase in the OR for MD, in participants who were overweight/obese, had weight concern or dieted. This effect was more pronounced in boys. CONCLUSIONS: Weight concern and body-size estimation are strongly associated with mental health in adolescent boys and girls. Routine assessment of adolescents' attitudes towards their weight and body size is advised.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Percepção de Tamanho , Adolescente , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia
2.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 57: 102116, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35272173

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancer is a significant health issue all around the world and the most frequent type of cancer among Swedish women. The aim of this study was to explore and describe life situations of Swedish women with breast cancer after mastectomy. METHODS: A qualitative study with semi-structured interviews was conducted by using an interview guide concerning experiences of changes in the women's daily lives and functions. Thirty-three women with breast cancer having undergone mastectomy participated. The data from the interviews were subjected to content analysis. RESULTS: Six categories emerged: Embarrassment with body image and loss of femininity; Feelings of fear, worry and anxiety; Better appreciation of life; Support from different sources; Experiences of care from health care professionals; and Need of information and follow-up care. CONCLUSION: The women's body image limits their daily lives, and psychological distress reminds them of their disease. Reception of support from family and healthcare professionals and perception of positive life are important. Sometimes there is a lack of information and follow-up from healthcare professionals, who should be aware of the women's feelings and needs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mastectomia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Suécia
3.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334936

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine whether smartphone addiction and depression sequentially mediate the relationship between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors (e.g., restrained eating, emotional eating and external eating). A total of 5986 participants (54.1% females, average age = 19.8 years, age range = 17-32) completed the Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction with Body Parts Scale, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, the Smartphone Addiction Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Mediational analysis showed that, after controlling for age, sex and body mass index, body dissatisfaction was related to disordered eating behaviors through (a) the mediating effect of smartphone addiction, (b) the mediating effect of depression, and (c) the serial mediating effect of smartphone addiction and depression. In conclusion, our study showed for the first time that smartphone addiction and depression can be sequential mediator variables in the association between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, this study is a cross-sectional study; future longitudinal studies could further test the causal associations between these study variables.


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 84(4): 1069-1076, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35355232

