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1.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(1): 131-149, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759444

RESUMO

Reptiles can develop various diseases of the urinary tract, including, but not exclusively, urolithiasis, gout, acute and chronic kidney injury, and secondary renal hyperparathyroidism. Diagnostic imaging is instrumental in differentiating and diagnosing these ailments. This article describes the current diagnostic imaging approaches used in reptile medicine for evaluation of urinary tract disease. The use of radiographs, ultrasonography, computed tomography, MRI, and endoscopy is discussed and compared for the evaluation of urinary tract disease in reptiles.


Assuntos
Répteis , Doenças Urológicas/veterinária , Animais , Endoscopia/veterinária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Doenças Urológicas/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(1): 59-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759452

RESUMO

Due to the special anatomy and physiology of the avian urinary system, the value of diagnostic imaging techniques differs from the use in mammals. The diagnostic imaging methods regularly used in practice to evaluate the avian kidneys are often limited to traditional radiography and ultrasonography, whereas other imaging modalities (urography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, MRI) are rarely used. Furthermore endoscopy may be performed and taking a renal biopsy may be considered. The article describes common indications for imaging techniques used to diagnose urinary tract disease as well as its anatomic and pathologic demonstration.


Assuntos
Aves , Animais , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Sistema Urinário/diagnóstico por imagem , Urografia/veterinária
3.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(6): 1725-1736, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696693

RESUMO

Magnetic Resonance (MR) is a non-invasive modality of choice for the evaluation of brain morphology, with superior performance as compared to other techniques. However, MR images are typically assessed qualitatively, thus relying on the experience of the involved radiologist. This may lead to errors of interpretation in the presence of subtle alterations and does not exploit the full potential of this technique as a quantitative diagnostic tool. To this end Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry (MRR), which is able to quantitively characterize the tissues under investigation through their relaxation rates, seems extremely promising. Many studies assessed the feasibility of relaxometry as a diagnostic tool in human brain disorders, with the most promising results obtained in the evaluation of neurodegenerative diseases and in the oncologic field. However, despite such extensive literature in human medicine, due to the lack of standardized protocols and the need of high-field MRI scanners, to date few studies have been performed on companion animals. In this work, first we describe relaxometry applications in human neuropathology and their possible extension to companion animals both in the experimental and clinical fields. Then, we present two experiments performed on a typical standard clinical scanner operating at 0.25 T to show that, despite the low field intensity, this technique may be promising even in the clinical setup. We tested the relaxometry protocol in a phantom study and then applied it to a real clinical case study. The results showed that this protocol used on a phantom led to a higher contrast, as compared to the standard approach. Furthermore, when applied to a real case study, this protocol revealed brain lesions undetected by the standard technique which were confirmed by a histopathological examination. These preliminary results are encouraging and support the development of this approach as an advanced diagnostic tool even in a clinical setting where low field MRI scanners are typically employed.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Imagens de Fantasmas
4.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(11): 1012-1019, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) for the assessment of prostatic tumors in dogs and to compare results for TRUS with results for other imaging modalities. ANIMALS: 10 client-owned male dogs. PROCEDURES: Client-owned dogs identified with prostatic carcinoma were enrolled. Fluoroscopy, transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS), TRUS, and MRI were performed on all dogs. Tumor measurements, urethral penetration (identification of abnormal tissue within the urethral lumen), and tumor extension into the urinary tract were recorded for all imaging modalities. Agreement between results for MRI (considered the criterion-referenced standard) and results for other modalities were compared. RESULTS: Median body weight of the 10 dogs was 26.3 kg (range, 9.4 to 49.5 kg). No complications were encountered during or after TRUS. Significant moderate to good agreements (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.60 to 0.86) among TAUS, TRUS, fluoroscopy, and MRI were identified for tumor length and height. Assessments of urethral penetration and tumor extension into the bladder with TRUS did not differ significantly from those made with MRI and were superior in terms of absolute agreement with MRI when compared with those for TAUS. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: TRUS was successfully and safely used to evaluate prostatic carcinoma in dogs. There was moderate to good agreement with MRI results for tumor height and length measurements, and TRUS was found to be superior to TAUS for some assessments. Transrectal ultrasonography can be considered an adjunctive imaging modality for the performance of prostatic interventional procedures or assessment of response to treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 60(6): 668-679, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515897

