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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1562, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a consequence of 'Western' acculturation, eating disorders and body image disturbances, such as fatness phobia and body dysmorphic disorders towards musculature and body shape, are emerging in Africa, with young people the most affected. It is therefore important to accurately assess perceptions of body shape. However, the existing body image assessment scales lack sufficient accuracy and validity testing to compare body shape perception across different African populations. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Body Shape Scale (BOSHAS) to evaluate body shape perceptions related body image disorders in African populations. METHODS: To develop the BOSHAS, anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese (both sexes included; 40.1% females overall) were taken for three body shape criteria: somatotype components, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio. Subjects were selected to cover a wide variability in body shape and were photographed in full face and profile positions. To validate the BOSHAS, the scale was administered twice (2 weeks apart) to 106 participants (aged 31.2 ± 12.6 years) to assess its reliability. In addition, a questionnaire measuring different aspects of body shape (e.g. musculature) was also administered (n = 597; aged 36.7 ± 15.6 years) to assess its convergent validity. RESULTS: The BOSHAS includes two sex-specific subscales of 10 photographs each. Most participants were able to repeat their BOSHAS preference order. Test-retest reliability was also consistent in estimating Current Body Shape (CBS), Desired Body Shape and Ideal Body Shape for participants and their partners. CBS was correlated with BMI, and different BOSHAS indices were consistent with declarations obtained by questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The BOSHAS is the first sex-specific scale of real African models photographed in face and profile, including large body shape variability. The validation protocol showed good validity and reliability for evaluating body shape perceptions and dissatisfaction of Africans.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Somatotipos/psicologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1289-1294, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913170

RESUMO

Backround: Internalized stigma, adoption of negative attitudes, and societal stereotypes regarding acne vulgaris (AV) have not been previously studied. Objective: To investigate the internalized stigma state in AV and determine its association with quality of life, perceived health, body image, and depression. Methods: A total of 77 AV patients (43 female, 34 male; aged 19.7 ± 2.3 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The scales used in the study were Acne Internalized Stigma Scale (AISS), Acne Quality of Life scale (AQOL), FDA Global score, Perceived Health Status (PHS), Body Image Scale (BIS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results: Mean AISS scores (53.68 ± 13.6) were significantly higher in males than in females (57.41 ± 14.37, 50.39 ± 12.25, P = 0.042). There was a significant positive correlation between mean values of AISS and AQOL (r = 0.816, P < 0.001), FDA Global grade (r = 0.391, P = 0.002) and BDI (r = 0.440, P < 0.001). Lower PHS (P = 0.027) was another determinant of high AISS scores. The mean AISS score of patients with a family history was significantly lower than those without a family history (P = 0.007). VAS was also found to be correlated with mean values of AISS and AQOL. Linear regression analysis revealed that the most important determinant of internalized stigma was AQOL (ß = 0,632; P < 0.001), followed by gender (ß = -0,229; P = 0.001), FDA Global score (ß = 0,193; P = 0.007), and BDI (ß = 0,177; P = 0.024). Discussion: Significant and independent predictive factors for high internalized stigma state were the negative quality of life, male gender, the severity of the illness, and depression. Therefore, internalized stigma may be one of the major factors responsible for the psychosocial burden of AV.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239322, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946504

RESUMO

Measuring body image is crucial at both personal and social levels. Previous studies have attempted to quantitatively measure body image but methods for measuring body change recognition over time have not yet been established. The present study proposes a novel human-computer interaction technique using dynamic morphing and body ownership illusion, and we conducted a user study to investigate how body ownership illusion and gender would affect to body change recognition. The results showed that a participant's body change recognition was weak when the body ownership illusion was strong. In addition, female participants were less sensitive than male participants. With our proposed technique, we demonstrated that we were able to quantitatively measure body change recognition and our empirical data indicated that body change recognition varied depending on body ownership illusion and gender, suggesting that our methodology could not only be used in future body image studies but also in eating disorder treatments.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Computadores , Ilusões/psicologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
Int J Eat Disord ; 53(11): 1801-1808, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amidst restrictions to reduce the spread of COVID-19, jokes have surfaced regarding weight gain during the pandemic. The current study documents perceived changes since COVID-19 and compares these to observed longitudinal changes in reported weight, BMI, and how college students described their weight from January to April 2020. METHOD: Undergraduates (N = 90; 88% female) completed on-line assessments before and after students were required to leave campus due to COVID-19. Time 1 and Time 2 surveys collected demographic information, height, weight, and a Likert-scale rating to describe perceived weight, ranging from 1 = very underweight to 5 = very overweight (weight description). Time 2 surveys added questions for perceived changes since COVID-19 in body weight, eating, physical activity, various forms of screen time, and concerns about weight, shape, and eating. RESULTS: Time 2 surveys indicated perceived increases in body weight, eating, and screen time, and decreases in physical activity along with increased concerns about weight, shape and eating since COVID-19. Longitudinal data indicated no significant change in weight, body mass index (BMI), or BMI category, but how participants described their weight changed significantly from January to April 2020. Compared to longitudinal changes in BMI category, students' weight description was significantly more likely to fall into a higher category from Time 1 to Time 2. DISCUSSION: Shifts in how body weight is experienced in the wake of COVID-19 that do not align with observed changes in reported weight may reflect cognitive distortions that could increase risk for disordered eating in some individuals.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Ganho de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804937