RESUMO

Over the past 30 years, attentional bias for body shape and weight content has been implicated in the precipitation and maintenance of body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. Although the existence of this bias toward body stimuli is well-established in female populations, it is comparatively understudied in men. This review aimed to examine the nature of this visual attentional bias toward male bodies in male samples across a range of different attentional paradigms, including eye-tracking, dot-probe, and the visual search task. Results were heterogenous, finding some evidence that men with higher body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms demonstrated an attentional bias toward desirable bodies of other men, and undesirable features of their own bodies. These results suggest that schematic cognitive models of body dissatisfaction and eating disorders body may also be applicable to men, however more research is needed.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Atenção , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Int J Eat Disord ; 55(4): 530-540, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The pursuit of thinness and fear of gaining weight have been found to play an important role in eating disorder symptomatology. While these dimensions have typically been considered conjointly, emerging evidence suggests they may be distinct dimensions. The aim of this study was to explore the subjective experiences of fear of fatness and drive for thinness in young women with body image concerns. METHOD: Young women endorsing weight concerns (N = 29, mean age = 20.86, SD = 2.70 years) were interviewed and asked to describe an experience of fear of fat and drive for thinness, respectively. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis was conducted and identified four themes: (1) precipitating events; (2) physiological, emotional, cognitive, and proprioceptive experiences; (3) coping strategies; and (4) sociocultural influences. While similarities emerged, the experiences of fear of fatness, and of drive for thinness also evidenced clear differences situating the former in the context of fear-based avoidance patterns, and the latter in approach-based reward models. DISCUSSION: These findings provide additional support for the usefulness of considering fear of fat and drive for thinness as distinct constructs. Further research examining the contributions of each of these constructs to eating pathology is warranted.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Magreza , Adulto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Fóbicos , Magreza/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cancer Med ; 11(7): 1688-1700, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of young-onset (<50 years) colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing internationally. The psychosocial experience of younger cancer patients is vastly different from older patients, especially in domains such as financial toxicity, body image, and sexual dysfunction. What is unknown is the cancer type-specific experience. The aim of the current scoping review was to examine (1) the psychosocial factors and/or outcomes associated with young-onset CRC and (2) other determinants that influences these outcomes. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted on four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and PsycINFO) from inception to December 2020 using key terms and combinations. Primary literature that examined the psychosocial (e.g., quality-of-life, emotional, social, sexual) impact of young-onset CRC were included. RESULTS: A total of 1389 records were assessed by four reviewers, with a total of seven studies meeting inclusion criteria (n = 5 quantitative, n = 1 qualitative and n = 1 case series). All studies indicated there was significant psychosocial impact in younger CRC patients, including emotional impact, social impact, physical burden, sexual impact, work impact, unmet needs, financial impact and global quality of life. Three studies explored other determinants that influenced the psychosocial experience and found that socioeconomic background (e.g., being female, lower education), CRC treatment (e.g., chemotherapy) and health status were associated with worse psychosocial impact. CONCLUSIONS: Young-onset CRC patients face severe psychosocial impact unique to this age group, such as self-image and sexual impact. Social support services and resources needs to be uniquely tailored. More empirical investigations are required to understand its long-term impact and influence of other psychosocial domains.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Qualidade de Vida , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Apoio Social
7.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 149(3): 568-577, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are broadly understood to contribute to overall health, but their contribution to wound healing is less well defined. Limited data exist on the association of preoperative psychological factors such as body image and postoperative complications. The present study analyzed the association between preoperative body image factors and postoperative complications following breast reconstruction. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 302 breast cancer patients undergoing breast reconstruction from 2011 to 2015. All patients completed the BREAST-Q; demographics, surgical details, and postoperative complications were recorded. The association of body image factors by means of the BREAST-Q and postoperative complications was analyzed. RESULTS: On univariate analysis, patients who reported lower preoperative satisfaction with how they appeared in the mirror unclothed, or felt less self-confident or attractive, were significantly more likely to develop an infection postoperatively. Preoperative satisfaction scores were not associated with complications when analyzed in a multivariate fashion. On binomial logistic regression analysis, after controlling for age, body mass index, reconstruction technique, and use of radiotherapy, patients who reported less preoperative satisfaction with how comfortably bras fit or how they appeared in a mirror unclothed were at an increased risk for delayed wound healing. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with lower preoperative body satisfaction were found to have an increased incidence of infections and delayed wound healing. Although postoperative outcomes are multifactorial, the data suggest that baseline psychological factors such as body image may play a role in postoperative outcomes. Broader use of prehabilitative therapies, targeted at psychosocial factors, may warrant further investigation to optimize postoperative outcomes. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mamoplastia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35206529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body weight congruence (BWC) has implications for adolescent health. The main goal of this study was to examine the distribution of BWC and its relationship with six psychosocial factors. METHODS: A representative sample of N = 3508 adolescents aged 15 and 17 years (52.4% girls) derived from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, conducted in 2017/2018 in Poland, was used. BWC groups were defined based on self-reported BMI and subjective assessment of weight: (1) correct perception; (2) overestimation, and (3). underestimation. Principal component analysis (PCA) extracted the following two factors: a socio-relational factor (SR) related to perceived social support and social self-efficacy, and a body attitudes and social media exposure factor (BAME). Using the total sample, multinomial logistic regression was applied to estimate their impact on the BWC, and gender-specific models were compared. RESULTS: Half (48.6%) of the adolescents correctly estimated their body weight, 31.0% overestimated it (girls 43.9%, boys 17.1%), and 20.0% underestimated it (boys 37.2%, girls 9.0%). Overestimation of body weight concerns 48.0% of normal weight girls, 50.0% of underweight girls, and 21.3% and 32.1% of normal weight and underweight boys, respectively. The percentage of normal weight (34.4%), and overweight and obese (30.8%) boys who underestimated their body weight was three times higher than the respective percentages of girls that underestimated their weight (9.0% and 11.9%). The SR factor protected adolescents from both underestimation (only in girls) and overestimation in the total sample (OR 0.74, 95%CI 0.68-0.81) and both genders. BAME increased this risk of overestimation in both genders (OR = 1.83, 95%CI 1.67-2.0), and the risk of underestimation among boys. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention programmes should include a wide range of psychosocial factors to improve BWC among adolescents.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Polônia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162878