RESUMO

Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been described as methods for preoperative surgical planning in cats with feline injection site sarcomas (FISS), however, few published studies have compared these modalities. The objective of this retrospective, secondary analysis study was to determine if imaging features of FISS on CTA and MRI are predictive of neoplastic peritumoral projections. Archived data from a previous prospective study were retrieved for 10 cats with FISS. All cats had been evaluated in a single anesthetic episode with MRI and dual phase CT (CTA) imaging followed by surgical removal. Histopathological grading and targeted histopathology of imaging-identified peritumoral projections were performed. Two observers evaluated the CTA and MRI studies for FISS shape, margination, size, enhancement pattern, postcontrast uniformity, pre- and postcontrast margination, the number of muscles involved, mass mineralization, and bone lysis. Metal was present in the imaging field of three of 10 cats, resulting in one nondiagnostic MRI. Peritumoral projections were detected in all cats with both imaging modalities, and most were benign. At least one neoplastic peritumoral projection was detected in six cats using MRI, five cats using CTA, and three cats with both modalities. Higher grade FISS were larger than low grade using MRI, and FISS were larger using MRI. Other FISS imaging features using MRI and CTA were similar. Findings supported use of either MRI or CTA for detecting neoplastic peritumoral projections in cats with FISS. Authors recommend CTA for cats with known metallic objects in the scan field.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Reação no Local da Injeção/veterinária , Sarcoma/veterinária , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Terapia Combinada/veterinária , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/veterinária , Feminino , Reação no Local da Injeção/diagnóstico por imagem , Injeções/veterinária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores/veterinária , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(10): 1527-1532, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484834

