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1.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 37(1): 38-44, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096375

RESUMO

The research on brain functional mechanism and cognitive status based on brain network has the vital significance. According to a time-frequency method, partial directed coherence (PDC), for measuring directional interactions over time and frequency from scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, this paper proposed dynamic PDC (dPDC) method to model the brain network for motor imagery. The parameters attributes (out-degree, in-degree, clustering coefficient and eccentricity) of effective network for 9 subjects were calculated based on dataset from BCI competitions IV in 2008, and then the interaction between different locations for the network character and significance of motor imagery was analyzed. The clustering coefficients for both groups were higher than those of the random network and the path length was close to that of random network. These experimental results show that the effective network has a small world property. The analysis of the network parameter attributes for the left and right hands verified that there was a significant difference on ROI2 ( P = 0.007) and ROI3 ( P = 0.002) regions for out-degree. The information flows of effective network based dPDC algorithm among different brain regions illustrated the active regions for motor imagery mainly located in fronto-central regions (ROI2 and ROI3) and parieto-occipital regions (ROI5 and ROI6). Therefore, the effective network based dPDC algorithm can be effective to reflect the change of imagery motor, and can be used as a practical index to research neural mechanisms.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Imaginação , Algoritmos , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos
2.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 12-30, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265365

RESUMO

To build bridges between hypnosis and contemporary psychoanalysis, this article addresses how hypnosis, when used in psychotherapy, facilitates curative action through its relational essence. The author's extensive experience with hypnosis, psychotherapy, and psychoanalysis orient the narrative toward the unconscious patient-therapist interaction, with particular attention paid to the ethics of the inherent hypnotic seduction. Whether used primarily in relief-oriented ways or geared toward more transformative therapeutic aims, powerful unconscious factors are in play for both patient and therapist and are explicated to illustrate the interactive and frequently unformulated, intersubjective factors that facilitate effective, psychotherapeutic hypnosis. Consequently, therapists attuned to such intersubjective dynamics can make use of their own internal mental activities to understand a patient's current state of mind and level of developmental functioning, and thereby subsequently formulate mutative interventions. For instance, because hypnotizability reflects the ability to play in imaginative space, the regression promoted in hypnotherapy may activate both an illusion of omnipotence and its optimal disillusionment through the relational context. This requires going beyond more traditional, procedural ways of bifurcating hypnotic interventions as being either direct or indirect and instead further distinguish hypnotic interventions in accordance with their maternal and paternal relational dimensions. Arguably, then, the skillful hypnotherapist needs to maintain a coupling interplay between the maternal, maximally receptive and the paternal, more active modes of functioning within hypnotic play space.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Teoria Psicanalítica , Humanos , Hipnose/ética , Imaginação , Relações Profissional-Paciente/ética , Psicanálise , Aliança Terapêutica
3.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 60-73, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265372

RESUMO

This article examines the spatial and social nature of human relationships with children and adolescents in clinical hypnosis. Beginning with the unique way in which the phenomenon of rapport is intrinsic to the therapeutic uses of hypnosis and is distinct among other therapies, the stage is set for the importance of relational hypnosis. Through the use of case vignettes that illustrate developmental imperatives, relationship factors influencing the clinical interaction are demonstrated in practice. These include transference and countertransference, safety, embodiment, novelty, creativity, respect, trust, equality, being with, loving responses, synchronicity, and empathy. Hypnotic relating exists in a framework through which absorption in play and imagination evokes the child's resources and suggestions are made. In this receptive stance the personalized suggestions lead to an environment for positive change.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Imaginação , Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Aliança Terapêutica
4.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 36(6): 911-915, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875363

RESUMO

This paper aims to realize the decoding of single trial motor imagery electroencephalogram (EEG) signal by extracting and classifying the optimized features of EEG signal. In the classification and recognition of multi-channel EEG signals, there is often a lack of effective feature selection strategies in the selection of the data of each channel and the dimension of spatial filters. In view of this problem, a method combining sparse idea and greedy search (GS) was proposed to improve the feature extraction of common spatial pattern (CSP). The improved common spatial pattern could effectively overcome the problem of repeated selection of feature patterns in the feature vector space extracted by the traditional method, and make the extracted features have more obvious characteristic differences. Then the extracted features were classified by Fisher linear discriminant analysis (FLDA). The experimental results showed that the classification accuracy obtained by proposed method was 19% higher on average than that of traditional common spatial pattern. And high classification accuracy could be obtained by selecting feature set with small size. The research results obtained in the feature extraction of EEG signals lay the foundation for the realization of motor imagery EEG decoding.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Eletroencefalografia , Algoritmos , Análise Discriminante , Imaginação , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
5.
Science ; 366(6465): 581, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672886
6.
JAMA ; 322(14): 1353-1354, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593276
8.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(6): 1787-1802, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515733