RESUMO

Obsession with the physique and appearance is a by-product of consumer societies. As such, fitness and slimming have now become major concerns of Iranian females. This study endeavors to elaborate on information-seeking behaviors among female students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences concerning fitness. This study conducted in 2018, employs a qualitative approach using conventional content analysis. The research population includes female students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 16 of whom were selected with use of purposive sampling. Data were collected through face-to-face semi-structured interviews and their trustworthiness was confirmed by the criteria of 'credibility', 'confirmability', 'dependability', and 'transferability' proposed by Guba and Lincoln. Results reveal four sub-categories and nineteen codes on information-seeking behavior. Sub-categories and codes including information-seeking motivations (achieving physical health, physical appearance, social acceptability, self-confidence, family and friends' pressure) information resources (electronic information resources, social media, printed information resources, doctors and nutritionists, family and friends, traditional & Islamic medicine, radio and TV), information validation (asking the doctors and specialists, matching the information with scientific references, consulting with friends and relatives) and obstacles to seeking information (lack of time, high costs, distrust, access limitation). by increasing the students' informational and media literacy, providing authentic and low-cost online resources of information and specialized TV programs, the damages rooted in using invalid information resources concerning fitness can be substantially diminished.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Motivação , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751821

RESUMO

The tendency of misperceiving one's body image was found to be higher among those at normal body mass index (BMI). Thus, the present study aims to provide basic data to seek solutions for ideal physical activities and right body image perception by comparing health-related behaviors of women at normal BMI. Among the 39,225 respondents from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) conducted from 2013 to 2017, 10,798 adult women with World Health Organization (WHO) BMI Classifications of 18.5 ≤ BMI < 25 (Asia-Pacific) were considered, from which pregnant and breast-feeding women and women whose body image perception was not identified were excluded, leading to a total of 9288 women. Data were analyzed utilizing SAS ver. 9.4 for frequency analysis, cross tabulation, GLM (generalized linear model), and logistic regression analysis with complex samples design, in conformity with the guidelines of the KNHNES. The results showed that approximately most (87.6%) of adult Korean women misperceived their body image. Misperception of body image was related to inappropriate health-related behaviors such as smoking, insufficient sleeping, and excessive body weight management; those who had underestimated their body image (≤64 odds ratio (OR) (0.718 (confidence interval (C.I.) 0.594-0.866))) carried out fewer health-related behaviors, while women aged 65 or above engaged in more health-related behaviors when they perceived themselves as obese (OR 1.683 (C.I. 1.260-2.248; overestimation)). To sum up, it was found that lack of health management, inappropriate body weight control, and health-related behaviors are related to body image misperception compared with real BMI. As such, it is necessary to have educational programs to encourage building proper perception of one's body image and body weight, and to carry out health-related behaviors.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Peso Corporal/etnologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , República da Coreia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777810

