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1.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(12): 930-939, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare measurements of left ventricular volume and function derived from 2-D transthoracic echocardiography (2DE), transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and the ultrasound velocity dilution cardiac output method (UDCO) with those derived from cardiac MRI (cMRI) in healthy neonatal foals. ANIMALS: 6 healthy 1-week-old Standardbred foals. PROCEDURES: Foals were anesthetized and underwent 2DE, TEE, and cMRI; UDCO was performed simultaneously with 2DE. Images acquired by 2DE included the right parasternal 4-chamber (R4CH), left apical 4- and 2-chamber (biplane), and right parasternal short-axis M-mode (M-mode) views. The longitudinal 4-chamber view was obtained by TEE. Measurements assessed included left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), end-systolic volume (LVESV), ejection fraction, stroke volume (LVSV), cardiac output (CO), and cardiac index (CI). Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare measurements derived from biplane, R4CH, and M-mode images and UDCO with cMRI-derived measurements. Repeatability of measurements calculated by 3 independent reviewers was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Compared with cMRI, all 2DE and TEE modalities underestimated LVEDV and LVESV and overestimated ejection fraction, CO, and CI. The LVSV was underestimated by the biplane, R4CH, and TEE modalities and overestimated by UDCO and M-mode methods. However, the R4CH-derived LVSV, CO, and CI were clinically comparable to cMRI-derived measures. Repeatability was good to excellent for measures derived from the biplane, R4CH, M-mode, UDCO, and cMRI methods and poor for TEE-derived measures. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: All assessed modalities yielded clinically acceptable measurements of LVEDV, LVESV, and function, but those measurements should not be used interchangeably when monitoring patient progress.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Tridimensional , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Animais , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/veterinária , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavalos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
2.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(11): 676-683, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical findings, magnetic resonance imaging features, management and outcome of canine cases with presumed optic neuritis of non-infectious origin that were presented to a UK referral centre from January 2000 to December 2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical database was searched for optic neuritis. Dogs with acute-onset vision impairment, systemic immunosuppressive treatment and follow-up of ≥6 months were included. Information collected included: age; gender; breed; clinical signs and duration; physical, ophthalmic and neurological examination findings; concurrent systemic disease; and results of electroretinogram, magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, polymerase chain reaction and serology testing for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and canine distemper virus, haematology and serum biochemistry profiles, abdominal ultrasound, thoracic radiography, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: Twenty-eight dogs were included, with a total of 48 affected optic nerves. Age at presentation ranged from 6 months to 10.5 years. Fundoscopic evidence of optic nerve disease was present in 34 of 48 (71%) optic nerves. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed enlargement of 32 of 48 (67%) nerves and contrast enhancement of 28 of 48 (58%) nerves. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis performed in 25 of 28 (89%) dogs revealed pleocytosis (>5 nucleated cells/uL) in 11 of 25 (44%) and increased protein (>0.35 g/L) in 11 of 25 (44%). Immunosuppressive prednisolone was administered to all dogs. Prednisolone was used alone in 9 of 28 (32%) dogs; the remaining 19 dogs received a combination of prednisolone with cytosine arabinoside, cyclosporine and/or azathioprine. Vision was recovered in 24 eyes (50%) of 18 affected dogs. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: A positive response to treatment was observed in 64% of dogs with presumptively diagnosed optic neuritis treated with immunosuppressive medication.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Neurite Óptica , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Neurite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico , Neurite Óptica/veterinária , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4715, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948772