RESUMO

Theory of mind (ToM) is defined as the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others and is often said to be one of the cornerstones of efficient social interaction. In recent years, a number of authors have suggested that one particular ToM process occurs spontaneously in that it is rapid and outside of conscious control. This work has argued that humans efficiently compute the visual perspective of other individuals. In this article, we present a critique of this notion both on empirical and theoretical grounds. We argue that the experiments and paradigms that purportedly demonstrate spontaneous perspective-taking have not as yet convincingly demonstrated the existence of such a phenomenon. We also suggest that it is not possible to represent the percept of another person, spontaneous or otherwise. Indeed, the perspective-taking field has suggested that humans can represent the visual experience of others. That is, going beyond assuming that we can represent another's viewpoint in anything other than symbolic form. In this sense, the field suffers from the same problem that afflicted the "pictorial" theory in the mental imagery debate. In the last section we present a number of experiments designed to provide a more thorough assessment of whether humans can indeed represent the visual experience of others.


Assuntos
Imaginação/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Humanos
9.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 29(12): 1917-1929, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385636

RESUMO

Recent research has begun to employ interventions that combine action observation and motor imagery (AOMI) with positive results. However, little is known about the underpinning facilitative effect on performance. Participants (n = 50) were randomly allocated to one of five training groups: action observation (AO), motor imagery (MI), simultaneous action observation and motor imagery (S-AOMI), alternate action observation and motor imagery (A-AOMI), and control. The task involved dart-throwing at a concentric circle dartboard at pre- and post-test. Interventions were conducted 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Data were collected from performance outcomes and mean muscle activation of the upper and forearm muscles. Angular velocity and peak angular velocity measurements of the elbow were also collected from the throwing arm. Results showed performance of the A-AOMI group improved to a significantly greater degree than the AO (P = .04), MI (P = .04), and control group (P = .02), and the S-AOMI group improved to a greater degree than the control group (P = .02). Mean muscle activation of the triceps brachii significantly reduced in the S-AOMI and A-AOMI (P < .01) groups, and participants in the AO (P = .04), A-AOMI, and S-AOMI (P < .01) groups significantly reduced activation in the bicep brachii from pre- to post-test. Peak angular velocity significantly decreased from pre- to post-test in both A-AOMI and S-AOMI (P < .01) groups. The results reaffirm the benefits of AOMI for facilitating skill learning and provide an insight how these interventions produce favorable changes in EMG and movement kinematics.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Imaginação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(2): 214-236, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417009

RESUMO

To clarify the relationship between literature and psychiatry we can call on the help of the American-English writer Sylvia Plath, who was given electroconvulsive therapy and psychotherapy on a number of occasions for psychiatric illness and later took her own life. This study seeks an answer to five questions. Did Sylvia Plath suffer from psychiatric illness? Did she show signs of the bipolar triad (bipolar affective disorder, trait aggression, substance or behavioural dependence)? Did her activity as a writer have a therapeutic effect? What was the nature of her "confessionalism"? To what extent does her oeuvre reflect her life? Sylvia Plath very probably suffered from a psychiatric illness, namely bipolar 2 affective disorder. The unsuitable treatment of her illness and the interruption of intensive psychotherapy could have contributed to her early death. Together with the bipolar affective disorder, she was also characterised by serious dispositional aggression and emotional dependence. For her, writing was both a source of stress, because her dysthymia intensified her inhibitions, and at the same time self-healing and a self-fulfilling prophecy. The roots of her confessionalism can be found in her personality development suspended in the stage of becoming an adult, and the failure to work through her traumas. Unlike Goethe and Salinger who killed their heroes, having them commit suicide in The Sorrows of Young Werther and A Perfect Day for Bananafish, while both writers recovered from their crisis, Sylvia Plath described a positive development in The Bell Jar and in Ariel, her verse cycle, then put her head in the gas oven. Would she have stayed alive if she had followed the patterns of Goethe and Salinger?