RESUMO

To assess the level of agreement between body size self-perception and actual body size determined by body mass index (BMI) z-score and body fatness measured by the deuterium dilution method (DDM) in South African children aged 6-8 years. A cross-sectional sample of 202 children (83 boys and 119 girls) aged 6-8 years from the Body Composition-Isotope Technique study (BC-IT) was taken. Subjective measures of body image (silhouettes) were compared with the objective measures of BMI z-score and body fatness measured by the DDM. The World Health Organization BMI z-scores were used to classify the children as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. DDM-measured fatness was classified based on the McCarthy centile curves set at 2nd, 85th and 95th in conjunction with fatness cut-off points of 25% in boys and 30% in girls. Data were analyzed using SPSS v26. Of 202 children, 32.2%, 55.1%, 8.8%, and 2.4% perceived their body size as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese, respectively. Based on BMI z-score, 18.8%, 72.8%, 6.9%, and 1.5% were classified as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese, respectively. Body fatness measurement showed that 2.5%, 48.0%, 21.8%, and 29.7% were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese, respectively. The application of silhouettes and BMI z-scores resulted in either overestimation or underestimation of own body size. Overall, the levels of agreements (kappa, κ) between body size perception, body fatness, and BMI for age respectively, were small (κ = 0.083, p = 0.053 and κ = 0.154, p<0.001). Level of agreement between body size perception, body fatness, and BMI z-score was poor. The use of silhouettes made children either overestimate their own body size while being underweight or underestimate their own body size while being overweight or obese. Given the potential health implications associated with misclassification of body size during childhood, correct self-assessment of body size is important, and may be key to the adoption of weight control strategies directed at curbing the escalating obesity epidemic in the country. Scalable measures to allow for more accurate self-assessment are urgently needed-one approach is behavior change communication at all levels.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Percepção , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Isótopos , Masculino , África do Sul
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708241

RESUMO

For many years, body dissatisfaction was considered a western phenomenon, and was studied mostly in Caucasian women. Recent studies, however, suggest that these issues are also present in men and in other ethnic groups. This research investigated the differential effects of various sociocultural pressures transmitted from the media, one's parents, and one's peers on the drives for thinness and muscularity, and body dissatisfaction among 1125 Korean college students (56% male) using structural equation modeling. The results indicate that, after controlling for body mass index and exercise, media pressures exerted the largest effects on participants' body ideals and, in turn, body dissatisfaction across both genders (ß = 0.44, and 0.30, p < 0.05, for females and males, respectively). This study's results also indicate that there are considerable gender differences in this relationship. Specifically, the results show that parental and media pressure had significant indirect relationships with body dissatisfaction via the drive for thinness among females, while peer and media pressures had significant indirect relationships with body dissatisfaction via the drive for muscularity among males. As body dissatisfaction is known to significantly affect an individual's mental and physical health, future research needs to identify relevant influential factors in this area, as well as the paths they have leading to increased body dissatisfaction.