RESUMO

Animal-fMRI is a powerful method to understand neural mechanisms of cognition, but it remains a major challenge to scan actively participating small animals under low-stress conditions. Here, we present an event-related functional MRI platform in awake pigeons using single-shot RARE fMRI to investigate the neural fundaments for visually-guided decision making. We established a head-fixated Go/NoGo paradigm, which the animals quickly learned under low-stress conditions. The animals were motivated by water reward and behavior was assessed by logging mandibulations during the fMRI experiment with close to zero motion artifacts over hundreds of repeats. To achieve optimal results, we characterized the species-specific hemodynamic response function. As a proof-of-principle, we run a color discrimination task and discovered differential neural networks for Go-, NoGo-, and response execution-phases. Our findings open the door to visualize the neural fundaments of perceptual and cognitive functions in birds-a vertebrate class of which some clades are cognitively on par with primates.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Vigília , Animais , Artefatos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Columbidae , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Aprendizagem , Movimento (Física) , Redes Neurais de Computação , Recompensa
4.
J Vet Sci ; 21(4): e52, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intradural-intramedullary intervertebral disc extrusion (IIVDE) is a rare condition of intervertebral disc disease. However, the diagnosis of IIVDE is challenging because the prognosis and imaging characteristics are poorly characterized. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the clinical and imaging characteristics of tentatively diagnosed IIVDE in dogs to assess the prognostic utility of neurological grade and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. METHODS: Twenty dogs were included in this retrospective cohort study. RESULTS: Nonchondrodystrophic breeds (n = 16) were more predisposed than chondrodystrophic breeds. Most dogs showed acute onset of clinical signs. Neurological examination at admission showed predominant non-ambulatory paraparesis (n = 9); paresis (n = 16) was confirmed more frequently than paralysis (n = 4). Follow-up neurological examination results were only available for 11 dogs, ten of whom showed neurological improvement and 8 showed successful outcomes at 1 month. The characteristic MRI findings include thoracic vertebra (T)2 hyperintense, T1 hypointense, intramedullary linear tracts with reduced disc volume, and cleft of the annulus fibrosus. None of the MRI measurements were significantly correlated with neurological grade at admission. Neurological grade did not differ according to the presence of parenchymal hemorrhage, parenchymal contrast enhancement, and meningeal contrast enhancement. Neurological grades at admission showed a statistical correlation with those observed at the 1-month follow-up (r = 0.814, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: IIVDE is a rare form of disc extrusion commonly experienced after physical activity or trauma and most frequently affects the cranial-cervical and thoracolumbar regions of nonchondrodystrophic dog breeds. Neurological score at admission emerged as a more useful prognostic indicator than MRI findings in dogs with suspected IIVDE.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Vértebras Torácicas/patologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Aust Vet J ; 98(10): 499-503, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671818

RESUMO

This retrospective case study aims to evaluate the accuracy of menace response, response to nasal stimulation and proprioceptive placing in diagnosing forebrain lesion in dogs. A total of 145 client-owned dogs investigated by magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain between December 2017 and June 2019 were evaluated. Seventy-one dogs with no magnetic resonance imaging-detectable intracranial and significant cerebrospinal fluid abnormality or recent history of seizure (<48 h) served as controls. Binary regression analysis was performed to determine the sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios of each selected test. Older age at presentation was a significant risk factor for the presence of a forebrain lesion. Menace (62.5%) and proprioceptive deficits (40.5%) were common findings in all dogs. They were also significantly associated with the presence of forebrain abnormality. Moreover, they were more sensitive (77.3% and 82.2%, respectively) and specific (50.0% and 62.5%, respectively) when applied to dogs aged 6 years or older. Nonetheless, all of these tests' likelihood ratios, and thus reliability are poor. These neurological tests are commonly employed for diagnosing forebrain disease in dogs, yet are not highly accurate in diagnosing forebrain abnormality. Clinicians should interpret these clinical test results along with the patient history when designing a diagnostic plan.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Animais , Cães , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Prosencéfalo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 448-454, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549578