RESUMO

An 11-year-old male Miniature Dachshund was referred for acute neurological deficits in the pelvic limbs. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the spinal cord at the L1-2 intervertebral disc space was heterogeneously hyperintense in the sagittal plane and was mildly compressed from the ventral side by a small hypointense mass in the transverse plane. However, the lesion showed mass enhancement and severe spinal cord compression on post-contrast T1-weighted imaging. On three-dimensional myelography, a "golf tee sign" was observed around the mass. Therefore, we diagnosed an intradural extramedullary lesion. The mass was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as a hemangiosarcoma. The "golf tee sign" observed on magnetic resonance myelography may be useful for distinguishing intradural extramedullary masses from intramedullary masses.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Hemangiossarcoma/veterinária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Mielografia/veterinária , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Hemangiossarcoma/diagnóstico , Hemangiossarcoma/patologia , Hemangiossarcoma/cirurgia , Histocitoquímica , Masculino , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Espinal/patologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/patologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/cirurgia
7.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2167-2174, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Development of management strategies for lumbosacral stenosis in dogs is hampered by the lack of objective diagnostic criteria and outcome measures. OBJECTIVE: To explore the suitability of electrodiagnostic tests as ancillary diagnostic aids, inclusion criteria, or outcome measures. SAMPLE POPULATION: Sixty-one client-owned dogs with clinical signs of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis. METHODS: A blinded, cross-sectional cohort study. Fifty-one dogs exhibiting apparent lumbosacral pain or pelvic limb lameness with no detected orthopedic cause had blinded review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), allowing classification as affected with foraminal stenosis (25 dogs), unaffected (20 dogs), or another diagnosis (6 dogs). The presence of electromyographic changes and tibial neurography variables were compared between groups. RESULTS: Cord dorsum potential onset latency, F-wave onset latency (both corrected for limb length), and F-ratio were increased in dogs with lumbosacral foraminal stenosis versus those without, although there was overlap of the values between groups. The proportion of dogs with electromyographic changes was not significantly greater in MRI-affected dogs. CONCLUSION: Electrophysiological testing is a useful ancillary test, either to provide stricter inclusion criteria and outcome measures or to aid clinical decision-making in equivocal cases.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Eletromiografia/veterinária , Estenose Espinal/veterinária , Animais , Dor nas Costas/diagnóstico , Dor nas Costas/veterinária , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Região Lombossacral/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Estenose Espinal/diagnóstico
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 293, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging using gadoxetic acid, a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent, is one of the most useful MRI techniques used to diagnose liver tumours in humans. During the hepato-biliary phase, there is uptake of gadoxetic acid by normal hepatocytes, leading to hepatic parenchymal enhancement. This feature is used in human medicine to diagnose hepatic parenchymal metastatic disease, to differentiate primary liver tumours, to diagnose liver cirrhosis and focal nodular hyperplasia. This study presents the preliminary results of magnetic resonance imaging of focal lesions localised in the liver parenchyma in dogs following the administration of gadoxetic acid. RESULTS: The lesion enhancement ratio (ERlesion) in the tumour metastasis was 0.05; the liver enhancement ratio (ERliver) - 0.49 and the post-contrast lesion-to-liver contrast ratio (CR) was 0.17. In dogs with hepatocellular hyperplasia, these values were 0.54; 0.51; and 1.18, respectively. In two dogs with a hepatic adenoma, the ERlesion was 0.26 and 0.17, respectively; the ERliver was 0.47 and 0.47, respectively and the CR was 0.33 and 0.31, respectively. In the dog with a neuroendocrine tumour, the ERlesion was 0.03; the ERliver amounted to 0.58 and the CR was 0.35. In the case of a hepatocellular carcinoma, these coefficients were 0.2, 0.6 and 0.3, respectively. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, it may be assumed that the MR images of the proliferative hepatic parenchymal lesions in dogs using gadoxetic acid are similar to those obtained in humans. This suggests that the contrast enhancement patterns used in human medicine may be useful in differentiating hepatic parenchymal lesions in dogs.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Gadolínio DTPA/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/veterinária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
9.
J Vet Cardiol ; 24: 28-35, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405552