Assuntos
Ira , Pessoas Famosas , Imaginação , Literatura Moderna/história , Suicídio/história , Suicídio/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Redação/história
11.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 7536957, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467614

RESUMO

This study examined if imagery ability (i.e., vividness and temporal congruence between imagined and executed knee extensions) and imagery perspective preference were affected by ageing and gender. Ninety-four participants, 31 young, 43 intermediate, and 20 older adults completed the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 and a knee extension temporal congruence test to reflect on their imagery ability and an imagery perspective preference test. Male participants had a better imagery ability than the female participants (F (4, 85) = 2.84, p = .029, η 2 = .118). However, significant age-related changes in imagery ability were not found in the three age groups. Change in imagery perspective preference with a trend towards an external imagery perspective was observed with ageing (F (3, 89) = 3.16, p = .028, η 2 = .096) but not between male and female. The results suggest that imagery ability may be preserved with ageing. As individuals age, their preference for using an imagery perspective shifts from a more internal to a more external perspective. This understanding is important when designing future imagery research and real-life application or clinical intervention.


Assuntos
Imaginação/fisiologia , Joelho/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Brain Struct Funct ; 224(8): 2925-2937, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468120

RESUMO

Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that mental imagery and perception share similar neural substrates, however, there are still ambiguities according to different auditory imagery content. In addition, there is still a lack of information regarding the underlying neural correlation between the two modalities. In the present study, we adopted functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the neural representation during imagery and perception of actual sounds in our surroundings. Univariate analysis was used to assess the differences between the modalities of average activation intensity, and stronger imagery activation was found in sensorimotor regions but weaker activation in auditory association cortices. Additionally, multi-voxel pattern analysis with a support vector machine classifier was implemented to decode environmental sounds within- or cross-modality. Significant above-chance accuracies were found in all overlapping regions in the classification of within-modality, while successful cross-modality classification only was found in sensorimotor regions. Both univariate and multivariate analyses found distinct representation between auditory imagery and perception in the overlapping regions, including superior temporal gyrus and inferior frontal sulcus as well as the precentral cortex and pre-supplementary motor area. Our results confirm the overlapping activation regions between auditory imagery and perception reported by previous studies and suggest that activation regions showed dissociable representation pattern in imagery and perception of sound categories.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imaginação/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Som , Adulto Jovem
13.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102902, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404744

RESUMO

Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) demonstrate inefficient motor planning ability with a tendency to opt for non-optimal planning strategies. Motor imagery can provide an insight to this planning inefficiency, as it may be a strategy for improving motor planning and thereby motor performance for those with DCD. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of end-state-comfort (ESC) and the minimal rotation strategy using a grip selection task in children with DCD with and without motor imagery instructions. Boys with (n = 14) and without DCD (n = 18) aged 7-12 years completed one, two and three colour sequences of a grip selection (octagon) task. Two conditions were examined; a Motor Planning (MP) condition requiring only the performance of the task and a Motor Imagery and Planning (MIP) condition, which included an instruction to imagine performing the movement before execution. For the MP condition, children with DCD ended fewer trials in ESC for the one (p = 0.001) and two colour (p = 0.002) sequences and used a minimal rotation strategy more often than those without DCD. For the MIP condition, the DCD group significantly increased their use of the ESC strategy for the one colour sequences (p = 0.014) while those without DCD improved for the two colour (p = 0.008) sequences. ESC level of the DCD group on the MIP condition was similar to those without DCD at baseline for all colour sequences. Motor imagery shows potential as a strategy for improving motor planning in children with DCD. Implications and limitations are discussed.


Assuntos
Força da Mão/fisiologia , Imaginação/fisiologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/psicologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/fisiopatologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Rotação
14.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 41(4): 219-226, jul.-ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183099