RESUMO

A freshly dead juvenile bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), recovered from the waters near Sand Key, Clearwater, FL, was imaged postmortem using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging prior to conventional necropsy. The pattern of imaging findings in the brain was compatible with severe multifocal meningoencephalitis with intralesional necrosis and/or hemorrhage, and the pattern of imaging findings in the lungs was compatible with severe multifocal bronchopneumonia. The subsequent investigation included necropsy, histology, culture, and molecular diagnostics and demonstrated disseminated coinfection of dolphin morbillivirus and Aspergillus fumigatus. This is the first report documenting the cross-sectional imaging findings of this important cetacean comorbidity and demonstrates advances in modern, cooperative investigations of marine mammal mortality events.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Coinfecção/veterinária , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Infecções por Morbillivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Morbillivirus/virologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
7.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 32, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lissencephaly is a brain malformation characterized by smooth and thickened cerebral surface, which may result in structural epilepsy. Lissencephaly is not common in veterinary medicine. Here, we characterize the first cases of lissencephaly in four Shih Tzu dogs, including clinical presentations and findings of magnetic resonance imaging of lissencephaly and several concomitant brain malformations. CASE PRESENTATION: Early-onset acute signs of forebrain abnormalities were observed in all dogs, which were mainly cluster seizures and behavioral alterations. Based on neurological examination, the findings were consistent with symmetrical and bilateral forebrain lesions. Metabolic disorders and inflammatory diseases were excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging for three dogs showed diffuse neocortical agyria and thickened gray matter while one dog had mixed agyria and pachygyria. Other features, such as internal hydrocephalus, supracollicular fluid accumulation, and corpus callosum hypoplasia, were detected concomitantly. Antiepileptic drugs effectively controlled cluster seizures, however, sporadic isolated seizures and signs of forebrain abnormalities, such as behavioral alterations, central blindness, and strabismus persisted. CONCLUSIONS: Lissencephaly should be considered an important differential diagnosis in Shih Tzu dogs presenting with early-onset signs of forebrain abnormalities, including cluster seizures and behavioral alterations. Magnetic resonance imaging was appropriate for ante-mortem diagnosis of lissencephaly and associated cerebral anomalies.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/veterinária , Lisencefalia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/congênito , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/etiologia , Feminino , Lisencefalia/complicações , Lisencefalia/diagnóstico , Lisencefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino
8.
J Vet Cardiol ; 28: 55-61, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339994

RESUMO

A left ventricular accessory chamber is a complex and uncommon phenotype consisting in a subdivision of the left ventricle by a thick-walled muscle bundle or septum into two cavities. Multiple aetiologies such as congenital double-chambered left ventricle and acquired endomyocardial form of restrictive cardiomyopathy have been reported. The endomyocardial form of restrictive cardiomyopathy, owing to its structural heterogeneity, can present a similar phenotype to the congenital abnormality with intraventricular lesions bridging the ventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Conventional echocardiography is the first-line, accepted, non-invasive imaging modality to investigate underlying cardiac disease but presents limitations for the overall assessment of myocardial tissue. This report describes the use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as an additional imaging modality to provide multiplanar morphological, structural, and functional information of the myocardium. In the presented images, hyperintensities on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging within the myocardium along with hyperechoic and heterogeneous myocardial tissue on echocardiography and elevated troponin I were suggestive of a presumptive acquired pathological process such as feline endomyocarditis-left ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis complex, rather than a sole congenital anomaly. Although the diagnosis was not confirmed, this case exemplifies the advantages of using complementary multimodality imaging in a cat presented with a left ventricular accessory chamber.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/veterinária , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Gatos , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia
9.
Vet Surg ; 49(5): 947-957, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe low-field MRI findings associated with lumbosacral foraminal stenosis and radiculopathy and correlate these with clinical signs. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs (n = 240) that underwent a clinical examination and standardized MRI protocol of the lumbosacral junction. METHODS: Medical records of dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis with neurological clinical evaluation and MRI of the lumbosacral junction were used to describe imaging pathologies and relate them to clinical status. RESULTS: In total, 480 L7 neuroforamina were evaluated. A loss of foraminal fat signal was identified in 364 of 480 neuroforamina of which 87.9% (n=320) showed also concurrent nerve root changes. Magnetic resonance imaging features of L7 radiculopathy included nerve root enlargement and hyperintensity to surrounding connective tissue in dorsal oblique gradient echo short time inversion recovery sequences and specific changes in shape, size, or position of the nerve root in transverse T1-weighted sequences. Radiculopathy was noted as a consequence of either circumferential (entrapment) or focal (impingement) foraminal stenosis. Lateral vertebral spondylotic and intervertebral facet joint changes were the most common underlying spinal and neuroforaminal pathologies. Clinical signs were present in the ipsilateral hind leg in 85% (n = 65) of dogs with unilateral lumbosacral imaging findings. CONCLUSION: A loss of foraminal fat signal was likely to be associated with L7 radiculopathy and foraminal stenosis. Unilateral lesions were generally associated with clinical signs on the ipsilateral limb. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Loss of foraminal fat signal revealed by low-field MRI should prompt the assessment of concurrent radiculopathy and underlying stenosis, and in coherence with clinical findings, when is combined with clinical findings, improves the diagnosis of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis.