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Magreza/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(7): 643-656, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of Body Project groups delivered virtually (vBP) by peer educators for prevention of eating disorders. METHOD: In a randomized controlled trial vBP groups (N = 149) were compared with a placebo (expressive writing, EW: N = 148) over 24-month follow-up and to a waitlist control condition (N = 146) over 6-month follow-up among females (15-20 years old) with body image concerns. The primary outcome was incidence of eating disorder onset over 2-year follow-up measured by blinded diagnostic interviews. Waitlist participants were offered the vBP after 6 months. RESULTS: The incidence of eating disorders onset over 24 months follow up were 3 in vBP (2.0%) and 13 in EW (8.8%), a significant difference; Hazard Ratio (Experiment B) = 0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.075, 0.92], p = .037. Incidence of eating disorder onset in vBP participants was 77% less than in EW participants. The vBP participants generally showed significantly greater reduction in eating disorder symptoms, clinical impairment, body dissatisfaction, and internalization of thin ideal compared with the waitlist participants at postintervention and 6-month follow-up, and in eating disorder symptoms, restraint, body dissatisfaction, and internalization of thin ideal compared with the EW participants at postintervention, and 6-, 12-, 18-, or 24-months follow-up. EW participants reported significantly greater reduction in clinical impairment and body dissatisfaction at postintervention compared with the waitlist participants. CONCLUSIONS: The present reduction in the incidence of eating disorders is notable given that the intervention was implemented virtually, rather than in-person. The vBP might be a viable option for future evaluation of scalable prevention of eating disorders. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Dissonância Cognitiva , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Adulto Jovem
10.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 163, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although body image (BI) disturbance is a common problem that often contributes to poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among women with breast cancer following surgery, the mediating role of BI (as a self-perceptive factor) in the relationship between needs and HRQoL after controlling for socio-demographic factors remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the mediating role of BI between post-surgery needs and HRQoL after controlling for socio-demographic factors among women with breast cancer. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the primary outcome was HRQoL (as measured with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2 [SF-36v2] and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast version 4.0 [FACT-Bv4.0]). The secondary outcomes included needs (measured in terms of needs importance [NI] and needs satisfaction [NS]) and BI. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the mediating role of BI between needs and HRQoL while considering socio-demographics. RESULTS: The 406 eligible patients reported poor HRQoL, and approximately half reported important unmet needs and poor BI. NI, NS, and socio-demographics had differing direct effects on BI and HRQoL, and contrasting indirect effects on HRQoL via BI. NI, NS, surgery type, presence of chronic disease, and BI explained 4% of the variance in the SF-36v2 physical component summary score; NI, NS, surgery type, residence, and BI explained 20% of the variance in the mental component summary score; and NI, NS, marital status, employment status, radiotherapy, and BI explained 33% of the variance in the FACT-Bv4.0 total score. CONCLUSIONS: After surgery, women with breast cancer have poor HRQoL and BI, and important unmet needs. BI mediates the relationship between needs and HRQoL after controlling for socio-demographics. The present findings provide information for developing comprehensive BI-based needs interventions and preparing targeted health-management programs for patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200040, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the agreement between body self-image (based on the Stunkard figure rating scale) and nutritional status and to evaluate body satisfaction among the Khisêdjê indigenous people of Parque Indígena do Xingu (Xingu Indigenous Park). METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 131 natives aged 20 and older. Data on body image, body mass index and waist circumference were collected. Kappa statistics, χ2 (p < 0.05), crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and Student's t-test were used for data analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was respectively 42 and 5.3%. The percentage of satisfaction with body profile was 61.8% with no difference between the sexes. There was good agreement between actual and ideal self-image (p < 0.001), but poor agreement between actual and ideal self-image with nutritional status for both sexes. A higher prevalence of body dissatisfaction due to overweight was detected in individuals with central obesity and overweight. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that body self-image evaluated by the Stunkard silhouette scale has little applicability as an indicator of nutritional status among the indigenous Khisêdjê of Xingu Indigenous Park.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/psicologia , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 28(5): 536-550, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The two studies aimed to examine implicit affective evaluations of thin-ideal and normal-weight body shapes in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), taking identification with body shapes into account. METHOD: In study 1, approach-avoidance bias for thin-ideal and normal-weight bodies was assessed in 40 women with AN and 40 healthy women by using an Approach-Avoidance Task and female avatar bodies with a standard face as stimuli. In study 2, 39 women with AN and 38 healthy women underwent a similar task but identification with bodies was manipulated by presenting bodies once with the participant's own face and once with another woman's face. RESULTS: In study 1, patients with AN did not differ from healthy participants in their automatic approach-avoidance tendencies towards thin-ideal and normal-weight bodies. In study 2, no definite approach bias for a thin self and no avoidance bias for thin other women or for a normal-weight self were found. However, as compared to healthy women, those with AN showed a less positive implicit evaluation of thin other women, and an implicit preference for thin bodies depicted as themselves over thin bodies depicted as another woman. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that intra-sexual competition for being slim is increased in AN.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Viés , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Peso Corporal Ideal , Magreza/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Health Psychol ; 39(10): 900-904, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Using a daily monitoring framework, we examined the psychological consequences of Fitbit self-tracking on state body satisfaction, disordered eating (DE; i.e., binge eating and dietary restraint), levels of exercise engagement, and motivations (appearance vs. fitness/health) in adult women. A further aim within the Fitbit group was to assess whether the level of steps achieved on 1 day would be associated with the state-based outcome measures on the subsequent day. METHOD: In total, 262 participants who had never used a wearable fitness self-tracking device were allocated to a Fitbit (n = 101) or control condition (n = 161). Participants provided baseline data on sociodemographics, eating pathology, and exercise and then completed a 10-day Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) protocol assessing exercise amount and motives, body satisfaction, and DE symptoms via a mobile application. Those in the Fitbit condition wore a Fitbit over the entire assessment period. RESULTS: The use of a Fitbit over a 10-day period had no significant effects on exercise behavior or body satisfaction compared to a control group. However, those in the Fitbit group were more likely to exercise to reach fitness goals and less likely to engage in dietary restraint and binge-eating behavior. Among participants in the Fitbit condition, steps achieved the previous day were not predictive of exercise engagement, body satisfaction, or DE symptoms on the subsequent day. CONCLUSIONS: Our study failed to link fitness self-tracking to body dissatisfaction and DE, at least in the early stages of use. Future research directions regarding alternative pathways through which self-tracking devices may exert negative influences are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Monitores de Aptidão Física/tendências , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 34(4): 199-209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404723