RESUMO

Objetivo: El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática fue resumir toda la evidencia relativa a los efectos de la imaginería motora realizada durante el periodo de inmovilización después de una lesión o en el inmediato posquirúrgico y los efectos sobre el dolor, la fuerza, la función y el rango articular. Métodos: Se hicieron búsquedas sistemáticas en todos los idiomas y en 4 bases de datos: PubMed, OtSeeker, Cinhal, WOS y PEDro. Se seleccionaron los estudios elegibles publicados hasta noviembre de 2018. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que investigaron los efectos de la intervención de imaginería motora durante el periodo de inmovilización después de una lesión o en el inmediato posquirúrgico de miembro superior. Se utilizó la escala PEDro de calidad metodológica. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 4 ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, 2 con calidad metodológica buena y 2 con calidad metodológica insuficiente. El rango articular se evaluó en los 4ensayos, el dolor en 2, la fuerza en 3 y en uno la función. Se observaron cambios positivos en el grupo de imaginería motora en el rango articular en 3 estudios: 2 de calidad metodológica buena (n = 40 y n = 18) y uno de calidad insuficiente (n = 18); en el dolor, en un estudio de calidad buena (n = 40); en la fuerza en 2 estudios: uno de calidad buena (n = 40) y uno de insuficiente (n = 18) y en la función, en uno de calidad buena (n = 40). Conclusiones: Los resultados muestran beneficios positivos en el uso de imaginería motora aplicándola inmediatamente después del periodo posquirúrgico o en personas sanas simulando una inmovilización


Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to make a detailed examination of all the evidence concerning the effects of motor imagery (MI) performed during the immobilisation period after an injury, or in the immediate postoperative period, and the effects on pain, strength, function, and joint range. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in all languages and in 4 electronic databases: PubMed, OTseeker, Cinahl, WOS and PEDro. Eligible studies published up to November 2018 were selected. Randomised controlled trials that investigated the effects of a motor imagery intervention performed during the period of immobilisation after an injury, or in the immediate postoperative upper limb were included. methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. Results: Four randomised clinical trials were selected, 2 with good methodological quality and 2 with insufficient methodological quality. The joint range was evaluated in the 4 trials, pain in 2, strength in 3, and function in one. Positive changes were observed in the group of motor imagery in the joint mobility in 3 studies: 2 of good methodological quality (n = 40 and n = 18) and one insufficient (n= 18), in pain in one study of good quality (n = 40), in strength in 2 studies: one good quality (n = 40) and 1 insufficient (n = 18) and in function in 1 of good quality (n = 40). Conclusions: The results show positive benefits in the use of motor imagery applied immediately after the postoperative period or in healthy people simulating an immobilisation


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limitação da Mobilidade , Período Pós-Operatório , Destreza Motora , Imagens (Psicoterapia)/métodos , Movimento/fisiologia , Imobilização , Imaginação/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia
15.
Pap. psicol ; 40(2): 125-132, mayo-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183642

RESUMO

El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática en la literatura científica existente sobre la creatividad en función de la edad, haciendo especial énfasis en las diferencias que se presentan entre cada etapa evolutiva del desarrollo humano, comprobando si existe disminución de esta capacidad a lo largo de la vida. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en las bases de datos, Web of Science, Scopus y PsycINFO, tomando en cuenta publicaciones realizadas entre 2010 y 2017 en español o inglés. Se seleccionaron 25 artículos que se analizaron en base a diferentes características como los instrumentos empleados. Los resultados muestran hetero-geneidad en los hallazgos y se discuten los resultados tratando de arrojar luz sobre la comprensión de los mismos


The objective of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the existing scientific literature on creativity based on age, with spe-cial emphasis on the differences that occur between each evolutionary stage of human development, checking whether there is a de-crease in this capacity over a lifetime. A literature review was carried out using the databases Web of Science, Scopus and PsycINFO, taking into account publications produced between 2010 and 2017 in Spanish or English. We selected 25 articles that were analyzed based on different characteristics such as the instruments used. The results show heterogeneity in the findings. We discuss the results, attempting to shed light on their interpretation


Assuntos
Humanos , Criatividade , Fatores Etários , Desempenho de Papéis , Imaginação/fisiologia , Aptidão/fisiologia
16.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(10): 2541-2553, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272296

RESUMO

The method of loci is arguably the most famous mnemonic strategy and is highly effective for memorising lists of non-spatial information in order. As described and instructed, this strategy apparently relies on a spatial/navigational metaphor. The user imagines moving through an environment, placing (study) and reporting (recall) list items along the way. However, whether the method relies critically on this spatial/navigation metaphor is unknown. An alternative hypothesis is that the navigation component is superfluous to memory success, and the method of loci is better viewed as a special case of a larger class of imagery-based peg strategies. Training participants on three virtual environments varying in their characteristics (an apartment, an open field, and a radial-arm maze), we asked participants to use each trained environment as the basis of the method of loci to learn five 11-word lists. Performance varied significantly across environment. However, the effects were small in magnitude. Further tests suggested that navigation-relevant knowledge and ability were not major determinants of success in verbal memory, even for participants who were confirmed to have been compliant with the strategy. These findings echo neuroimaging findings that navigation-based cognition does occur during application of the method of loci, but imagined navigation is unlikely to be directly responsible for its effectiveness. Instead, the method of loci may be best viewed as a variant of peg methods.