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to test the relationship between compulsive exercise and self-esteem, body image, and body satisfaction as potential predictors of eating disorders. METHODS: Self-report measures of compulsive exercise beliefs and behaviors, self-esteem, body image, and body satisfaction, were completed by 120 female participants through an online questionnaire. Factor analyses with varimax rotation were performed to create exercise-frequency groups. ANOVA's were performed on Body Mass Index (weight adjusted for height squared, BMI), current minus ideal weight, self-esteem, body image, and body satisfaction to determine if there were differences depending on these exercise groups. RESULTS: Factor analysis revealed two factors for compulsive exercise beliefs and behaviors: (1) Exercise Fixation, and (2) Exercise Frequency and Commitment. Based on those factors, participants were subdivided into four clusters: (1) pathological obligatory exercisers, (2) exercise fixators, (3) committed exercisers, and (4) non-exercisers. No differences were found between these groups for BMI or current minus ideal weight. Pathological obligatory exercisers and committed exercisers spend significantly more hours on exercise weekly compared to exercise fixators or non-exercisers. No differences between pathological obligatory exercisers, exercise fixators, and non-exercisers were found on self-esteem or body satisfaction, where the committed exercisers scored significantly better. Both committed exercisers and non-exercisers scored significantly better on body image flexibility compared to pathological obligatory exercisers and exercise fixators. CONCLUSION: Compulsive exercise has both an exercise volume and an emotional component. The level of compulsive exercise is linked to one's self-esteem, body image, and body satisfaction and those factors could be a target for future interventions.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Satisfação Pessoal , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Compulsivo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263766, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35167598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the role of body image in patients with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to compare body self-esteem in this group with norms for the general Polish population and to investigate the relationship between body self-esteem and the psychological and clinical characteristics of the course of diabetes. METHODS: A group of 100 consecutive adult patients with type 2 diabetes (49 women and 51 men) aged 35 to 66 years were assessed using the Body Esteem Scale (BES), World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5), Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID), and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). RESULTS: In comparison to norms for the general population, women with type 2 diabetes had lower body self-esteem only in the dimension of Physical Condition (M = 30.71; SD = 7.11 versus M = 32.96; SD = 5.69; P = 0.003), whereas men in the dimensions of Physical Condition (M = 42.43; SD = 9.43 versus M = 48.30; SD = 8.42; P <0.001) and Upper Body Strength (M = 32.16; SD = 6.60 versus M = 33.97; SD = 5.86; P = 0.015). There were moderate or weak positive correlations between the overall BES score and/or its dimensions and subjective well-being, and negative correlations between the overall BES score and/or its dimension and the severity of depression symptoms, level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI), and diabetes-related distress among women. Among men, BES scores were positively correlated with well-being, and negatively, with BMI and diabetes-related distress. A correlation of r = 0.39 between BES scores and HbA1c levels was relatively high compared with values for other psychosocial factors. Both in women and men, a high Physical Condition score was a significant predictor of better well-being, less severe depression, and milder diabetes-related distress. Among men, it was also a significant predictor of lower BMI, whereas among women, BMI was predicted by Weight Concern. CONCLUSIONS: Persons with diabetes seem to have lower body self-esteem than the general population, which is significantly associated with clinical and psychological characteristics of the diabetes course. The observed differences and relationships are gender-specific.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Depressão/sangue , Depressão/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Autoimagem , Caracteres Sexuais
11.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263385, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased physical activity levels and their determinations are essential issues worldwide. The Longitudinal Study of Physical Activity Determinants (ELDAF) aims to understand the roles of psychosocial and environmental factors in workers' physical activity levels. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of non-faculty civil servants from a public university (approximately 1,200 individuals) will start in 2022 (baseline). The primary measurements will be accelerometer- and questionnaire-based physical activity, social support, social network, socioeconomic status, bereavement, job stress, body image, common mental disorders, depression, and neighborhood satisfaction. Additional measurements will include necessary sociodemographic, physical morbidity, lifestyle and anthropometric information. Participants' places of residence will be geocoded using complete addresses. All participants will furnish written, informed consent before the beginning of the study. Pilot studies were performed to identify and correct potential problems in the data collection instruments and procedures. ELDAF will be the first cohort study conducted in Latin America to investigate physical activity and its determinants.