RESUMO

In human medicine, non-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is routinely used to assess the cardiovascular system. In this study, using non-contrast CMRI, we provide a thorough description of the normal appearance of the intrathoracic cardiovascular structures in one healthy cat using a magnet operating at a field of 1.5-Tesla. The CMRI protocol was based on the use of fast spin-echo double inversion recovery and steady-state free precession pulse sequences in oblique short-axis, vertical long-axis, and horizontal long-axis imaging planes. After imaging the feline heart, four cadaver cats injected with latex substance into their arterial and venous systems were sectioned to facilitate interpretation of the intrathoracic cardiovascular structures to the corresponding CMRI. The fast spin-echo double inversion recovery images showed the best evaluation of gross intrathoracic anatomy, giving excellent contrast of the myocardium and vessels walls as they appeared with intermediate signal intensity compared to the lumen that appeared with low signal intensity. By contrast, steady-state free precession images showed details of the heart cavities and vascular lumen due to the high signal intensity of fast-flowing blood. The results of this study provide some anatomic detail for the heart and associated vessels as seen by non-contrast CMRI in the domestic cat.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/anatomia & histologia , Gatos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Sistema Cardiovascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Valores de Referência
10.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2151-2159, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although thoracic hemivertebra can cause neurological signs, they occur commonly in neurologically normal dogs. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether computed tomography (CT) findings and factors associated with signalment can be used to differentiate between dogs with and without neurological signs associated with hemivertebra. ANIMALS: One hundred sixty dogs with ≥1 hemivertebrae were retrospectively studied. This group consisted of 40 dogs with clinical signs caused by hemivertebra and 40 French Bulldogs, 40 Pugs, and 40 English Bulldogs that underwent CT for reasons unrelated to neurological disease. METHODS: All dogs underwent CT and affected dogs also underwent magnetic resonance imaging. All CT studies were randomly evaluated by an observer blinded to signalment and clinical status. The following variables were evaluated: presence, number, location, and subtype of hemivertebra; presence of vertebral subluxation; severity of vertebral canal stenosis; presence, location, and severity of kyphosis, and number of vertebrae involved in the kyphotic segment. Statistical modeling was performed to identify factors associated with clinical status. RESULTS: Pug breed (odds ration [OR], 10.8; P = .01), more severe kyphosis (OR, 1.1 per grade increase; P < .001), fewer instead of more observed hemivertebrae (OR, 0.8; P = 0.03), and ventrolateral hypoplasia hemivertebra subtype (OR, 4.0; P = .011) were associated with higher likelihood of neurological disease. A Cobb angle of 34.5 degrees corresponded with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity to differentiate between clinically affected and unaffected dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The variables identified could aid in differentiating between clinically relevant and irrelevant hemivertebra in small breed brachycephalic dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães/anormalidades , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/veterinária , Vértebras Torácicas/anormalidades , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
11.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(5): 578-584, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of iso-osmolar doses of 18% mannitol and 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions in decreasing intracranial pressure (ICP) in animals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: Prospective uncontrolled interventional study. SETTING: Veterinary university teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Two cats and 1 dog with TBI with a modified Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤8 after hemodynamic stabilization, and with brain magnetic resonance imaging changes suggestive of intracranial hypertension. INTERVENTIONS: Animals were surgically instrumented for direct ICP measurement, then randomly treated with iso-osmolar doses of 18% mannitol or 3% NaCl. Direct ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were recorded both before treatment and for 120 minutes following drug administration. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Direct ICP and CPP were recorded both before treatment and at 5 additional time points following administration over the subsequent 120 minutes. Case 1 received 3% NaCl without any response to therapy; refractory posttraumatic hypertension was suspected. Case 2 was treated with 3% NaCl; ICP decreased by 40.7% and CPP increased by 15%; however, these effects were transient. Case 3 received 18% mannitol, and ICP decreased by 19% and CPP increased to normal. However, there was a rebound increase in ICP that was higher than pretreatment values, and CPP decreased slightly before it gradually increased to normal values towards the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Both mannitol and hypertonic saline decrease ICP and improve CPP, but the effect observed in this pilot study suggests that there might be differences in the duration of these effects. Appropriately designed studies in a larger and homogeneous population are warranted to further investigate these findings.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos/lesões , Diuréticos Osmóticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães/lesões , Hemorragias Intracranianas/veterinária , Manitol/uso terapêutico , Solução Salina Hipertônica/uso terapêutico , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Diuréticos Osmóticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/tratamento farmacológico , Pressão Intracraniana , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Manitol/administração & dosagem , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Solução Salina Hipertônica/administração & dosagem
12.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2160-2166, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) occurs because of compression of the cervical spinal cord, nerve roots, or both, usually affecting young adult to older large and giant breed dogs. Juvenile dogs are affected infrequently. OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in juvenile dogs (≤ 12 months) with cervical spondylomyelopathy. ANIMALS: Twenty CSM-affected juvenile dogs. METHODS: Medical and imaging records for juvenile dogs with CSM were reviewed. History and neurologic examination findings were obtained, including follow-up data. The MRI studies were reviewed for cause and site of spinal cord compression, intervertebral disk protrusion or degeneration, articular process degenerative changes, intervertebral foraminal stenosis, and spinal cord signal changes. RESULTS: Mean (median) age at the time of diagnosis was 9.4 (10) months. There were 16 giant breed dogs. Eighteen dogs had a chronic presentation, 18/20 had proprioceptive ataxia, and 9/20 had cervical pain. On MRI, the principal spinal cord compression occurred at C5-C6, C6-C7, or both in most dogs; 12/20 dogs had ≥2 sites of spinal cord compression. The cause of compression was articular process proliferation in 8/20 dogs and disk protrusion in 2/20 dogs. Intervertebral disk degeneration was seen in 9/20 dogs. Follow-up was obtained for 12/20 dogs: 10/12 were managed medically and 2/12 surgically. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Cervical spondylomyelopathy in juvenile dogs was characterized mostly by osseous-associated spinal cord compression and multiple compressive sites. Almost half of the dogs had intervertebral disk degeneration. Intervertebral disk protrusion was seen in both giant and large breed dogs.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Compressão da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Animais , Vértebras Cervicais/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Cervicalgia/veterinária , Compressão da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Espinal/veterinária
13.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(2): 431-433, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269355