Assuntos
Constrição Patológica/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Região Lombossacral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Espinal/veterinária , Animais , Constrição Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Vértebras Lombares/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Radiculopatia/complicações , Radiculopatia/diagnóstico , Radiculopatia/patologia , Radiculopatia/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estenose Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(4): 444-452, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329949

RESUMO

Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are common illnesses that can cause debilitating neuropathic pain in Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS). The current imaging modality to screen CKCS for CM/SM is MRI of the brain and cervical spine. Magnetic resonance imaging provides good soft tissue detail and contrast of the cerebellum and cervical spinal cord. Computed tomography (CT) is another cross-sectional imaging technique that facilitates brain and neck evaluation; however, soft tissue resolution does not match that of MRI. Computed tomography benefits include identification of concurrent craniocervical junction anomalies (atlantooccipital overlap) and shorter imaging/anesthesia times with the ability to use only sedation. The aim of this retrospective, method comparison study is to assess the utility of multidetector CT for screening CM and SM in CKCS as compared to high-field MRI. Three groups of observers with different levels of experience graded CM and SM based on the British Veterinary Association/Kennel Club CM/SM classification criteria. Thirty CKCS underwent multidetector CT and 3 Tesla MRI studies. Computed tomography and MRI studies were reviewed at different timepoints to minimize bias. Computed tomography has lower Cohen's Kappa agreement for each observer group compared to MRI. The intraclass correlation coefficient averaging CM and SM for all groups was excellent using MRI, while CT was poor for SM and moderate for cerebellar herniation. Greater observer experience resulted in a higher agreement for CT and MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging should remain the standard for screening of CM and SM as CT can result in misclassification and greater disagreement.


Assuntos
Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/veterinária , Siringomielia/veterinária , Animais , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/patologia , Cerebelo/patologia , Cães , Encefalocele/patologia , Encefalocele/veterinária , Feminino , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Siringomielia/diagnóstico por imagem , Siringomielia/patologia
11.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 38: 100381, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115081

RESUMO

A 6.5-year-old male neutered Trailhound was admitted for hyperacute, nonprogressive, left-sided hemiparesis. Physical and neurologic examination revealed nonpainful, left-sided poorly ambulatory hemiparesis, decreased left-sided postural reactions and thoracic limbs hyporeflexia. Neuroanatomic localisation was consistent with a left-sided C6-T2 myelopathy. Haematology and biochemistry revealed nonspecific abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging of the neck revealed a focal intramedullary lesion at the level of C6-C7 vertebrae compatible with acute hydrated noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusion or ischemic myelopathy. During the second day of hospitalization, the dog developed convergence-retraction nystagmus, up-gaze palsy and eyelid retraction (Collier's sign) compatible with dorsal midbrain syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a focal lesion compatible with dorsal midbrain ischemic infarct. Further clinicopathologic testing, thoracic and abdominal imaging were unremarkable. Ischemic encephalopathy of unknown etiology was additionally diagnosed. Physiotherapy was performed therapeutically. At 1-year follow-up the dog was normal. This is an unusual report of a dog with myelopathy followed by ischemic encephalopathy with manifestation of convergence-retraction nystagmus in the absence of vestibular signs. This saccadic intrusion is a characteristic clinical manifestation of a dorsal midbrain syndrome localization. The importance of a complete differential diagnoses list formation in a dog with ischemic encephalopathy which leads to a thorough diagnostic investigation plan is highlighted. Moreover, this report contributes to the enrichment of the clinical reasoning veterinary literature on convergence-retraction nystagmus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the second case report (fourth dog) to describe convergence-retraction nystagmus in dogs as a manifestation of dorsal midbrain syndrome.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Nistagmo Patológico/veterinária , Doenças da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Paresia/diagnóstico , Paresia/veterinária , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/veterinária
12.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(3): 336-345, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162431

RESUMO

Foot pain is a common presenting complaint in Warmblood horses. The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to determine the spectrum of foot lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Warmblood horses used for dressage, jumping, and eventing. The medical records of 550 Warmblood horses with foot pain that were scanned using standing MRI were reviewed and the following data were recorded: signalment, occupation, lameness, diagnostic analgesia, imaging results, treatments, and follow-up assessments. Associations between standing MRI lesions and chronic lameness following treatment were tested. Abnormalities of the navicular bone (409 horses, 74%), distal interphalangeal joint (362 horses, 65%), and deep digital flexor (DDF) tendon (260 horses, 47%) occurred with the highest frequency. The following abnormalities were significantly associated (P < .05) with chronic lameness following conservative therapy: moderate to severe MRI lesions in the trabecular bone of the navicular bone, mild or severe erosions of the flexor surface of the navicular bone, moderate sagittal/parasagittal DDF tendinopathies, and moderate collateral sesamoidean desmopathies. Also, identification of concurrent lesions of the DDF tendon, navicular bone, navicular bursa, and distal sesamoidean impar ligament was associated with chronic lameness after conservative therapy. Development of effective treatment options for foot lesions that respond poorly to conservative therapy is necessary.