Assuntos
Emprego , Exercício Físico , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Emprego/psicologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Exercício Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/organização & administração
12.
Phys Ther ; 102(2)2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35188967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore thoughts and ideas about the body and pain in patients with nonspecific low back pain (LBP) who have a high degree of fear of movement. METHODS: Patients with nonspecific LBP and a high degree of fear of movement, as measured using the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, were asked to participate in the study. Individual semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants. The material was analyzed using content analysis with an inductive approach. RESULTS: From these patients' stories, an overarching theme-decreased confidence in the body becomes a barrier to living life to the fullest-emerged. This theme was further divided into 4 subthemes: (1) "What is wrong with my body?"-the constant search for an explanation; (2) searching for the right way to move; (3) loss of mobility means a lack of meaning in life; and (4) the message from health care professionals guides feelings, thoughts, and movement behavior. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the message of keeping physically active when experiencing LBP has succeeded, but patients with fear require support to feel secure and have enough confidence in their body to move and exercise. Clinicians need to better incorporate evidence-based practice for patients with fear and support them so that they can apply an understanding of pain to their bodies and their every day life. IMPACT: These results offer guidance for health care professionals to enhance their practice by providing more updated information to their patients who have recurrent LBP and fear. With better support, patients may be able to regain confidence in their bodies and live their lives to the fullest. LAY SUMMARY: If you have recurrent LBP and fear of moving your body, ask your health care professional to provide you with updated knowledge on pain and to help you regain confidence in your body so that you can live your life to the fullest.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento , Transtornos Fóbicos/etiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Recidiva , Autoimagem
13.
Body Image ; 40: 295-309, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121566

RESUMO

A visible difference to the face or body may challenge adolescents' adjustment and engagement in life activities, where some require psychosocial support. However, evidence is limited for whether existing interventions for this adolescent group reduce social or appearance-related distress. We therefore conducted a parallel-group, randomised control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Young Person's Face IT, a self-guided web-based psychosocial intervention developed for adolescents with a visible difference who experience distress. Adolescents (N = 189, aged 11-18) from two countries (Norway and the Netherlands), were randomly allocated to an intervention group or care as usual (CAU). Outcomes were body esteem, social anxiety, perceived stigmatisation, and life disengagement. Compared with CAU, participants who completed Young Person's Face IT showed reductions in social anxiety symptoms (ηp2 = 0.06). No significant improvements were found for the other outcomes. This study endorses web-based psychosocial support in reducing social anxiety in adolescents distressed by a visible difference. Future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of Young Person's Face IT and to explore potential long-term effects.