RESUMO

One of the most critical disorders among patients with colorectal cancer is a change in their body image. This study aimed to examine the effect of a self-care program based on the modeling and role-modeling theory on nurturing body image of patients with colorectal cancer. In 2018, a 2-group randomized clinical trial was conducted in Mashhad, Iran. According to the modeling and role-modeling theory, 27 patients allocated in the experimental group received five 30- to 45-minute sessions at the hospital and 4 sessions of phone counseling within 2 weeks. Twenty-seven patients randomly allocated in the control group received the routine care. Data were collected by demographic and body image scales 3 times with the patients. The mean age of the patients in experimental and control groups was not significantly different (P = .46). The mean scores of the body image at the admission time were 26.8 ± 2.6 in the experimental and 27.9 ± 3.1 in control groups (P = .12). However, the mean scores of body image of the experimental group were 24.3 ± 4.6 at the discharge time and 28.1 ± 2.1 during the follow-up phase. In the control group, the body image scores were 21.0 ± 5.6 at discharge time and 22.9 ± 6.1 during the follow-up phase. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the 2 groups (P ≤ .001). Application of the self-care program based on the modeling and role-modeling theory can play a critical role in nurturing the body image of patients with colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Autocuidado/normas , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232979, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This project examined risk factors of disordered eating in athletes by adapting and applying a theoretical model. It tested a previously proposed theoretical model and explored the utility of a newly formed model within an athletic population across gender, age, and sport type to explain disordered eating. DESIGN: The design was cross-sectional and the first phase in a series of longitudinal studies. METHODS: 1,017 athletes completed online questionnaires related to social pressures, internalisation, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, restriction, and bulimia. Structural equation modelling was employed to analyse the fit of the measurement and structural models and to do invariance testing. RESULTS: The original theoretical model failed to achieve acceptable goodness of fit (χ2 [70, 1017] = 1043.07; p < .0001. CFI = .55; GFI = .88; NFI = .53; RMSEA = .12 [90% CI = .111-.123]). Removal of non-significant pathways and addition of social media resulted in the model achieving a parsimonious goodness of fit (χ2 [19, 1017] = 77.58; p < .0001. CFI = .96; GFI = .98; NFI = .95; RMSEA = .055 [90% CI = .043-.068]). Invariance tests revealed that the newly revised model differed across gender, age, level, competition status, and length of sport participation. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the formation of disordered eating symptomology might not be associated with sport pressures experienced by athletes. It revealed that disordered eating development varies across gender, competition level, sport type, and age, which must be considered to prevent and treat disordered eating in athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Bulimia/etiologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Mídias Sociais , Esportes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520918335, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Increases in breast size with age are common but have not been widely examined as a factor that could affect the health and psychological wellbeing of mature-aged women. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between breast size and aspects of health and psychological wellbeing in mature-aged women. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of mature-aged women (⩾40 years). Breast size (breast size score) was determined from self-reported bra size and was examined against health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 and BREAST-Q), body satisfaction (numerical rating scale), breast satisfaction (BREAST-Q), physical activity levels (Human Activity Profile), the presence of upper back pain and breast and bra fit perceptions. RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-nine women (40-85 years) with bra band sizes ranging from 8 to 26 and bra cup sizes from A to HH participated. The mean (standard deviation) breast size score of 7.7 (2.7) was equivalent to a bra size of 14DD. Increasing breast size was associated with significantly lower breast-related physical wellbeing (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.043) and lower ratings of body (p = 0.002, R2 = 0.024) and breast satisfaction (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.065). Women with larger breasts were more likely to be embarrassed by their breasts (odds ratio: 1.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.31 to 1.70); more likely to desire a change in their breasts (odds ratio: 1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 1.75) and less likely to be satisfied with their bra fit (odds ratio: 0.84, 95% confidence interval: 0.76 to 0.92). Breast size in addition to age contributed to explaining upper back pain. For each one-size increase in breast size score, women were 13% more likely to report the presence of upper back pain. CONCLUSION: Larger breast sizes have a small but significant negative relationship with breast-related physical wellbeing, body and breast satisfaction. Larger breasts are associated with a greater likelihood of upper back pain. Clinicians considering ways to improve the health and psychological wellbeing of mature-aged women should be aware of these relationships.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/etiologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Mama/fisiologia , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 712, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the association between weight misperception and psychological symptoms in the Determinants of young Adults Social well-being and Health (DASH) longitudinal study. METHODS: A longitudinal sample of 3227 adolescents, in 49 secondary schools in London, aged 11-16 years participated in 2002/2003 and were followed up in 2005/2006. A sub-sample (N = 595) was followed up again at ages 21-23 years in 2012/2013. An index of weight misperception was derived from weight perception and measured weight. Psychological well- being was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at 11-16 years and the General Health Questionnaire at 21-23 years. Associations with weight misperception was assessed using regression models, adjusted for socio-economic and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: White British males and females were more likely than ethnic minority peers to report accurate perceptions of measured weight. At 11-13y, 46% females and 38% males did not have an accurate perception of their measured weight. The comparable figures at 14-16y were 42 and 40%. Compared with male adolescents, more females perceived themselves as overweight or were unsure of their weight but measured normal weight, and this was more pronounced among Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. At 14-16y, more males perceived themselves as underweight but measured normal weight, and this was more pronounced among Indians. Compared with those who had an accurate perception of their normal weight, a higher likelihood of probable clinically-relevant psychological symptoms was observed among those who measured normal weight but perceived themselves to be underweight (females Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.87 95% CI 1.03-3.40; males OR = 2.34 95% CI 1.47-3.71), overweight (females only OR = 2.06 95% CI 1.10-3.87), or unsure of their weight (males only OR = 1.61 95% CI 1.04-2.49). Among females, the association was driven by internalising rather than externalising symptoms. An accurate perception of overweight was associated with higher psychological symptoms in adolescence and early 20s. Ethnic specific effects were not evident. CONCLUSION: Weight misperception may be an important determinant of psychological symptoms in young people, with an accurate perception of normal weight status being protective. Culturally targeted interventions should be considered to promote healthy perceptions of body image.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Percepção de Peso , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Magreza/psicologia , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acta Chir Plast ; 61(1-4): 3-9, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380836