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the visualization of the rabbit common calcanean tendon and adjacent structures in the high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 1.5 T field strength and to compare the results with those previously obtained for the low-field MRI (0.25 T). Eight New Zealand rabbits were used in the post-mortem study and the results indicate that the high-field MRI provides more detailed images only in transverse scans, where the outer outline of the tendon was visualized more accurately. Other analysed structures were imaged with a resolution comparable to the low-field MRI.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Coelhos/anatomia & histologia , Tendão do Calcâneo/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cadáver , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
14.
Vet Surg ; 48(8): 1372-1381, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the feasibility of standing MRI (sMRI) and document the value of sMRI in surgical planning for surgical repair of limb fractures in the horse. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Thirty-one horses with preoperative sMRI. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for fracture type, application of a polyester cast, sMRI sequences performed, technical variables, and image quality. Fracture geometry and concomitant lesions were compared between sMRI and radiography. The relative value of sMRI with regard to surgical planning was classified as minor (sMRI did not provide additional findings), intermediate (additional lesions found or slight modification to surgical plan), or major (sMRI led to significant alternations in surgical plan). RESULTS: Standing MRI provided good studies in all horses. Standing MRI was classified as having major relevance in 12 of 31 horses, intermediate relevance in 14 of 31 horses, and minor relevance in 5 of 31 horses. CONCLUSION: Preoperative sMRI produced good studies in all horses and influenced the surgical planning in the majority of fractures in this study. Application of a polyester cast seemed to improve comfort without appreciable loss of image quality. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Standing MRI can be considered as an adjunct to plan the repair of equine fractures, and a polyester cast does not impair image quality.


Assuntos
Fixação Interna de Fraturas/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Cavalos/lesões , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Animais , Moldes Cirúrgicos/classificação , Moldes Cirúrgicos/veterinária , Extremidades/diagnóstico por imagem , Extremidades/patologia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Radiografia/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 60(6): 696-706, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353764

RESUMO

Morphology of the equine cervical intervertebral disc is different from that in humans and small companion animals and published imaging data are scarcely available. The objectives of this exploratory, methods comparison study were (a) to describe MRI features of macroscopically nondegenerated and degenerated intervertebral discs (b) to test associations between spinal location and macroscopic degeneration or MRI-detected annular protrusion and between MRI-detected annular protrusion and macroscopic degeneration, and (c) to define MRI sequences for characterizing equine cervical intervertebral disc degeneration. Ex vivo MRI of intervertebral discs was performed in 11 horses with clinical signs related to the cervical region prior to macroscopic assessment. Mixed-effect logistic regression modeling included spinal location, MRI-detected annular protrusion, and presence of macroscopic degeneration with "horse" as random effect. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were determined. Reduced signal intensity in proton density turbo SE represented intervertebral disc degeneration. Signal voids due to presence of gas and/or hemorrhage were seen in gradient echo sequences. Presence of macroscopic intervertebral disc degeneration was significantly associated with spinal location with odds being higher in the caudal (C5 to T1) versus cranial (C2 to C5) part of the cervical vertebral column. Intervertebral discs with MRI-detected annular protrusion grades 2-4 did have higher odds than with grade 1 to have macroscopic degeneration. It was concluded that MRI findings corresponded well with gross macroscopic data. Magnetic resonance imaging of the equine cervical intervertebral disc seems to be a promising technique, but its potential clinical value for live horses needs to be explored further in a larger and more diverse population of horses.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Logísticos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino
16.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(5): 449-454, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348547