Assuntos
Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Adolescente , Ansiedade/terapia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Criança , Face , Humanos , Países Baixos
14.
Body Image ; 40: 310-321, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121567

RESUMO

Dating apps may potentially serve as an environment that subjects young women to the harmful effects of appearance-related pressure. The current study assessed for the first time whether women's dating app use predicted body dissatisfaction (BD), urges to engage in disordered eating (DE), and negative mood in daily life. We also examined the unique effects of women's dating app partner preferences (i.e., seeking idealised versus non-idealised physical characteristics) on the aforementioned outcomes, and whether appearance-based rejection sensitivity (appearance-RS) moderated the effects of dating app use. Participants (N = 296; 100% women) first completed a baseline survey assessing lifetime dating app usage (i.e., current or former usage), partner preferences, and appearance-RS, followed by a 7-day smartphone-facilitated ecological investigation into momentary experiences of BD, DE urges (i.e., binge-eating/purging, dietary restraint, and exercise), and negative mood. Ninety-four women (32%) reported lifetime dating app usage, which, relative to non-use, predicted greater daily urges for binge-eating/purging and negative mood. However, appearance-RS failed to moderate these effects. Among dating app users, partner preferences were not a significant predictor of the central outcomes. These findings extend previous research by examining the unique effects of dating app use on everyday BD, DE urges, and negative mood. Replication and extension are encouraged.


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Aplicativos Móveis , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Amor , Masculino
15.
Body Image ; 40: 322-339, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121568

RESUMO

Although a range of risk factors have been identified for disordered eating and weight status, the breadth of risk factors have been rarely considered within a single, comprehensive model. The robustness of these findings across countries also remains an open question. The present study sampled 6272 participants aged 18-30 years from eight countries in an attempt to evaluate combined and unique predictors for these two conditions, and to explore possible cross-country differences in these models. Participants completed a range of demographic, biological, behavioral, psychological, and sociocultural measures to test a comprehensive model of the contributions of these predictors for disordered eating and weight-related constructs (binge eating, body mass index, compensatory behaviors, dietary restraint, drive for muscularity, and drive for leanness). Structural invariance testing within a multigroup path analysis framework revealed that a single model across the eight countries provided poor model fit. Freeing of 22% of parameters across countries provided excellent fit and a satisfactory compromise for country-invariant and country-variant parameters in the model. Overall, predictors accounted for between 15% and 60% of variance in the outcome measures, with lowest explained variance for the disordered eating outcomes. Significant unique contributions to prediction were observed for each of the five risk factor variable types and across the eight countries. Thus, the findings show strong support for this model as an explanatory framework of both disordered eating and weight status.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Body Image ; 40: 340-350, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35144072

RESUMO

Female collegiate athletes are a high-risk group for disordered eating. Petrie and Greenleaf's (2007) sociocultural model proposes that both general and sport-related weight pressures lead athletes to internalize unrealistic body ideals, ultimately resulting in body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. In this study, we used structural equation modeling to assess general and sport-specific weight pressures in relation to thin- and muscular-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating among 212 female Division I college athletes. General weight pressures from parents, peers, and the media were associated with disordered eating indirectly via thin- and muscular-ideal internalization. In contrast, sport-specific weight pressures were not associated with disordered eating in the full model. After controlling for weight pressures and body ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction was also not associated with disordered eating. These findings suggest that female athletes are vulnerable to weight- and appearance-related pressures from outside the sport context and that the mechanisms underlying the development of disordered eating may differ between athletes and non-athletes.


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Atletas , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Body Image ; 40: 351-357, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35144073

RESUMO

Women tend to overestimate their body size, including space needed to pass through gaps/apertures. These results were generated using static apertures resembling doorways. However, body image is influenced by other bodies around us, and how estimations of passability may be influenced by social context is unknown. To investigate, a series of apertures were created comprising two women facing each other, with the space between creating the 'doorway'. The apertures were created using either two larger-bodied or two smaller-bodied women. Non-social versions were generated using the social aperture silhouettes. Thirty-four undergraduate women viewed a series of apertures - varying in width relative to their own size - and judged whether they believed they could pass through them. State and trait body dissatisfaction measurements were also taken. Point of subjective equality (PSE) data suggested that participants did not overestimate the space needed to pass through apertures overall, but showed an overestimation of space for the larger-bodied social doorways. Correlations suggested higher levels of state body dissatisfaction associated with higher PSEs, but only in the social conditions. Results showed that participants may have been engaging in different mechanisms regarding social versus non-social doorways, and the importance of social context when investigating own body size estimations.