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plastic surgery is the medical specialty that enables moulding and reforming the human body. Cosmetic surgery can improve aesthetic appearance and subsequently self-esteem and self-confidence. Over the past 20 years, much of the research on the psychological aspects of aesthetic plastic surgery has focused on the psychological construct of body image. This study aims to investigate whether aesthetic surgery has an effect on an individual´s body image, body satisfaction and general self-esteem in the Cyprus population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Questionnaire data from 128 cosmetic surgery patients in a Plastic Surgery Clinic in Nicosia, obtained at two time points: one week before and three months after the surgery. The questionnaire was developed by the authors for the purpose of this study and consisted of measures on body image, body satisfaction and self-esteem. Pre- and postoperative values were compared. RESULTS: The majority were women (81.9%) and respondents mean age was 35.35 years. One out of two participants who responded has undergone breast augmentation (47.6%). Prior to treatment, only 7.3% of participants reported they were very satisfied with their physical appearance/body image, while after treatment this figure rose to 38.6%. Before treatment, 17.7% of the participants reported they felt bad/very bad about their body during sex and this dropped to 2.5% after the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence of improvement in individuals satisfaction with their body image and self-confidence after an aesthetic surgery. .


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cirurgia Plástica
20.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(5): 281-289, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286866

RESUMO

Men are faced with trends that give rise to the desire for a muscular and lean body; this may result in body dissatisfaction. Body dissatisfaction is associated with a plethora of health consequences. Social media has been named as one contributing factor for male body dissatisfaction. Up till now, women have been the focus of body image-related social media studies. Therefore, we conducted a quantitative content analysis of 1,000 relevant Instagram posts that were posted by men (and/or depicted men) to understand how the male body is depicted on Instagram and how user respond to those images. The majority of sampled posts showed high levels of muscularity and leanness. In addition, posts depicting men adhering to this specific body type received significantly more responses (likes and comments). Norms and outcomes related to health (i.e., training to be healthy) were more commonly shown than appearance-related constructs (i.e., training to become attractive), and promotion of physical activity was more common than dietary behavior. However, findings are potential harmful to men's body image, even if one considers that health-related messaging and physical active promotion was prominent. It remains debatable if men need to view very lean and very muscular men to encourage health-related behaviors.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Insatisfação Corporal/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino
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