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop an anatomical model of the feline hip joint for low-field magnetic resonance imaging (LF-MRI) based on high-field magnetic resonance imaging (HF-MRI). The study was performed on six adult clinically healthy European shorthair cats, aged 1-3 years, with body weight of 2.8-4.4 kg. The animals were examined with the use of the Vet-MRI Grande Esaote LF (0.25 T) scanner and high-field Siemens Magnetom TRIO (3 T) MRI scanner. In the LF-MRI, most satisfactory results in T1-weighted images were obtained when TE was 26 ms in all three planes and when TR was 350-950 ms in the transverse plane, 950-1150 ms in the sagittal plane and 520-750 ms in the dorsal plane. In T2-weighted images, TE was 90 ms in the transverse and dorsal plane and 120 ms in the sagittal plane. The results were presented as images acquired with LF-MRI scanners in three planes. The slice thickness was 3 mm for each plane. In LF-MRI, muscles in the hip joint region and round ligament were well visualized. Unlike in LF-MRI, the cross section of the femoral nerve was identified in HF-MRI scans. In examinations of the feline hip joint, the main limitations of LF-MRI were a lack of reliable contrast between articular cartilage and synovial fluid as well as longer scan time. Despite the above, LF-MRI images were characterized by good contrast between bones and the surrounding soft tissues.


Assuntos
Articulação do Quadril/anatomia & histologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Animais , Gatos
17.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 298-304, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351199

RESUMO

Navicular syndrome, a common cause of equine forelimb lameness, is associated with pathological changes in the navicular bone. Consequently, administration of bisphosphonates (BPs) has been advocated in order to modify the rate of bone turnover. The present study aimed to assess the clinical efficacy of intramuscularly administered clodronic acid for the treatment of 11 horses with clinical and radiographic findings compatible with navicular syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 5 of the 11 horses. The animals were treated with an intramuscular dose of clodronic acid of 765 mg/horse, administered over three separate injection sites. Before and at 7, 30 and 90 days after treatment, horses were subjected to lameness and accelerometric evaluations. A clinical improvement was observed in 6 of the 11 horses. These 6 horses showed a mean reduction of two degrees in lameness score. Accelerometry in these horses revealed increased velocity, stride length, stride regularity and dorsoventral displacement of the gravity of centre together with a reduction in stride frequency, suggesting a gait improvement. This study demonstrates that intramuscular clodronic acid can be useful for lameness reduction in some horses with navicular syndrome.


Assuntos
Ácido Clodrônico/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Coxeadura Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Membro Anterior/patologia , Marcha , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Coxeadura Animal/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Ossos do Tarso/patologia
18.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2138-2150, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of Chiari-like malformation-associated pain (CM-P) or clinically relevant syringomyelia (SM) is challenging. We sought to determine common signs. ANIMALS: One hundred thirty client-owned Cavalier King Charles spaniels with neuroaxis magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diagnosis of CM-P/SM. Dogs with comorbidities causing similar signs were excluded with exception of otitis media with effusion (OME). METHODS: Retrospective study of medical records relating signalment, signs, and MRI findings. Dogs were grouped by SM maximum transverse diameter (1 = no SM; 2 = 0.5-1.99 mm; 3 = 2-3.9 mm: 4 = ≥4 mm). Differences between all groups-groups 1 versus 2-4 and groups 1-3 versus 4-were investigated. Continuous variables were analyzed using 2-sample t-tests and analysis of variance. Associations between categorical variables were analyzed using Fisher's exact or chi-square tests. RESULTS: Common signs were vocalization (65.4%), spinal pain (54.6%), reduced activity (37.7%), reduced stairs/jumping ability (35.4%), touch aversion (30.0%), altered emotional state (28.5%), and sleep disturbance (22%). Head scratching/rubbing (28.5%) was inversely associated with syrinx size (P = .005), less common in group 4 (P = .003), and not associated with OME (P = .977). Phantom scratching, scoliosis, weakness, and postural deficits were only seen in group 4 (SM ≥4 mm; P = .004). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Signs of pain are common in CM/SM but are not SM-dependent, suggesting (not proving) CM-P causality. Wide (≥4 mm) SM is associated with signs of myelopathy and, if the dorsal horn is involved, phantom scratching (ipsilateral) and torticollis (shoulder deviated ipsilateral; head tilt contralateral).