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal , Imagem Corporal , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Meio Social
18.
Body Image ; 40: 358-369, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35149443

RESUMO

Weight-neutral approaches to health, like the Health at Every Size® (HAES®) approach arose in response to emerging evidence showing the negative health consequences of weight-focused approaches through the effects of stigma and marginalization in many settings, including healthcare. While the discourses of dominant 'weight-normative' approaches are well-researched and described, little is known about how language and discourse is creating certain 'truths' about weight-neutral approaches. The aim of this study was to explore how academic discourses create truths about weight-neutral approaches to health. A discourse analysis of 63 academic journal articles was conducted. We found that the language used in academic literature is creating confusing and contradictory messages about weight and weight-neutral approaches to health (like the HAES® approach) through: (i) the continued use of stigmatising and normative labels like 'overweight' and 'obese', (ii) paradoxical language like 'flexible restraint', and (iii) a focus on individual responsibility and blame for health and weight without acknowledgement of broader societal and systemic factors. More research is needed to characterize weight-neutral approaches and develop a clearer framework for researchers wishing to engage with the weight-neutral paradigm of health.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Sobrepeso , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Humanos , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Estigma Social
19.
Cortex ; 147: 1-8, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991060

RESUMO

In healthy subjects, the transient perturbation of body part ownership is accompanied by regional skin temperature decrease. This observation leaves an open question about a possible body part-specific thermoregulatory response in pathological conditions, in which the sense of ownership over that body part is altered. For instance, Body Integrity Dysphoria (BID), a poorly understood neuropsychiatric disorder, is characterised by the non-acceptance of one or more of one's extremities. This unsettling feeling pervasively captures the individuals' attention towards the unwanted limb. Previous studies characterised BID in terms of absent ownership feeling with preserved ownership judgment. We explored for the first time whether this altered feeling is also associated with a specific thermoregulatory response. We recorded thermal image sequences of circumscribed regions of the limbs' skin in seven individuals with BID desiring to remove one leg while they were invited to focus their attention toward one particular limb (arm or leg). Their event-related thermoregulatory pattern was compared to a group of healthy matched controls. In individuals with BID but not in control persons, we found a bilateral decrease in leg temperature when focusing their attention on either the unwanted or accepted leg. The event-related thermoregulatory response for both upper limbs was similar between individuals with BID and healthy controls. Our results suggest that the alteration of the sense of body ownership in neuropsychiatric conditions such as BID may critically rest on specific event-related thermoregulatory patterns in response to modulation of attention to body parts.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Corpo Humano , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Humanos , Propriedade
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 808, 2022 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039541

RESUMO

The widely used rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm provides insight into how the brain manages conflicting multisensory information regarding bodily self-consciousness. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that the feeling of body ownership is linked to activity in the premotor cortex, the intraparietal areas, the occipitotemporal cortex, and the insula. The current study investigated whether the individual differences in the sensation of body ownership over a rubber hand, as measured by subjective report and the proprioceptive drift, are associated with structural brain differences in terms of cortical thickness in 67 healthy young adults. We found that individual differences measured by the subjective report of body ownership are associated with the cortical thickness in the somatosensory regions, the temporo-parietal junction, the intraparietal areas, and the occipitotemporal cortex, while the proprioceptive drift is linked to the premotor area and the anterior cingulate cortex. These results are in line with functional neuroimaging studies indicating that these areas are indeed involved in processes such as cognitive-affective perspective taking, visual processing of the body, and the experience of body ownership and bodily awareness. Consequently, these individual differences in the sensation of body ownership are pronounced in both functional and structural differences.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Ilusões/fisiologia , Individualidade , Córtex Motor/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Propriedade , Sensação/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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