Assuntos
Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Artropatias/veterinária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Animais , Bolsa Sinovial , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Pé/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavalos , Artropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Artropatias/patologia , Ligamentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamentos/patologia , Dor/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ossos do Tarso/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos do Tarso/patologia , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Tendões/patologia
13.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 49(2): 290-298, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910304

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to describe normal magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic anatomy of pastern and coffin joints in Egyptian buffalo using cadaveric distal limbs. This study was achieved using twelve fresh cadaveric distal limbs from adult healthy buffaloes of both sexes. These cadaveric limbs were scanned using a 1 Tesla MRI scanner and CT scanner, injected with red latex, frozen at -20°C for 1 week, and then sectioned into sagittal, dorsal and transverse slices. The obtained MR and CT images were selected to be matched with their corresponding anatomical cross-sections for identification and evaluation of the clinically correlated anatomical structures of the pastern and coffin joints. The difference in signal intensities on CT and MRI scans amongst the tissues allowed clear differentiation of major bone and soft tissue structures of the pastern and coffin joints. CT provided a high spatial resolution of bone and soft tissue structures, however, MRI allowed a better and higher resolution and definition between soft tissues. The current study provided a normal CT and MRI anatomic reference which could help veterinary clinicians for interpretation and diagnosis of the clinically affected pastern and coffin joints in buffalo.


Assuntos
Búfalos/anatomia & histologia , Articulações/anatomia & histologia , Anatomia Transversal , Animais , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Extremidades/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Membro Posterior/anatomia & histologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
15.
J Am Anim Hosp Assoc ; 56(2): 106-113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961212

RESUMO

The goal of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to describe the different etiologies of trigeminal neuropathy based on clinical and MRI findings and to evaluate the significance of associated concomitant disorders. MRI studies of 49 dogs with trigeminal neuropathy were blindly reviewed and were classified into the following three groups: neoplasia, neuritis, or idiopathic trigeminal neuropathy (ITN). Thirty-one percent were suspected to have neoplasia (all unilateral), 16% to have neuritis (1 bilateral and 7 unilateral), and 53% to have ITN (4 unilateral and 22 bilateral). Dogs with clinical bilateral trigeminal dysfunction were most likely to have a diagnosis of ITN (predicted probability 95.7%). Unilateral clinical signs were significantly associated with neoplasia or neuritis compared with ITN (P < .001 and P = .002, respectively). Even with marked brainstem neoplastic involvement, central neurological deficits may be absent. Sensory impairment was significantly associated with either neoplasia or neuritis compared with ITN (P = .007 and P = .03, respectively). Ipsilateral noninfectious middle ear effusion was only seen in dogs with neoplasia (33%). Horner's syndrome was present in 12% of all dogs (2 dogs in each group). Dogs with neoplasia were significantly older than dogs with neuritis (P = .02) and ITN (P = .002). JAAHA-MS-6997.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo/veterinária , Envelhecimento , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/veterinária , Neurite (Inflamação)/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurite (Inflamação)/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo/patologia
16.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(2): 197-205, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800146

RESUMO

High-field MRI of the proximal metacarpal/metatarsal region has been associated with great diagnostic potential and clinical reports of standing low-field MRI of the forelimb suggest the same. To better understand diagnostic outcomes with standing low-field MRI of the proximal suspensory region, a prospective survey study was conducted and users of a widely available system questioned on their experience, operating procedures, and interpretation of standing low-field MRI findings. Response data included scores on a modified Likert scale from which weighted ratings were calculated for statistical analyses. Depending on the question, responses were obtained from 17 to 29 of the 38 invited facilities. Users indicated that standing low-field MRI was most frequently performed in the face of equivocal diagnostic findings; compared to Sports horses, general purpose riding horses were thought less likely to have detectable abnormalities and standing low-field MRI was rated most useful for the detection of primary bone pathology in the proximal metacarpal region. Standing low-field MRI signal change involving both the suspensory ligament and adjacent bone concurrently was rated most relevant and abnormalities solely affecting the muscle/adipose tissue bundles least relevant for diagnosing suspensory ligament injury. Transverse scans and in decreasing order T1-weighted gradient echo, short-tau inversion recovery FSE, T2*-weighted gradient echo, and T2-weighted FSE sequences were most frequently acquired and judged most useful by the majority of users experienced in imaging of the target area. This survey supports the relevant impact of standing low-field MRI on clinical case management, particularly in the context of imaging the proximal metacarpal region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Artropatias/veterinária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Ossos Metacarpais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos do Metatarso/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Cavalos , Artropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamentos/patologia , Metacarpo , Metatarso/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Cintilografia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(1): 48-57, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825150