Assuntos
Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Dor/veterinária , Siringomielia/veterinária , Animais , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/diagnóstico , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Animal , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Otite Média com Derrame/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Siringomielia/diagnóstico , Siringomielia/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 60(5): 533-542, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309654

RESUMO

Complete assessment of vertebral trauma in dogs currently requires CT and MRI for evaluation of the osseous and soft tissue structures that contribute to vertebral stability. Some studies in people have suggested that MRI may be sensitive and specific at detecting vertebral fractures making this potentially a single modality that could be used in spinal trauma evaluation. This study aimed to assess the ability for observers to evaluate vertebral fractures using MRI when compared to CT, which was used as the reference standard. Twenty-nine dogs with previously diagnosed acute vertebral fractures and four dogs with no vertebral fracture that had undergone sequential CT and MRI were included into the study. One hundred twenty-eight vertebrae were evaluated for the presence of fractures. Imaging studies were read by two observers blinded to the history. While both observers had similarly high sensitivity and specificity for simple detection of any fractured vertebrae, interobserver agreement was only moderate (κ = 0.584). When evaluations were specifically limited to detection of structurally unstable fractured vertebrae both observers showed improved specificity and interobserver agreement became substantial (κ = 0.650). Complete agreement for exact fracture location between MRI and CT results was only achieved in 14.3-32.6% of fractured vertebra with up to 79% of fractures being missed in some vertebral structures. This suggests that although MRI may be able to detect the presence of fractured vertebrae, it is not able to replace CT for the complete evaluation of the traumatized spine and documentation of fracture morphology.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 221, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During skull ontogenesis, growth centers in the skull base and calvarial bones allow gradual expansion of the cranial vault. Premature growth termination of cranial base synchondroses and/or calvarial sutures can result in devastating skull dysmorphologies. There is evidence to believe that a premature closure in one or more cranial growth centers contribute to the brachycephalic skull morphology in dogs. To provide a proof of concept for the non-invasive investigation of ontogenetic changes in cranial sutures and synchondroses in living dogs, we compared magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) with histologic findings. Our aim was to determine the in vitro sensitivity and specificity for conventional clinical imaging methods in the assessment of cranial suture closure and synchondroses ossification in dogs. RESULTS: The evaluation of cranial base synchondroses in MRI had a sensitivity of up to 93.1% and a specificity of 72.7% dependent on the observer. The evaluation of cranial base synchondroses in CT had a sensitivity of 92.2% and a specificity of 86.4%. Suture assessment on MRI suture assessment had a sensitivity of 82.1% dependent on the observer and a specificity of 19.3%. CT suture assessment had a sensitivity of 85.1% and a specificity of 40.4% in dependence of the observer. CONCLUSION: Conventional cross-sectional imaging techniques (MRI and CT) allow reliable assessment of the open or closed state of synchondroses within the cranial base. In contrast CT and MRI are not suitable for a reliable assessment of the cranial sutures in dogs.


Assuntos
Suturas Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Craniossinostoses/veterinária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Animais , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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