Assuntos
Imaginação/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Seriada/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Realidade Virtual , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biol Psychol ; 146: 107727, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276757

RESUMO

Previous studies suggested that highly math-anxious (HMA) individuals invest more attentional resources than their low math-anxious (LMA) peers in numerical tasks, and have worse spatial skills. We aimed to explore whether they also need to apply more resources in spatial tasks. In this study, HMA and LMA individuals saw normal or mirror-reversed letters in six orientations and made mirror-normal decisions. In both groups, response times and errors increased with angular deviation from upright and the ERP mental rotation effect was found. However, HMAs were slower to respond than their LMA counterparts. Interestingly, the HMA group showed a larger P3b in greater deviations for normal letters and in all mirrored letters. Since P3b amplitude reflects the attentional resources invested in the categorization of relevant stimuli, HMA individuals may need to devote more processing effort than their LMA peers when performing mental rotation. This finding is consistent with the Attentional Control Theory.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Imaginação/fisiologia , Matemática , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação , Rotação , Adulto Jovem
18.
BJOG ; 126(11): 1327, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264366
19.
J Integr Neurosci ; 18(2): 141-152, 2019 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321955

RESUMO

The number of electrode channels in a brain-computer interface affects not only its classification performance, but also its convenience in practical applications. However, an effective method for determining the number of channels has not yet been established for motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces. This paper proposes a novel evolutionary search algorithm, binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization, for channel selection, which is implemented in a wrapping manner, coupling common spatial pattern for feature extraction, and support vector machine for classification. The fitness function of binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization is defined as the weighted sum of classification error rate and relative number of channels. The classification performance of the binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization-based common spatial pattern was evaluated on an electroencephalograph data set and an electrocorticography data set. It was subsequently compared with that of other three common spatial pattern methods: using the channels selected by binary particle swarm optimization, all channels in raw data sets, and channels selected manually. Experimental results showed that the proposed binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization-based common spatial pattern method outperformed the other three common spatial pattern methods, significantly decreasing the classification error rate and number of channels, as compared to the common spatial pattern method using whole channels in raw data sets. The proposed method can significantly improve the practicability and convenience of a motor imagery-based brain-computer interface system.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Algoritmos , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Imaginação , Movimento , Teoria Quântica , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
20.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(10): 2505-2521, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327026

RESUMO

Mixed findings characterize studies in Parkinson's disease (PD): some studies indicate a relationship between physical impairments and the ability to mentally represent the body, while others suggest spared abilities for this cognitive function. To clarify the matter, in the present study we explored the mental representations of the body in action in the same PD patients, taking also into account lateralization of symptoms and visual imagery skills. 10 PD patients with left- (lPD), 10 with right (rPD) lateralized symptoms (lPD), and 20 matched healthy controls have been recruited for the study. All patients were screened for neuropsychological impairments. To explore a more implicit component we used the hand laterality task (HLT), while the mental motor chronometry (MMC) was used to explore a more explicit one. Two control tasks, with objects instead of body parts, were administered to control for visual imagery skills. In the HLT, we detected the effects of biomechanical constraints effects in both controls and PD patients. In the latter group, importantly, this was true independently from lateralization of symptoms. In the MMC, we found the expected positive correlation between executed and imagined movements for both hands in controls only, while all PD patients, again independently form lateralization, only showed this effect for the left hand. In terms of visual imagery, only rPD patients differed from controls when asked to implicitly rotate letters, and in terms of accuracy only. However, this difference is explained by executive functions measured through the neuropsychological assessment rather than by a "pure" visual imagery impairment. In summary, our findings suggest that two different aspects of the mental representations of the body in action, one more implicit and the other more explicit, can be differently affected by PD. These impairments are unlikely explained by a basic visual imagery deficit. When present, impairments concern a higher dimension, related to motor functions and awareness, and not driven by sensory impairments, as shown by the independence of effects from physical laterality of symptoms.


Assuntos
Corpo Humano , Movimento/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imaginação/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
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