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging and the correlation to histopathological findings of the equine palmar foot of lame horses have been described previously, using 0.27 and 1.5 T systems. Compared to these, 3 T systems provide superior spatial resolution and imaging contrast. The aim of our prospective anatomic study was to characterize the imaging anatomy of the navicular region on 3 T MRI in comparison to histopathological findings. We hypothesized that 3 T MRI allows a good visualization of the entire navicular apparatus and reliable measurements of navicular cartilage and cortical bone thickness. Twenty front feet of sound horses were examined using a 3 T MRI system. For histopathological examination, sagittal tissue sections of the navicular bones and adjacent ligaments were prepared. Alterations in magnetic resonance signal were graded for each region and compared to corresponding histological slices. Overall, there was good visualization of the anatomical detail and a very good agreement between MRI and histology for compact bone and spongiosa, good agreement for the fibrocartilage and the distal sesamoidean impar ligament, but only moderate agreement for the hyaline cartilage and the collateral sesamoidean ligament. A comparative measurement of cartilage and cortical bone thickness on magnetic resonance images and histological sections was performed. In MRI, the hyaline cartilage of the articular surface appeared significantly thinner and the fibrocartilage of the flexor surface appeared significantly thicker compared to histology. Findings indicated that MRI at a field strength of 3 T allows reliable depiction of anatomic details of the navicular apparatus.


Assuntos
Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Ossos do Tarso/anatomia & histologia , Ossos do Tarso/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrocartilagem/diagnóstico por imagem , Cartilagem Hialina/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(2): E17-E21, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663604

RESUMO

An 8-year-old Labrador Retriever was presented for inspiratory efforts with stertor. A rhinoscopy and a magnetic resonance imaging scan were performed and revealed a naso-pharyngeal mass. The mass was identified in the nasopharynx without meningeal extension. This mass was both T1- and T2-hyperintense, compared to normal brain parenchyma without significant postcontrast enhancement. The mass was surgically removed and the histologic diagnosis was a mesenchymal tumor. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies was conducted and consistent with an extracranial meningioma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report documenting a primary extracranial nasopharyngeal meningioma in a dog.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Neoplasias Meníngeas/veterinária , Meningioma/veterinária , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Meníngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Meningioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(5): 316-320, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736904

RESUMO

Delayed pneumocephalus developed in a 9-year-old dog following transfrontal craniotomy and implantation of an experimental local chemotherapy into a partially resected oligodendroglioma, but the animal appeared to be asymptomatic. MRI evidence of increasing intracranial pressure, including progressive ventricular dilatation and compression of periventricular parenchyma, led to the recommendation for exploratory craniotomy. The barrier between the intracranial cavity and frontal sinus was enhanced, and pneumocephalus resolved on MRI at both 1 and 3 months following the repair.


Assuntos
Craniotomia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Pneumocefalia/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Pneumocefalia/cirurgia
20.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(11): 710-713, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032926

RESUMO

A 4-year-old female Chihuahua was presented with progressive seizures, blindness and lethargy. Neurolocalisation was consistent with a diffuse brain lesion affecting the forebrain and cerebellum. MRI demonstrated dilation of the subarachnoid space dorsolaterally surrounding the cerebrum, filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Ventricular system size was normal, but mild cerebral atrophy was suspected. There was pachymeningeal contrast enhancement, but CSF analysis was unremarkable. This lesion was interpreted to be an external hydrocephalus of suspected congenital origin.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Hidrocefalia , Animais , Encéfalo , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidrocefalia/veterinária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Convulsões/veterinária , Espaço Subaracnóideo
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